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RC: Bird Navigation

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RC: Bird Navigation [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2017, 06:44
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Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

23% (03:39) correct 77% (03:16) wrong based on 60

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Birds of various species, from pigeons to swallows to larger birds, can navigate long distances on Earth, across continents and hemispheres. That they can traverse these distances thanks to a magnetic sense has been demonstrated through tests in which birds fitted with magnets have lost their navigational capability. Precisely what biological mechanism enables birds to orient in this way is still something of a mystery, however, with two theories prevailing.
One theory is that birds possess magnetic sensors in the form of grains of magnetite, which is an easily magnetized form of iron oxide. Such magnetite grains are common not only in animals but even in bacteria, where they have been established as a component enabling magnetic orientation. In the case of birds, magnetite grains are numerous in beaks, as dissections of pigeons have confirmed. Moreover, in another experiment, the trigeminal nerve, which connects the beak to the brain, was severed in reed warblers; the affected birds lost their sense of magnetic dip, which is critical to navigation.
Critics of the theory have pointed out that the abundance of grains in the beak are not concentrated, as would be expected in a sensory organ, but rather found in wandering macrophages. And while an alternative explanation for birds' sensory abilities might posit magnetite grains outside of the beak, such an explanation would be supported neither by the beak dissections nor by the tests of severed trigeminals. Critics of magnetite-centric theories suggest a second theory: that the magnetic field of the Earth has an influence on a chemical reaction in birds, specifically in a bird's retina. Experiments have demonstrated that destroying the portion of a robin's retina known as cluster N eliminates the bird's ability to detect north. Birds' eyes do not contain magnetite grains, however. Rather, some advocates of the theory that birds navigate by retinal interaction believe that a retinal protein known as cryptochrome processes magnetic information within the cluster N. Surprisingly, the mechanism by which cryptochrome could detect magnetic orientation depends on quantum mechanics: when hit by light, the cryptochrome would create a pair of particles, one of which subsequently presents information to the eye, in the form of a spot, when it is triggered a corresponding particle after that particle has traveled some distance.




According to the author, critics of the first theory presented in the passage believe which of the following to be a factor enabling a migrating bird to navigate?


A. Wandering macrophages containing magnetites

B. The abundance of grains in the beak

C. The function of the trigimenal nerve

D. The function of the portion of the retina known as cluster N

E. The possibility of magnetite grains in parts of the bird other than the beak

Source: Gmatfree

Hello, I have problem understanding the question stem for this question. Is the question asking what do the critics believe? Can someone please explain what the question stem is asking for?

According to the author of this question, the correct answer to the question is B, but imo the critics are criticizing the theory mentioned in B (critics of the theory have pointed out that the abundance of grains in the beak are not concentrated, as would be expected in a sensory organ, but rather found in wandering macrophages. And while an alternative explanation for birds' sensory abilities might posit magnetite grains outside of the beak, such an explanation would be supported neither by the beak dissections nor by the tests of severed trigeminals.) So, the critics do not believe beaks are the reason birds can navigate, right? and i am understanding they are saying, magnetite grains are somewhere else in the body i.e. E.

What am i getting wrong? why isn't E the answer?

Thank you in advance..
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RC: Bird Navigation [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2017, 09:41
I do not think B is the answer either, I think the answer should be D
E explains the sensory abilities, not how the bird emigrate to the north.

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Re: RC: Bird Navigation [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2017, 14:39
Before posting a question, please review the Rules to post on the verbal forum and the RC Forum Rules:

  • Do not create duplicate threads.Kindly Search before you post
  • RC must be posted with all the questions included (as in the original source) & with OA's. One can ask specific questions once one do the above outlined.
  • Include OE where ever it is possible.
  • If one does not follow these guidelines then post will be deleted.
  • Kindly maintain the proper FORMAT.

Make sure to include the source (if there is no corresponding Source Tag, you can select "Other" and write the source in your post).

Thanks!
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Re: RC: Bird Navigation [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2017, 00:06
From the passage
Critics of the theory have pointed out that the abundance of grains in the beak are not concentrated.
Critics of magnetite-centric theories suggest a second theory: that the magnetic field of the Earth has an influence on a chemical reaction in birds, specifically in a bird's retina.


from above information Answer will be B.

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RC: Bird Navigation [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 04:13
mike Even option B is not making sense to me... Can you please help?

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Re: RC: Bird Navigation [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2017, 07:05
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The question asks about how birds navigate according to the critics.
A - surely they said this. But they didn't say that it is responsible for navigation. They are just pointing out the flaw in the first theory.
And all other option strengthen the first theory expect D. So D should the answer.

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Re: RC: Bird Navigation [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2017, 19:35
I thought it was A/Can someone please explain?

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Re: RC: Bird Navigation [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2017, 23:38
sreeste wrote:
Birds of various species, from pigeons to swallows to larger birds, can navigate long distances on Earth, across continents and hemispheres. That they can traverse these distances thanks to a magnetic sense has been demonstrated through tests in which birds fitted with magnets have lost their navigational capability. Precisely what biological mechanism enables birds to orient in this way is still something of a mystery, however, with two theories prevailing.
One theory is that birds possess magnetic sensors in the form of grains of magnetite, which is an easily magnetized form of iron oxide. Such magnetite grains are common not only in animals but even in bacteria, where they have been established as a component enabling magnetic orientation. In the case of birds, magnetite grains are numerous in beaks, as dissections of pigeons have confirmed. Moreover, in another experiment, the trigeminal nerve, which connects the beak to the brain, was severed in reed warblers; the affected birds lost their sense of magnetic dip, which is critical to navigation.
Critics of the theory have pointed out that the abundance of grains in the beak are not concentrated, as would be expected in a sensory organ, but rather found in wandering macrophages. And while an alternative explanation for birds' sensory abilities might posit magnetite grains outside of the beak, such an explanation would be supported neither by the beak dissections nor by the tests of severed trigeminals. Critics of magnetite-centric theories suggest a second theory: that the magnetic field of the Earth has an influence on a chemical reaction in birds, specifically in a bird's retina. Experiments have demonstrated that destroying the portion of a robin's retina known as cluster N eliminates the bird's ability to detect north. Birds' eyes do not contain magnetite grains, however. Rather, some advocates of the theory that birds navigate by retinal interaction believe that a retinal protein known as cryptochrome processes magnetic information within the cluster N. Surprisingly, the mechanism by which cryptochrome could detect magnetic orientation depends on quantum mechanics: when hit by light, the cryptochrome would create a pair of particles, one of which subsequently presents information to the eye, in the form of a spot, when it is triggered a corresponding particle after that particle has traveled some distance.




According to the author, critics of the first theory presented in the passage believe which of the following to be a factor enabling a migrating bird to navigate?


A. Wandering macrophages containing magnetites

B. The abundance of grains in the beak

C. The function of the trigimenal nerve

D. The function of the portion of the retina known as cluster N

E. The possibility of magnetite grains in parts of the bird other than the beak

Source: Gmatfree

Hello, I have problem understanding the question stem for this question. Is the question asking what do the critics believe? Can someone please explain what the question stem is asking for?

According to the author of this question, the correct answer to the question is B, but imo the critics are criticizing the theory mentioned in B (critics of the theory have pointed out that the abundance of grains in the beak are not concentrated, as would be expected in a sensory organ, but rather found in wandering macrophages. And while an alternative explanation for birds' sensory abilities might posit magnetite grains outside of the beak, such an explanation would be supported neither by the beak dissections nor by the tests of severed trigeminals.) So, the critics do not believe beaks are the reason birds can navigate, right? and i am understanding they are saying, magnetite grains are somewhere else in the body i.e. E.

What am i getting wrong? why isn't E the answer?

Thank you in advance..


I had the same problem with B as the answer while solving from gmatfree. The critics have to oppose the theory, not support the factor in theory 1. It's D in my opinion because the second theory has nothing mentioned about E in the passage. What E suggests is stated in the passage only as an alternative explanation by the author, neither by the critics of first theory nor by the proponents of second theory.
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Re: RC: Bird Navigation [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2017, 20:43
I earlier thought that answer is D as critics are introducing new theory of Retina and stuff but if we closely read the question, it is pretty straight forward with the answer in passage. Critics came in picture when we were talking about concentration of grains in beak, that grains are in abundance but not concentrated. First theory says that grains in beak are abundant to help in navigation to birds. However, critics say that it is not concentrated which leads to alternative theory of macrophages and retina

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Re: RC: Bird Navigation [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2017, 21:21
Cbirole wrote:
I earlier thought that answer is D as critics are introducing new theory of Retina and stuff but if we closely read the question, it is pretty straight forward with the answer in passage. Critics came in picture when we were talking about concentration of grains in beak, that grains are in abundance but not concentrated. First theory says that grains in beak are abundant to help in navigation to birds. However, critics say that it is not concentrated which leads to alternative theory of macrophages and retina


Thank you. Agreed. S what do you? Should be A right?
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Re: RC: Bird Navigation   [#permalink] 19 Nov 2017, 21:21
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RC: Bird Navigation

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