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# Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise

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Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2019, 00:05
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Project SC Butler: Day 198: Sentence Correction (SC1)

Real family income, excluding the effects of inflation, has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up to 1980.

A) has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up

B) arose with rapidity from 1960 up to 1970 and was virtually unchanged from 1970

C) rose with rapidity from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970

D) rose rapidly from 1960 to 1970 but was virtually unchanged from 1970

E) rapidly rises from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970

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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2019, 21:42
Quote:
Real family income excluding the effects of inflation, has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up to 1980.

Meaning: Real family income rose rapidly from 1960 up to 1970. From 1970 to 1980 on the other hand, real family income was virtually unchanged.

This is a report of something that occurred in the past. Emphasis is not on the sequence of events. The simple past tense is therefore adequate to report these two events.

Quote:
A: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation, has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up to 1980.

has risen is incorrect because it is present perfect tense. A simple past tense is required. In addition, does not change is incorrect because it is simple present tense. The simple past tense did not change is required. Eliminate A.

Quote:
B: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation, arose with rapidity from 1960 up to 1970 and was virtually unchanged from 1970 to 1980.

Arose means something occurred or happened. Family income occurred or happened rapidly? This is illogical. The right verb should be rose. Rose means something went up. Family income went up is logical. [sometimes I find it very hard to write that a sentence is nonsense, mainly because of literal translation issues How many fights didn't the utterance of the word nonsense spark when we were kids? Few. Who cared about the context? You get older and see the folly of your ways as a kid, and you laugh at how silly you were.]
The use of and is not appropriate when the intended meaning is considered. We have two incidents that contrast each other. Family income rose rapidly from 1960 to 1970 but was virtually unchanged from 1970 to 1980 conveys a better meaning than family income rose rapidly from 1960 to 1970 and was virtually unchanged from 1970 to 1980. Finally, with rapidity is not as concise as rapidly. Eliminate B.

Quote:
C: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation, rose with rapidity from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970 to 1980.

I am tempted to say is unchangeable is nonsense, but I'd rather say it's illogical. What made family incomes unchangeable from 1970 to 1980? You have a feeling that the sentence is not complete. Anyway, the verb is is in the simple present tense. This is inappropriate in the context. We expect a simple past tense was. As stated, with rapidity is not as concise as rapidly. Eliminate C.

Quote:
D: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation, rose rapidly from 1960 to 1970 but was virtually unchanged from 1970 to 1980.

The verb tense is correct. rapidly is concise. Unchanged is logical. But rightly expresses contrast as the two pieces of information that are reported about real family income suggest. Keep D.

Quote:
E: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation, rapidly rises from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970 to 1980.

The use of simple present tense is incorrect to report two past events. and is not appropriate for two events that contrast each other. The adverb virtually is not positioned appropriately. It modifies the adjective unchangeable, it should, therefore, be positioned between is and unchangeable or next to unchangeable. This same non-optimal position of the adverb virtually exists in C as well. This option also has the illogical unchangeable even though no clue exists to explain why real family income was unchangeable. E is no contest for D.

##### General Discussion
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Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2019, 00:07
2
OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 198: Sentence Correction (SC1)

THE PROMPT
Quote:
Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up to 1980.

• be sure to read the last (non-underlined) part of the sentence.
• The phrase "to 1980" signals that we are talking about the past

THE OPTIONS
Quote:
A) has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up

• verb error: there is no need to use has risen (present perfect).
-- neither the quick rise in income from 1960 to 1970 nor the effects of that increase are relevant to or have effect in the present.
-- the correct verb is rose.
• to describe the beginning and end of a time period (from Monday to Friday, for example), do not use up.
-- the idiom is From X to Y.
• verb error: the use of present tense does is ridiculous. In the past, real income did not change.
Eliminate A

Quote:
B) arose with rapidity from 1960 up to 1970 and was virtually unchanged from 1970

• verb meaning: The income did not emerge, get up, or stand up—the italicized words are what "arise" means.
• "up" is wrong (same error as that in option A)
with rapidity is a stylistic disaster. A one-word adverb, rapidly, is less clunky and more concise than [with + noun = the quality of moving with great speed]
-- this diction error is not enough to eliminate an option on its own, but the verb meaning is fatal.
Eliminate B

Quote:
C) rose with rapidity from 1960 to 1970 and virtually] is unchangeable from 1970

• "with rapidity" is identical to the error in B
• verb error: we are not talking about now. The income was unchanged.
-- unchangeable means incapable of being changed. Wrong. Real family income could have changed but just happened not to do so.
-- unchanged means "not changed." Real family did not change.
• wrong conjunction: and shows no contrast. Real income rose quickly during one decade but stagnated during the next.
• adverb misplacement (tested very rarely and never the only error): when the verb is a TO BE verb, the adverb is placed after the verb.
Eliminate C

Quote:
D) rose rapidly from 1960 to 1970 but was virtually unchanged from 1970

• Option D cures the errors in all other options
KEEP
E) rapidly rises from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970[/quote]
• verb tense error: the present tense verbs rises and is should be in simple past tense: rose and was.
and fails to convey contrast
• as is the case in option C, unchangeable conveys incorrect meaning; the word should be unchanged

• NOTES
BelalHossain046 , you asked three questions.

(1) Would anyone please explain whether “rose” or “had risen” would be more appropriate here and why?

Quote:
"rose" will be apt here. Per my understanding, when the time of past action is mentioned using time modifiers such as after, before, yesterday, last year, specific years, past perfect is not needed. I believe that would create sort of redundancy, if I am not wrong. Though it is not an exact grammar rule, when given a choice between rose and had risen, with time modifier, I would choose an option with rose.

(1) elavendan1 , that answer is very good.

(2) elavendan1 , I am not sure whether BelalHossain046 saw your answer.
(I actually hope not, because I do not see kudos on that post to say thank you.)
Now is a good time to remind everyone:
If you are talking to a specific person, put a tag in your post.
-- to tag, type the @ symbol. Type the username right next to it. No space between the AND the name. Finally, be sure to leave one space after the tag -- if you need to add "apostrophe S," for example, leave a space between the last letter of the username and the apostrophe.

(3) Many people on this thread are helpful and generous, two qualities that set a good example and create a nice atmosphere. . . .
mykrasovski , kinda like the atmosphere that Andrew creates at your favorite ice cream store.

(2) Isn’t single COMMA in between SUBJECT (income) and VERB (rose) WRONG here?
Yep. mykrasovski caught the same error, which I've edited.

(3) What’s the difference between ROSE and AROSE here? MofeBhatia generously answered this question, as did a few others including zhanbo.

kendrikFROMkenya and BelalHossain046 , welcome to SC Butler.

This question is easier than almost any question that you will see on the GMAT, but that fact is okay.

Every once in awhile it's good to have a question that lets you use hard-won skills with very little or zero doubt.

eakabuah , just as mykrasovski and Doer01 on another thread had a hilarious and sweet exchange about Andrew who "is golden," this sidebar adds levity and expressiveness:
Quote:
Sometimes I find it very hard to write that a sentence is nonsense, mainly because of literal translation issues How many fights didn't the utterance of the word nonsense spark when we were kids? Few. Who cared about the context? You get older and see the folly of your ways as a kid, and you laugh at how silly you were.]

If I recall correctly, you once used the very British word "fiddle-faddle."
I like these little stories.

These answers are range from very good to outstanding.
eakabuah , I am bumping you to Best Community Reply.

Nice work, everyone. Kudos to all.
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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2019, 07:38
1
is the answer D? simple past tense
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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2019, 10:11
2
Real family income excluding the effects of inflation, has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up to 1980.

A) has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up. Use of up to is redundant when already risen is used.

B) arose with rapidity from 1960 up to 1970 and was virtually unchanged from 1970. Use of up to is redundant when already risen is used.

C) rose with rapidity from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970. is refers to present tense and is incorrect also and should not be used here.

D) rose rapidly from 1960 to 1970 but was virtually unchanged from 1970. Correct use of tenses and the conjunction but is used correctly to introduce contrast.

E) rapidly rises from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970. Incorrect tense used rises. past tense should be used

IMO D

IMO D
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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2019, 12:18
1
All the years mentioned passed a long time ago, so I feel simple past is appropriate for this case. 'Up' after from 1960 is not necessary. IMHO D is the correct option.
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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2019, 12:57
1
“Rapidly” is more precise than “with rapidity” with same meaning. BC out.
“From x to y” is a better expression for stating a time PERIOD. “Up to” is used to express the last Point in time.
A, B OUT.
It’s a past event. So present tense wil be inappropriate. E out.
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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2019, 13:01
Would anyone please explain whether “rose” or “had risen” would be more appropriate here and why?
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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2019, 13:06
Isn’t single COMMA in between SUBJECT (income) and VERB (rose) WRONG here?
What’s the difference between ROSE and AROSE here?
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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2019, 04:15
1
Real family income excluding the effects of inflation, has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up to 1980.

The idiom "from X UP to Y" is incorrect (Correct: "from X to Y"). So for this simple reason, A and B are out.

Quote:
A) has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up
- as explained above: violation of idiom "from X to Y"

Quote:
B) arose with rapidity from 1960 up to 1970 and was virtually unchanged from 1970
- same as in A

Quote:
C) rose with rapidity from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970
- Present Simple is not correct as the sentence talks about past event. Also, (just preference): be + adjective ("is unchangeable") is stylistically worse than action verb.

Quote:
D) rose rapidly from 1960 to 1970 but was virtually unchanged from 1970
- Correct

Quote:
E) rapidly rises from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970
- Present Simple does not work for past events.
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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2019, 05:12
1
Yello!

This question is testing IDIOM from X to Y.
And meaning: whether to use conjunction (and) or contrast (but) word

From x to Y, is correct idiom, eliminate A and B

Between C,D and E – But is needed to present the contrast, Hence D is the answer.

Further,
In “E” rapidly rises is incorrect in this sentence, it sounds as if it is a recurring event, which happens cyclically.

In “C” “rose with rapidity” what the heck.

SO D is the right answer
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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2019, 08:40
1
BelalHossain046 wrote:
Would anyone please explain whether “rose” or “had risen” would be more appropriate here and why?
"

"rose" will be apt here. Per my understanding, when the time of past action is mentioned using time modifiers such as after, before, yesterday, last year, specific years, past perfect is not needed. I believe that would create sort of redundancy, if I am not wrong. Though it is not an exact grammar rule, when given a choice between rose and had risen, with time modifier, I would choose an option with rose.

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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2019, 11:23
1
Quote:
Real family income excluding the effects of inflation, has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up to 1980.

Quick read-through reveals that the sentence tests such things as comparison and meaning. We are dealing with income in two different, but adjacent, time periods. Because we are talking about time periods, we do not need to use "up to". One can say that a car has a tank that can contain up to 10 gallons of gas. When we talk about time periods, we use "to. For instance, "the average income of NHL players rose dramatically from 2000 to 2019". So, we have a 2-3 split and can immediately eliminate options (A) and (B).

A) has rapidly risen from 1960 up to 1970 but virtually does not change from 1970 up
Out for the reasons discussed above.

B) arose with rapidity from 1960 up to 1970 and was virtually unchanged from 1970
Out for the reasons discussed above.

C) rose with rapidity from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970
The phrase rose with rapidity is weird. It is so much better and concise to say rose [how?] rapidly.

D) rose rapidly from 1960 to 1970 but was virtually unchanged from 1970
This option is neat and solves the issues addressed above.

E) rapidly rises from 1960 to 1970 and virtually is unchangeable from 1970
We are talking about events from the past. So, we should use a Past Tense. This option is not as clean as option (D). Also, we have two things that we try to compare: the growth of income from 1960 to 1970 and the growth (absence of growth) from 1970 to 1980. rapidly rises and virtually is unchangeable is not the best way to convey what the sentence is trying to say. At the very least, the sentence could have said "rose rapidly from 1960 to 1970 and did not change from 1970 to 1980"

generis there is a comma in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. I wonder whether it is needed? If so, do we need another comma to separate a modifiers that talks about the inflation, i.e. "Real family income, excluding the effects of inflation, ... "? Thank you.
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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2019, 21:33
1
My answer is (D). It took me 42 seconds.

The major issue with (A) is its use of tense. It talks about the past but uses present tense.

Equipped with such realization, I can immediately rule out (A), (C), (E).

Now, between (B) and (D), I did not like the use of Arise in (B) so went for (D) first. Reading D assures me that is the right option.

Now, looking back B, I can tell that "with rapidity" is an awkward and wordy way to say "rapidly".

Also, Arise is used to talk about situations such as opportunities, problems, needs etc.
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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2019, 23:10
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BelalHossain046 wrote:
Isn’t single COMMA in between SUBJECT (income) and VERB (rose) WRONG here?
What’s the difference between ROSE and AROSE here?

IMO, Sentence structure is Noun Phrase modifier + verb . "excluding the effects of inflation" modifies Income.

'has rapidly risen" - verb refers to the subject 'Income'.

Rise is an intransitive verb that refers to the act of moving from a lower position to a higher position. It can indicate the upwards movement of an object as well as a change in social position. The past tense of rise is rose and risen is its past participle form.

Arise is an intransitive verb that refers to the act of emerging or originating. This mostly indicates an emergence of a problem, new situation or opportunity. Arise is mainly used with abstract nouns. Arose is the past tense of arise and arisen is the past participle of arise.

https://www.quora.com/Whats-the-differe ... d-to-arise
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Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise  [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2019, 22:33
The official explanation is here.
Re: Real family income excluding the effects of inflation has rapidly rise   [#permalink] 02 Dec 2019, 22:33
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