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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine

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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Originally posted by mba4me on 19 Sep 2004, 05:52.
Last edited by GMATNinjaTwo on 23 Mar 2018, 18:53, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2005, 08:35
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I'll go with (D)

Examining the stem:

Last year:
All refuse (collected in N truckloads) --- incinerated ---> residue ash

This year:
All refuse --- separate for recycling ---> refuse to be incinerated (resulting in half the previous year's truckloads N/2) ---- incinerate this left over refuse ----> residue ash (which is half the last year's quantity)

Therefore, this year only half the amount of residue is being incinerated. So, unless each truckload generates less residue ash than it did last year, the objective cannot be achieved.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2004, 09:55
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Will for D as well. I debated with myself whether A was right. However I discounted A because I reasoned that we don't have any info on how much ash the recyclable materials would produce. Also, I think the very reason why the recyclable materials are being separated because they are NOT to be incinerated. So there's no reason to assume they would be.

Can somebody enlighten me if this reasoning for eliminating A sounds ok?

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2009, 23:58
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ISBtarget wrote:
(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it
cost last year to dispose of the residual ash. cost out of scope
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it
did last year. it's not about proportion, but about total amount
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the
refuse incinerated last year. Ok. The program is to halve the number of trucks of refuse to be incinerated. Target is to halve the amount of ash. So, we have:
Last year (no of tracks)*(amount of ash per truck) = (total ash).
This year 1/2(no of trucks)*(amount of ash per truck) = 1/2(total ash)
Clearly, in order it to be true, amount of ash per truck have to remain, what D says

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city services this year will be no greater than that
collected last year. Looks tempting. But in fact it does not matter how many refuse is collected this year. The program is to halve the number of trucks of refuse to be incinerated. For example: Last year Total refuse = 100 kg, number of trucks = 10; This year: Total refuse = 200 kg, but the number of trucks = 5, other refuse goes to recycling.

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2012, 03:37
kat1983 wrote:
Can someone explain why not B?
Does financial aspect here doesn't matter.

As you do with most of the assumption questions, you have to state the unstated. So that it helps you in deriving conclusion.

(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
This may be true but this doesn't help us to conclude that action will reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.
So B is dead. :-D
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2012, 00:15
Given : Shelbyville want to reduce the ash generated to half compared to that generated last year. Hence the city revamped the collection program where the refuse will be separated for recycling there by reducing the number of truck loads of refuse to half of last year’s number.
To achieve the aim, either the total number of trucks load of refuse remains same and after recycling would have less number of trucks load of refuse than was last year. Or have same number of trucks load of refuse after recycling.

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated. – The revamped program clearly states that it would separate the materials for recycling and burn the rest of the refuse - Incorrect
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash. – Cost incurred to the city is out of scope - Incorrect
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year. – No information on removal of recyclable materials from the refuse last is provided in the premise - Incorrect
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year. – If a truck load of refuse when burned generate less than or equal to the ash generated by burning a truck load of refuse last year, the program will be successful because the city already has a program in place to reduce the total number of trucks load of refuse to half compared to last year. - Correct
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city services this year will be no greater than that collected last year. – Lets assume that refuse collected this is same as that collected last year and no recyclable materials could be removed from the refuse. Then the ash produced by burning the refuse will be same. Mission unaccomplished - Incorrect
Hope this helps
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2013, 04:25
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ratinarace wrote:
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city /services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Can someone please explain C vs D Vs E


Hi ratinarace,

First, lets determine the question type. The answer choice has to be true for the conclusion to be true i.e. it is an assumption question.

Conclusion is that Shelbyville city service will achieve its aim.

In simple words the stimulus says that last year the incinerator produced a lot of residual ash. This year they want to reduce the residual ash by cutting to half the the refuse sent to the incinerator.

In more simpler words the author is assuming: reduction in refuse to half = reduction in residual ash to half .

If an answer choice states this assumption, we've got the answer. Even if you have not got this assumption initially you can run through the answer choices and check which one would make the conclusion/ aim true for sure.

(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.


Does this has to be true for the conclusion to be true. If recyclable material is high then the incinerated material will be low, but it could still generate more ash per unit of refuse. So, it is not mandatory for (C) to be true for conclusion to be true.

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.

Does this has to be true for the conclusion to be true. Yes, lets see why;

the amount of ash per unit refuse is less than or equal to the amount of as per unit last year. Therefore, the incinerator would generate less than or equal to the amount of residual ash produced last year. This has to be true for the conclusion to be true. So, it is our answer.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.


This need not be true for the conclusion to be true. The quantity of refuse could be the same or greater but the proportion of waste that is incinerated be less than what it was last year. The Shelbyville city service could still achieve its aim without (E) being true.

Hope that helps,

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2013, 20:53
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pavan2185 wrote:
Hi ,

Please help me here.

I am not able to get why choice D is the correct answer. I was completely stumped.

Below is my analysis.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.

Initial thought:
Completely lost among most of the choices and chose this just for the sake of choosing an answer since I had already taken about 4 mins.

Later evaluation.

This choice says no materials will be incinerated. The target is not to completely avoid incineration. Only portion of it is to be recycled. This is not the requirement / Assumption clearly.

(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.

OFS. Cost is not the concern.

(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.

The proportion of recyclable material to refuse is relevant but not the proportion of the recyclable materials between the two years.

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.

Initial thought: I thought the Ash per truck load is not relevant since we care about the number of truck loads of refuse to be burnt.

Later revleation.

This is the correct answer. However, is a truck load of refuse to be burnt equal to truck load of ash? I am not able to understand this properly.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

The total quantity is not relevant. OFS. We are concerned with the number of truck loads of trash.


Hi Pavan,

Let me explain option D with an analogy here.

Let's suppose if a doctor makes the following suggestion to you.

You need to reduce your calorie intake to half the current levels. Therefore, you should eat half as much as you currently eat. (so if you eat say 20 units, now you should eat 10 units)

Now, for the doctor's suggestion to work (i.e. reduce calorie intake to half the current levels), you should not eat, say, oily foods which contain more calories per unit. If you do that, even though you may eat only 10 units of food but your actual calorie intake will not be half of your previous level since you are eating more oily foods now which are providing you more calories per unit.

Therefore, for doctor's suggestion to achieve its aim (reduce calorie intake to half), the amount of calories per unit of food should not increase from last year.

Do you get this?

Exactly parallel is the reasoning used in option D.

You want to reduce residual ash to half the amount. What you do is that you reduce the number of trucks to half. Would that achieve the objective.

The answer is yes but only if you don't load each truck with more residual ash than the year before.

Does this help?

Thanks,
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2013, 00:31
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SUNGMAT710 wrote:
E is as good an answer.

Is not E be required to achieve the aim?
I think E fits in correctly.


ACTION :
SHELL WANTS TO REDUCE ASH TO HALF.
HOW HE IS GOING TO AS PER THE ARGUMENT?
SHELL is going to reduce the number of truck loads of GARBAGE to HALF.

Means if initilally there are 100 trucks of GARBAGE. then they are going to reduce it to 50 TRUCKS.===>THIS IS GIVEN IN THE ARGUMENT THAT THEY ARE GOING TO DO SO.

OPTION (E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.
this doesnt affects because if there are more garbage generated SHELL is going to to separate GARBAGE SUCH THAT TRUCKLOAD IS HALF.


hope this helps.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2013, 19:23
Lets see what choice E states:

Quote:
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.


The total quantity of ash collected is immaterial. Why!! because of the last line of the argument:

Quote:
This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.


It can be inferred from the above line that regardless of the amount of refuse collected, the city services will only send half the truckloads. Hence, the amount of refuse collected does not matter. Even if 10X the refuse is collected this year, still the # of truckloads sent for incineration will be half of last year's number.

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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2016, 21:32
mba4me wrote:
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.


Responding to a pm:

Argument:

Last year all refuse was incinerated.
This generated a large quantity of residual ash.
Plan: Separate for recycling refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.
Aim of the Plan: to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total.

The plan is to reduce the refuse to half of last year's.

If last year 100 truckloads were incinerated, this year only 50 should be incinerated. So even if we collect 150 truckloads this year, 100 should be separated to recycle and only 50 should be incinerated. Then the residual ash will be half of last year's.

There are some requirements for the plan to work:

- There should be at least this much recyclable stuff in the refuse collected. We must have at least 100 truckloads of recyclable stuff so that we are left with 50 truckloads to incinerate.

- Half the number of truckloads should produce half the residual ash. What if the residual ash amount depends on the kind of refuse? If certain refuse produces more ash and if that is the kind of refuse we have in 50 truckloads this year, it will produce more than half of last year's ash.

Look at the options now:

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.

This is not required. If all 150 truckloads are recyclable, we could incinerate 50 truckloads and our plan could work. It is not necessary to separate all recyclable stuff.

(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.

Cost is irrelevant to the argument.

(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.

Incorrect. The proportion of recyclable material compared with last year's proportion is immaterial. We don't have any data about the last year's proportion. Perhaps last year all refuse was recyclable. Then we don't need and cannot have a larger proportion. What we need is a large enough proportion of recyclable material but we don't necessarily NEED MORE THAN last year's proportion. This option is incorrect because of the comparison it makes.

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.

This is one of our requirements. The second one. Hence this is correct.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

This is not necessary. In our example, we assumed that this year 150 truckloads was produced against 100 truckloads of last year.

Answer (D)
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2016, 01:33
Answer is D
Last year 10 truck had mix garbage (recyclable and non recyclable garbage)
A single truck can hold 10 Kilo of garbage==> so 10 trucks will have 100 Kilo of garbage. (10 truck X 10 KG)
lets assume that 1 Kilo of garbage produced 0.8 Kilo of ash
10 kilo of garbage (entire truck can hold 10 kilo of garbage) will produce =8 kilo of ash ==> this is amount of ash per truck
so 1 truck produces 8 Kilo of ash, therefore 10 truck will produce = 10 X 8= 80 kilo of ash

This year the aim to reduce the ash to half = 40 Kilo Ash (half of 80 kilo that was produced last year)
To achieve this only half of the truck will be burned = 5 truck out of total 10 trucks.==>(50 kilo out of 100 kilo will be burned)
1 truck will contains 10 kilo, so again 8 kg of ash will be produced==> 8 kilo of ash/per truck
but now since only half the truck will be burned , the number of truck will come down to 5 from the original 10
5 truck will produce 50 kilo garbage = 5 X 8 Kilo ash = 40 kilo of ash


What if when the composition of recyclable and non recyclable garbage is changed the amount of ash produced increases
lets say , now the ash produced per truck increases from 8 kilo to 9 kilo per truck
then even though only 5 trucks are burned the total ash will become = 5x 9 = 45 kilo of ash (which is not half of 80 kilo last year )


SO the argument is relying on the fact that the ash produced per truck will stay the same.
THIS IS THE ASSUMPTION

(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2016, 02:40
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ashutoshsh wrote:
maaverick wrote:
I'll go with (D)

Examining the stem:

Last year:
All refuse (collected in N truckloads) --- incinerated ---> residue ash

This year:
All refuse --- separate for recycling ---> refuse to be incinerated (resulting in half the previous year's truckloads N/2) ---- incinerate this left over refuse ----> residue ash (which is half the last year's quantity)

Therefore, this year only half the amount of residue is being incinerated. So, unless each truckload generates less residue ash than it did last year, the objective cannot be achieved.



Hi!
thanks for such good explanation but i am sorry i still don't understand what makes D right. Like C, D says that Residual will be no more than it was last year. But how can we conclude that residual will be half of what it was last year.
Please help! Thanks



Hello, ashutoshsh

I think this question is tricky because of a lot of details that we need pay attention to.

Let's rephrase this argument and add some figures for example:

Last year we have 100 trucks with refuse
Incineration generates for example 500 tonnes (5 tonnes per truck) residual ash
In order to lessen residual ash in two times city will lessen number of trucks in two times,
so it will be 50 trucks.

But who can guarantee that residual ash from this 50 trucks will be equal to 250 tonnes (5 tonnes per truck)?

C is very close, but information that "Refuse will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials" doesn't absolutely guaranty that this refuse will generate less volume of residual ash. It is possible and if D is not present as an answer it can be a winner,

but D is much better: "The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload" because it clearly states what we need to know.
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Re: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incine  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2017, 02:38
sahilsbakshi wrote:
I went with Option A. After that, I read all the answers here, but I am still not quite convinced with D.

The passage mentions that the refuse collected will be reduced by half of that of the previous year. This is because the remaining half will be used for recycling. Hence, if the refuse quantity is going to be half, then so is the ash from it's incineration. This will not be the case, only if the materials collected for recycling also incinerated, resulting in increased in amount of ash, which results in Answer A. However, OG has D as the answer, and the logic not quite convincing.

Can someone please help me with my dilemma here :? Thanks.


Hi sahilsbakshi ,

This is a goal plan question in which we need to find out an option that states the plan is a good plan to achieve the goal.

Plan: Remove the recycling material from getting incinerated.
Goal: Reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Option A cannot be the correct answer because it is stating what the plan is. Restatement of the plan is not a strengthener.

Option D is taking out the possibility of generating more ash out of the current residue. Hence, a strengthener.

Does that make sense?
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