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Recent advances in non-invasive human neuroimaging have provided

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 263, Date : 12-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Recent advances in non-invasive human neuroimaging have provided researchers in the emerging field of social brain science with insights into the workings of consciousness and social cognition. Of special interest is the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), a region of the brain associated with memory, fear, and, perhaps, prejudice.

Fears create memories, and those memories appear to be stored in the amygdala. This same region also seems to create memories that counter those fears, though these memories are then stored in the MPFC. Neuroimages show that nerves from the MPFC project into the amygdala, providing the mechanism for suppressing the fear response. As one might expect, rodents with MPFC damage have a decreased ability to deal with certain fears.

MPFC activity also seems to correlate with self-referential judgments and memory. The dorsal MPFC in particular shows heightened activity during introspective mental activity. Interestingly, there is a reduction in ventral MPFC activity when individuals are involved in tasks that demand attention. This indicates that cognitive activity can decrease certain emotional processing. Other differences between these two areas of the MPFC have been noted. The ventral region becomes more engaged when an individual is shown photographs of strangers whose political beliefs—so the viewer is told—are similar to those of the person viewing the photograph, but the dorsal region becomes more active when the photographs are of individuals with whom the viewer does not share the same political perspective.

As long ago as the 19th century, scientists knew that damage to the MPFC interfered with social skills while leaving other mental skills untouched. With our newfound ability to actually observe mental activity in both healthy and impaired individuals without recourse to surgery, we have entered into an area that is sure to provide us with information about ourselves that will prove to be of enormous interest and great usefulness.


1. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the ventral MPFC?

(A) It is in direct contact with the amygdala.
(B) It is involved in emotional processing.
(C) It was first identified in the 19th century.
(D) It is not involved in the storing of memories relating to fears.
(E) It is smaller than the dorsal MPFC.



2. The primary purpose of the passage is to _______.

(A) highlight some of the work being done in a new field
(B) discuss technological breakthroughs
(C) illustrate the advantages of non-invasive brain research
(D) show similarities between apparently differing research methods
(E) demonstrate the extent to which our knowledge of the brain has increased in recent years



3. According to the passage, it is likely that the memories that allay fears are _______.

(A) formed in the dorsal and ventral MPFC
(B) related to memories that form prejudices
(C) created and stored in different parts of the brain
(D) able to be manipulated in rats through neuroimaging procedures
(E) affected by tasks that demand attention



4. Which of the following does the author NOT mention as being an advantage of neuroimaging?

(A) Researchers can better understand how people think about themselves.
(B) The connections between some parts of the brain are made apparent.
(C) Greater insight as to how people perceive each other is made possible.
(D) Scientists do not have to rely on animals that have sustained injuries.
(E) Healthy individuals can be studied through simple surgical procedures.


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Originally posted by souvik101990 on 09 Jan 2015, 11:46.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 17 Aug 2019, 23:31, edited 2 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (193).
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New post 15 Mar 2015, 08:19
Hi Shauvik,
I am confused in the primary purpose options between A and C in Q 2.
Though from first 3 paragraph it is clear that author describes the new non-evasive technique.
But, from the last paragraph of the passage it seems that author is saying the advantage of non-evasive technique
("... With our new found ability to actually observe mental activity in both healthy and impaired individuals without recourse to surgery, we have..." ).
Now, we are achieving something without doing surgery.!!!!
I marked option C.
I know that purpose is the overall picture of the passage, but it is also what author wants us to believe.
And the last paragraph takes us to the advantages to non-evasive technique.
Kindly shed some light. I am really confused.
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New post 10 Jul 2017, 22:48
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. highlight some of the work being done in a new field.
para 1 says " provided researchers in the emerging field ", which show its a new field and the passage aptly describes the work done in it.
B. discuss technological breakthroughs.
no technological brkthru is discussed
C. illustrate the advantages of non-invasive brain research
this is too small in scope, passage does say that based on the avances in this field somethign else happened.adn rest of the passage discusses that somethign else, not the cause.
D. show similarities between apparently differing research methods.
out of scope
E. demonstrate the extent to which our knowledge of the brain has increased in recent years.
studies using soem advances in a new field are discussed thats it,this is stretchign the given info to far.
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New post 10 Jul 2017, 22:49
321kumarsushant wrote:
took 7.00 Min to solve.

3 correct 1 wrong.
can any one tell how to solve Q3.




Allay means - to reduce /relieve
second para says " This same region also seems to create memories that counter those fears, though these memories are then stored in the MPFC."
this clearly satisfies option C.
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New post 12 Aug 2019, 12:01
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanation of all questions
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New post 17 Aug 2019, 22:46
Can anyone explain question 4
how is E an answer and not D
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New post 17 Aug 2019, 23:29
Official Explanation


4. Which of the following does the author NOT mention as being an advantage of neuroimaging?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Imagine this question as a checklist. Find the advantages that the author does mention, and eliminate those answer choices. The advantage of neuroimaging is that it is “non-invasive.” Surgery is invasive.

(A): The 1st paragraph tells us of advances in “self-referential judgments and memory,” in other words, how we think about ourselves.

(B): The links between the amygdala and MPFC are shown by “neuroimages” (2nd paragraph.)

(C): The 3rd paragraph discusses changes in the brain that depend on who individuals are thinking about.

(D): Since neuroimaging is “non-invasive,” humans (and perhaps, animals) that have not sustained injuries can be studied.

Answer: E


Hope it helps

globaldesi wrote:
Can anyone explain question 4
how is E an answer and not D

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Re: Recent advances in non-invasive human neuroimaging have provided   [#permalink] 17 Aug 2019, 23:29
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