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Recent studies on Native American languages point towards

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Recent studies on Native American languages  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2018, 20:06
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Recent studies on Native American languages point towards an alarming problem in the United States today. Language loss, a global phenomenon, is accelerating among indigenous groups in the United States. A large majority of Native American vernaculars are spoken only by elders and the remainder are fast approaching that status, as growing numbers of children speak only English.

To many, the precedence of one “common” language seems like an achievement of globalization and hence they argue that it would be wiser to spend resources on improving the English speaking skills of Native Americans rather than resuscitating fading tongues. However, no language is just a collection of words and, therefore, languages are not so simply substitutable for each other. Each language is a unique tool for analyzing and synthesizing the world and to lose such a tool is to forget a way of constructing reality, blotting out a perspective evolved over many generations. Native American languages express ideas on which Native American cultures are anchored; a native language does not just reflect a culture - in a functional sense it is the culture. These languages are based on entirely different histories, scientific and natural-world understandings, spiritual beliefs, and political and legal ideas. They capture concepts that do not exist in English. In essence, they are based on different realities.

Realising the magnitude of this language-loss, most indigenous tribes today are making some type of effort toward a language-comeback. These efforts include everything from instituting apprenticeship programs, which pair a fluent elder with a student, to using, what may seem like an unusual tool because of the inherent reservations in Native American communities to being photographed or recorded in any form, technology such as YouTube videos of native speakers or Google Hangout video chats for live, long-distance conversations. The idea is to engage the younger members of the tribe who, in their effort to fit into the more popular culture, are quickly losing ties with their unique heritage.

1. Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?
A. Because some Native American communities are inherently averse to being photographed or recorded in any form, their languages are at an even greater risk of reaching extinction.
B. Same events can be understood differently across cultures, cultures which do not necessarily share the same contexts.
C. Globalization has had many unintended consequences such as the dominance of English as a language over some ethnic minorities.
D. Although language loss is a global phenomenon, the scale at which it has affected Native American languages is probably the most severe.
E. The younger generation of Native Americans is not as aware of the near extinct state of Native American languages as the older generation is.

A. Incorrect: Out of Context

The author draws no such cause and effect relationship. Yes, the aversion to being photographed or recorded is mentioned but that is to highlight how the use of technology as tool to revive these languages might seem as a rather odd choice.
B.Correct

This can be derived from the following section of the passage:

Each language is a unique tool… do not exist in English.



In the above section of the passage, the author states that languages convey unique perceptions of events (world) and to lose a language is to lose this perspective. He/she also states that a native language is the foundation of the culture itself. The author then goes on to say that these Native American languages capture concepts that do not exist in English. From this analysis, we can understand that the author would agree that perspectives are context driven and accordingly, across cultures same events could be viewed/interpreted differently.
C. Incorrect: Out of Scope

First of all, there is no given information to establish whether the dominance of English over some ethnic minorities is an “unintended” effect of globalization. Secondly, the author mentions globalization while presenting the opinion of people who think that the dominance of English as a language is an achievement of globalization. However, the author never gives any opinion confirming that it is indeed a result of globalization. Finally, this choice makes a broader statement about globalization that talks about more than one effect of the same.
D.Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage does mention that language loss is a global phenomenon and that it is accelerating among Native American languages; however, the author gives no information to support any comparison between the language loss in Native American languages and that in other languages.
E. Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no information given to support any sort of comparison between the awareness levels of the two generations. All that we can infer is that the older generation of Native Americans is more likely to speak their language than the younger generation is.




2. The author is primarily concerned with
A. To explain the nature of a problem and certain remedial measures being taken for it
B. To present two contradictory perspectives on a problem
C. To explain a problem while proposing a solution to it
D. To corroborate the findings of certain recent studies
E. To appreciate the efforts made to rectify a situation that is not normally seen as a problem

the first paragraph introduces the problem of language loss in Native American language. The second paragraph focuses on the author’s perspective on why languages are not substitutable, especially why English cannot replace Native American language. Finally, the third paragraph talks about the kind of efforts being made by the indigenous tribes to revive their languages. In all, the entire passage is geared towards explaining the nature of a problem and certain efforts being made to overcome it.

A.Correct
B. Incorrect: Partial Scope

In a sense, the two perspectives mentioned in the second paragraph are opposite to each other since one considers language as substitutable for each other and the other doesn’t; however, these perspectives form the content of only the second paragraph and not the whole passage.
C. Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author does explain a problem but does not propose any solution to it.
D. Incorrect: Out of Scope

We do get the sense that the author agrees with the findings of the studies mentioned in the first paragraph; however, the passage is not written from the point of view of validating these findings.
E. Incorrect: Out of Scope

First of all, we don’t know what the normal/general view is on the issue of language loss in Native American languages. Second of all, the author neither appreciates nor criticizes the mentioned effort. He/she simply states them while bringing out the underlying reason behind these efforts.



3. Which of the following can be inferred from the statement below?

...a native language does not just reflect a culture - in a functional sense it is the culture.


A. A native language does not by itself stand for a culture.
B. Native American cultures are rooted in ideas that do not exist in some of the other popular languages.
C. Even when a native language does not portray a culture, it could be the culture itself.
D. The culture a native language reflects is more than the ideas expressed in it.
E. A native language is synonymous with the culture it is spoken in.

A. Incorrect: Out of Context

This is opposite to the thought expressed by the author, and as understood by us in the pre-thinking analysis.

B. Incorrect: Out Of Scope

While the author does say this in the second paragraph (from which the cited extract has been taken), the author does not mention popular languages in the extract itself and neither does he/she make an attempt to differentiate between any two cultures here. Hence, for the purpose the cited section, this choice is not in scope.
C.Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author says that a native language is more than just a reflection of culture, implying that its role is NOT limited to just portraying the culture; it is in fact the basis of the culture. However, this choice talks about a scenario in which the language does not reflect the culture.
D. Incorrect: Opposite

The author makes a statement about Native American languages, saying that they are more than just a reflection of culture. However, this choice twists the thought presented to say that the culture itself is more than the ideas expressed in it.
E. Correct

This choice matches our pre-thinking analysis.



4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?
A. Majority of the Native American tribes are aware of the scale of the problem of language-loss in their culture.
B. There are more chances of engaging Native American youth with their culture through the use of technology than through other means.
C. Most of the Native American languages today are spoken only by the elders of the indigenous communities.
D. Use of audio-visual mediums by Native Americans to resuscitate their languages could seem like an odd choice.
E. More than a few people think that language loss in Native American cultures is not really a problem.

A. Incorrect: Stated in the passage
This information is explicitly given to us in the first sentence of the last paragraph:
Realising the magnitude of this language-loss, most indigenous tribes today are making some type of effort toward a language-comeback.
B. Correct: Out of Scope
There is no such comparison made in the last paragraph, the section in which the use of technology for the stated purpose is mentioned.
C. Incorrect: Stated in the passage
This information is stated in the first paragraph:
A large majority of Native American vernaculars are spoken only by elders…
D. Incorrect: Stated in the passage
This information is given to us in the last paragraph:
…to using, what may seem like an unusual tool because of the inherent reservations in Native American communities to being photographed or recorded in any form, technology such as YouTube videos of native speakers or Google Hangout video chats for live, long-distance conversations.
E. Incorrect: Stated in the passage
This information is stated in the first sentence of the second paragraph:
To many, the precedence of one “common” language seems like an achievement of globalization and hence they argue that it would be wiser to spend resources on improving the English speaking skills of Native Americans rather than resuscitating fading tongues.


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Recent studies on Native American languages  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Jun 2018, 02:08
1

Question 1



The answer is B.



We'll answer using the

Alternative

approach, since it is easier to examine the answers and find the right one by process of elimination:

A. Because some Native American communities are inherently averse to being photographed or recorded in any form, their languages are at an even greater risk of reaching extinction. The reverse is true - despite this averseness, they have agreed to be photographed and recorded, lessening the risk of extinction
B. Same events can be understood differently across cultures, cultures which do not necessarily share the same contexts. The entire second paragraph would seem to express this idea: languages capture different realities
C. Globalization has had many unintended consequences such as the dominance of English as a language over some ethnic minorities.this is certainly a consequence, but nowhere does it say that it is unintended
D. Although language loss is a global phenomenon, the scale at which it has affected Native American languages is probably the most severe. nowhere does it say this: we are only told that the rate is accelerating in relation to itself, but not that it is greater or lesser than other languages

E. The younger generation of Native Americans is not as aware of the near extinct state of Native American languages as the older generation is. nowhere does it say this, and the opposite is probably true: the young generation is involved in an apprenticship program, so they probably know the reason
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Originally posted by DavidTutorexamPAL on 28 Jun 2018, 01:52.
Last edited by DavidTutorexamPAL on 28 Jun 2018, 02:08, edited 1 time in total.
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Recent studies on Native American languages  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Jun 2018, 02:08

Question 2



The answer is A.



We'll answer using the

Alternative

approach, since it is easier to examine the answers and find the right one by process of elimination:

2. The author is primarily concerned with
A. To explain the nature of a problem and certain remedial measures being taken for it this seems to fit exactly: the first two paragraphs explain why this is a problem, the third describes certain steps which are meant to help respond to it
B. To present two contradictory perspectives on a problem nope - there is not contest presented to the notion that this is a serious problem
C. To explain a problem while proposing a solution to it this is close, but not accurate: no one solution is offered, but several partial remedies (not full solutions) are described as happening (not proposed by the author)
D. To corroborate the findings of certain recent studies no
E. To appreciate the efforts made to rectify a situation that is not normally seen as a problem though this may be partly true, it's definitely not the main concern: only one paragraph (the third) out of three even deals with the efforts to rectify

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Originally posted by DavidTutorexamPAL on 28 Jun 2018, 01:56.
Last edited by DavidTutorexamPAL on 28 Jun 2018, 02:08, edited 1 time in total.
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Recent studies on Native American languages  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Jun 2018, 02:07

Question 3



The answer is E.


We'll answer using the

Alternative

approach, since it is easier to examine the answers and find the right one by process of elimination:

A. A native language does not by itself stand for a culture. the opposite is true: if it "is the culture", it very well may stand for it alone
B. Native American cultures are rooted in ideas that do not exist in some of the other popular languages. maybe, but this doesn't not directly derive from the statement: its possible (based on this statement alone) that all languages have the same ideas
C. Even when a native language does not portray a culture, it could be the culture itself. it is not clear how (and seems to be a contradiction) something could be something else but not portray it: if the second half of the sentence is true, the first must be
D. The culture a native language reflects is more than the ideas expressed in it. not what the statement says - maybe a culture - and the language - is precisely the ideas expressed (and only them)
E. A native language is synonymous with the culture it is spoken in. yup: the language "is the culture"
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Originally posted by DavidTutorexamPAL on 28 Jun 2018, 02:04.
Last edited by DavidTutorexamPAL on 28 Jun 2018, 02:07, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Recent studies on Native American languages  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2018, 02:07

Question 4



The answer is B.


We'll answer using the

Alternative

approach, since it we are explicitly asked to examine the answers:

4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?
A. Majority of the Native American tribes are aware of the scale of the problem of language-loss in their culture. third paragraph: "Realising the magnitude of this language-loss, most indigenous tribes ..."
B. There are more chances of engaging Native American youth with their culture through the use of technology than through other means. Third paragraph: following the sentence describing the use of technology, we are told "The idea is to engage the younger members of the tribe"
C. Most of the Native American languages today are spoken only by the elders of the indigenous communities. First paragraph: "A large majority of Native American vernaculars are spoken only by elders"
D. Use of audio-visual mediums by Native Americans to resuscitate their languages could seem like an odd choice. Third paragraph: "may seem like an unusual tool"
E. More than a few people think that language loss in Native American cultures is not really a problem. Not stated
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Re: Recent studies on Native American languages  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2018, 06:26
All correct but time taken 10:35 minutes.
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Recent studies on Native American languages point towards  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2018, 21:29
1
2
1. Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?


A. Because some Native American communities are inherently averse to being photographed or recorded in any form, their languages are at an even greater risk of reaching extinction.

Incorrect: Out of Context

The author draws no such cause and effect relationship. Yes, the aversion to being photographed or recorded is mentioned but that is to highlight how the use of technology as tool to revive these languages might seem as a rather odd choice.

B. Same events can be understood differently across cultures, cultures which do not necessarily share the same contexts.

Correct

This can be derived from the following section of the passage:

Each language is a unique tool… do not exist in English.

In the above section of the passage, the author states that languages convey unique perceptions of events (world) and to lose a language is to lose this perspective. He/she also states that a native language is the foundation of the culture itself. The author then goes on to say that these Native American languages capture concepts that do not exist in English. From this analysis, we can understand that the author would agree that perspectives are context driven and accordingly, across cultures same events could be viewed/interpreted differently.

C. Globalization has had many unintended consequences such as the dominance of English as a language over some ethnic minorities.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

First of all, there is no given information to establish whether the dominance of English over some ethnic minorities is an “unintended” effect of globalization. Secondly, the author mentions globalization while presenting the opinion of people who think that the dominance of English as a language is an achievement of globalization. However, the author never gives any opinion confirming that it is indeed a result of globalization. Finally, this choice makes a broader statement about globalization that talks about more than one effect of the same.

D. Although language loss is a global phenomenon, the scale at which it has affected Native American languages is probably the most severe.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage does mention that language loss is a global phenomenon and that it is accelerating among Native American languages; however, the author gives no information to support any comparison between the language loss in Native American languages and that in other languages.

E. The younger generation of Native Americans is not as aware of the near extinct state of Native American languages as the older generation is.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no information given to support any sort of comparison between the awareness levels of the two generations. All that we can infer is that the older generation of Native Americans is more likely to speak their language than the younger generation is.

2. The author is primarily concerned with


A. To explain the nature of a problem and certain remedial measures being taken for it

Correct

the first paragraph introduces the problem of language loss in Native American language. The second paragraph focuses on the author’s perspective on why languages are not substitutable, especially why English cannot replace Native American language. Finally, the third paragraph talks about the kind of efforts being made by the indigenous tribes to revive their languages. In all, the entire passage is geared towards explaining the nature of a problem and certain efforts being made to overcome it.

B. To present two contradictory perspectives on a problem

Incorrect: Partial Scope

In a sense, the two perspectives mentioned in the second paragraph are opposite to each other since one considers language as substitutable for each other and the other doesn’t; however, these perspectives form the content of only the second paragraph and not the whole passage.

C. To explain a problem while proposing a solution to it

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author does explain a problem but does not propose any solution to it.

D. To corroborate the findings of certain recent studies

Incorrect: Out of Scope

We do get the sense that the author agrees with the findings of the studies mentioned in the first paragraph; however, the passage is not written from the point of view of validating these findings.

E. To appreciate the efforts made to rectify a situation that is not normally seen as a problem

Incorrect: Out of Scope

First of all, we don’t know what the normal/general view is on the issue of language loss in Native American languages. Second of all, the author neither appreciates nor criticizes the mentioned effort. He/she simply states them while bringing out the underlying reason behind these efforts.

3. Which of the following can be inferred from the statement below?

...a native language does not just reflect a culture - in a functional sense it is the culture.


A. A native language does not by itself stand for a culture.

Incorrect: Out of Context

This is opposite to the thought expressed by the author, and as understood by us in the pre-thinking analysis.

B. Native American cultures are rooted in ideas that do not exist in some of the other popular languages.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

While the author does say this in the second paragraph (from which the cited extract has been taken), the author does not mention popular languages in the extract itself and neither does he/she make an attempt to differentiate between any two cultures here. Hence, for the purpose the cited section, this choice is not in scope.

C. Even when a native language does not portray a culture, it could be the culture itself.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author says that a native language is more than just a reflection of culture, implying that its role is NOT limited to just portraying the culture; it is in fact the basis of the culture. However, this choice talks about a scenario in which the language does not reflect the culture.

D. The culture a native language reflects is more than the ideas expressed in it.

Incorrect: Opposite

The author makes a statement about Native American languages, saying that they are more than just a reflection of culture. However, this choice twists the thought presented to say that the culture itself is more than the ideas expressed in it.

E. A native language is synonymous with the culture it is spoken in.

Correct

4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?


A. Majority of the Native American tribes are aware of the scale of the problem of language-loss in their culture.

Incorrect: Stated in the passage

This information is explicitly given to us in the first sentence of the last paragraph:
Realising the magnitude of this language-loss, most indigenous tribes today are making some type of effort toward a language-comeback.

B. There are more chances of engaging Native American youth with their culture through the use of technology than through other means.

Correct: Out of Scope

There is no such comparison made in the last paragraph, the section in which the use of technology for the stated purpose is mentioned.

C. Most of the Native American languages today are spoken only by the elders of the indigenous communities.

Incorrect: Stated in the passage

This information is stated in the first paragraph:

A large majority of Native American vernaculars are spoken only by elders…

D. Use of audio-visual mediums by Native Americans to resuscitate their languages could seem like an odd choice.

Incorrect: Stated in the passage

This information is given to us in the last paragraph:

…to using, what may seem like an unusual tool because of the inherent reservations in Native American communities to being photographed or recorded in any form, technology such as YouTube videos of native speakers or Google Hangout video chats for live, long-distance conversations.

E. More than a few people think that language loss in Native American cultures is not really a problem.

Incorrect: Stated in the passage

This information is stated in the first sentence of the second paragraph:
To many, the precedence of one “common” language seems like an achievement of globalization and hence they argue that it would be wiser to spend resources on improving the English speaking skills of Native Americans rather than resuscitating fading tongues.
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Re: Recent studies on Native American languages point towards  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2018, 05:52
I couldn't find the correct answer in Q.4, please help in finding the parts of the passage in which you can eliminate the other 4 answers.
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Re: Recent studies on Native American languages point towards  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2018, 08:50
I want explanations for 1 and 3
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Re: Recent studies on Native American languages point towards  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2018, 09:16
In Q4, B is the correct answer as the passage does not say anything about the comparison between the use of tech. and other means.

A is stated in the passage.
C is stated in para 1
D is stated in last para
E is stated in 2 para.

Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Recent studies on Native American languages point towards  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2018, 10:09
Hello workout and/or Experts,

Please help me understand the effective meaning difference between the choices below for Q3. Which of the following can be inferred from the highlighted text ?

C. Even when a native language does not portray a culture, it could be the culture itself.
E. A native language is synonymous with the culture it is spoken in.

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Re: Recent studies on Native American languages point towards  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2018, 22:19
DavidTutorexamPAL wrote:

Question 4



The answer is B.


We'll answer using the

Alternative

approach, since it we are explicitly asked to examine the answers:

4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?
A. Majority of the Native American tribes are aware of the scale of the problem of language-loss in their culture. third paragraph: "Realising the magnitude of this language-loss, most indigenous tribes ..."
B. There are more chances of engaging Native American youth with their culture through the use of technology than through other means. Third paragraph: following the sentence describing the use of technology, we are told "The idea is to engage the younger members of the tribe"
C. Most of the Native American languages today are spoken only by the elders of the indigenous communities. First paragraph: "A large majority of Native American vernaculars are spoken only by elders"
D. Use of audio-visual mediums by Native Americans to resuscitate their languages could seem like an odd choice. Third paragraph: "may seem like an unusual tool"
E. More than a few people think that language loss in Native American cultures is not really a problem. Not stated


From looking at your explanations, you are saying answer E is not stated and thus the answer, but you have stated B as your answer and showed an explanation that it is mentioned.. please clarify..
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Re: Recent studies on Native American languages point towards &nbs [#permalink] 20 Aug 2018, 22:19
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