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Research has discovered that lucid dreamers

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Research has discovered that lucid dreamers  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2018, 20:40
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Research has discovered that lucid dreamers, people who are aware that they are asleep when they are dreaming, have better problem-solving abilities in the waking world than those who remain unaware of their dreams until they wake up. Studies have also shown that since lucid dreamers are aware of dreaming while dreaming, they can even play an active role in their dreams. Neuroscientists hypothesize that the reason behind these special skills of lucid dreamers could be their special brain structure.

On comparing the brain structures of frequent lucid dreamers and participants who never or only occasionally have lucid dreams, neuroscientists have found that the anterior prefrontal cortex, i.e., the brain area controlling conscious cognitive processes and playing an important role in the capability of self-reflection, is larger in lucid dreamers, suggesting a link between lucid dreaming and metacognition, which is defined as cognition about cognition or knowing about knowing. The theory has found more supporting evidence in the brain images of test subjects, which were taken while these subjects were solving metacognitive tests in their awake state. The images show that the brain activity in the prefrontal cortex was higher in lucid dreamers than in non-lucid dreamers, indicating that lucid dreamers have a higher level of insight than non-lucid dreamers.Neuroscientists say that it is this level of cognitive ability in lucid dreamers that enables them to spot incongruities within their dream, signaling their brain that they are in a dream, since the events in the dream would not make much sense otherwise, and making it possible for them to take an active part in their dreams. The same insight also transcends in to the waking world when it comes to finding solution to a problem by spotting hidden connections or inconsistencies.


1. Which of the following is the primary purpose of the passage?
A. To detail a study dealing with the reason behind the mentioned skills of lucid dreamers
B. To distinguish between the metacognitive skills of lucid and non-lucid dreamers
C. To describe the skills of lucid dreamers in two specific areas
D. To evaluate a study that deals with finding the reasons behind the special skills of lucid dreamers
E. To establish a link between two unrelated skills that lucid dreamers possess

We see that in the first paragraph, the author introduces the skills of lucid dreamers and mentions the hypothesis presented by neuroscientists. The second paragraph is completely dedicated to describing the details of the hypothesis and how it was arrived at. Therefore, the passage is dedicated to mainly talking about the hypothesis and presenting its details.
To detail a study dealing with the reason behind the mentioned skills of lucid dreamers

Correct

This choice matches our pre-thinking analysis.

B
To distinguish between the metacognitive skills of lucid and non-lucid dreamers

Incorrect: Out of Context

The author does present this difference but it is presented in the context of the hypothesis, which deals with the reason behind the mentioned skills of lucid dreamers. The author himself/herself does not make any attempt to bring out the difference between the metacognitive skills of the two groups.

C
To describe the skills of lucid dreamers in two specific areas

Incorrect: Partial Scope

This choice barely captures the scope of the first paragraph.

D
To evaluate a study that deals with finding the reasons behind the special skills of lucid dreamers

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not evaluate or analyze the merits/demerits of the study. In fact, the author never gives any opinion in the passage.
E.To establish a link between two unrelated skills that lucid dreamers possess
Incorrect: Out of Context
Yes, the neuroscientists say that both the skills are a result of a higher level of insight that lucid dreamers possess. But the author mention this as a part of the hypothesis that he/she attempts to describe in detail. The author himself/herself does not make an attempt to link any two facts/skills.




2. Which of the following is supported by the analysis presented by the neuroscientists?
A. While solving a problem, non-lucid dreamers are not able to spot any connections because their metacognitive abilities are not as developed as those of the lucid dreamers.
B. Not all happenings in dreams are considered coherent with what is regarded as sensible in the awake world.
C. Because lucid dreamers are aware of their higher than average metacognition abilities, they know that they are asleep when they experience a dream.
D. The ability to find connections or inconsistencies helps the development of metacognition skills.
E. By developing self-reflection skills, non-lucid dreamers can experience lucid dreaming.

A. While solving a problem, non-lucid dreamers are not able to spot any connections because their metacognitive abilities are not as developed as those of the lucid dreamers.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The comparably higher level of insight possessed by lucid dreamers enables them to find hidden connections and hence renders them with better problem solving abilities. From this fact we can understand that the non-lucid dreamers probably lag behind in finding these connections. But this choice does not talk about hidden connections. It states any connection.

B. Not all happenings in dreams are considered coherent with what is regarded sensible in the awake world.

Correct

This statement can be inferred from the following statement made in the passage:

Neuroscientists say that it is this level of cognitive ability in lucid dreamers that enables them to spot incongruities within their dream, signaling their brain that they are in a dream, since the events in the dream would not make much sense otherwise…

C
Because lucid dreamers are aware of their higher than average metacognition abilities, they know that they are asleep when they experience a dream.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The passage does not mention whether lucid dreamers’ awareness of their metacognitive abilities has any impact on the mentioned skills. Hence, there is no basis for this conclusion.

D
The ability to find connections or inconsistencies helps the development of metacognition skills.

Incorrect: Opposite

The passage mentions just the opposite. The metacognitive abilities help lucid dreamers find hidden connections and inconsistencies.

E
By developing self-reflection skills, non-lucid dreamers can experience lucid dreaming.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no information given in the passage to support any inference about how non-lucid dreamers can experience lucid dreaming. The capability to self-reflect is mentioned as part of the feature of the pre-frontal cortex, but there is no information about how this capability can be augmented or what the result of that increase would be.



3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?
A. Neuroscientists think that lucid dreamers have better problem-solving abilities than non-lucid dreamers since they can take active parts in their dreams.
B. As per the neuroscientists, the metacognitive abilities of those who experience lucid dreaming once and those who never experience it are not comparable.
C. As per the neuroscientists, the higher level of insight possessed by lucid dreamers, as opposed to non-lucid dreamers, enables them to spot odd events both in dreams and reality.
D. Studies have shown that the awareness of the fact that they are asleep while experiencing a dream shows that lucid dreamers have a higher level of metacognition than non-lucid dreamers.
E. The neuroscientists found that the non-lucid dreamers did not have a high level of insight as the brain activity in their prefrontal cortex was limited.

A. Neuroscientists think that lucid dreamers have better problem solving abilities than non-lucid dreamers since they can take active parts in their dreams.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author states that as per the neuroscientists, the reason behind both the skills - better PS abilities and the ability to take active part in their dreams – could be the brain structure of lucid dreamers. Hence, the cause and effect relation presented is not in line with the information given in the passage.

B
As per the neuroscientists, the metacognitive abilities of those who experience lucid dreaming once and those who never experience it are not comparable.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The neuroscientists put both the mentioned groups in this choice in the same category. The comparison is not between them; it is between the category they formed and the category of regular lucid dreamers. Hence, this information goes against the given information in the passage.

As per the neuroscientists, the higher level of insight possessed by lucid dreamers, as opposed to non-lucid dreamers, enables them to spot odd events both in dreams and reality.

Correct

This choice restates the information given to us in the last two sentences of the passage. The author states that:

Neuroscientists say that it is this level of cognitive ability in lucid dreamers that enables them to spot incongruities within their dream... The same insight also transcends in to the waking world when it comes to finding solution to a problem by spotting hidden connections or inconsistences.

D
Studies have shown that the awareness of the fact that they are asleep while experiencing a dream shows that lucid dreamers have a higher level of metacognition than non-lucid dreamers.

Incorrect: Out of Context

As per the research, the reason that lucid dreamers are able to realize that they are in a dream is that they have comparably higher metacognition skills. However, this conclusion was arrived at because the researchers noted the brain activity of subjects during some test performed when these subjects were awake and not asleep. So, this choice mixes two pieces of information and twists the context in which the original information was presented.

E
The neuroscientists found that the non-lucid dreamers did not have a high level of insight as the brain activity in their prefrontal cortex was limited.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage gives a comparison between the level of insight lucid and non-lucid dreamers possess, saying that non-lucid dreamers do not have a higher level of insight. However, this choice makes an absolute statement about the non-lucid dreamers, saying that their level of insight was not high.


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Re: Research has discovered that lucid dreamers  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2018, 15:28
For the Q1., I am confused between options A and D.

Though I got the answer correct but, upon asking myself that why I chose A and eliminated others, I realized I got correct answer by luck ( I do realize that such an approach can cost me marks).
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Re: Research has discovered that lucid dreamers  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2018, 01:39
Can someone explain Q2 and Q3.
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Re: Research has discovered that lucid dreamers  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2018, 02:18
1
D is incorrect because we are not evaluating a study.
Neitin wrote:
For the Q1., I am confused between options A and D.

Though I got the answer correct but, upon asking myself that why I chose A and eliminated others, I realized I got correct answer by luck ( I do realize that such an approach can cost me marks).

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Re: Research has discovered that lucid dreamers  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2018, 02:42
Kindly allow me to explain.
yugantarthakkur wrote:
Can someone explain Q2 and Q3.

Question 2 wrote:
2. Which of the following is supported by the analysis presented by the neuroscientists?

A. While solving a problem, non-lucid dreamers are not able to spot any connections because their metacognitive abilities are not as developed as those of the lucid dreamers.
Nothing is mentioned about metacognitive skills of non-lucid dreamers.

B. Not all happenings in dreams are considered coherent with what is regarded as sensible in the awake world.
Clearly mentions, ...enables them to spot incongruities within their dream.... This implies that the dreams are not always considered coherent with the awake world.

C. Because lucid dreamers are aware of their higher than average metacognition abilities, they know that they are asleep when they experience a dream.
Because they are aware of their abilities does not result in knowing that they are asleep when experiencing dream.

D. The ability to find connections or inconsistencies helps the development of metacognition skills.
Lucid dreamers are aware of their dreams because of above average metacognition abilities. Not the other way round. Always be cautious of the causal statements.

E. By developing self-reflection skills, non-lucid dreamers can experience lucid dreaming.
Nothing is mentioned about non-lucid dreamers in this regard.


Question 3 wrote:
3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?

A. Neuroscientists think that lucid dreamers have better problem-solving abilities than non-lucid dreamers since they can take active parts in their dreams.
Lucid dreamers have better problem-solving abilities as lucid dreamers have a higher level of insight than non-lucid dreamers. Possibly because of larger anterior prefrontal cortex.

B. As per the neuroscientists, the metacognitive abilities of those who experience lucid dreaming once and those who never experience it are not comparable.
They are actually implied to be comparable. We can infer this from the first sentence of the second paragraph.

C. As per the neuroscientists, the higher level of insight possessed by lucid dreamers, as opposed to non-lucid dreamers, enables them to spot odd events both in
dreams and reality.

Clearly mentioned in the passage, ...indicating that lucid dreamers have a higher level of insight than non-lucid dreamers.... this level of cognitive ability in lucid dreamers that enables them to....

D. Studies have shown that the awareness of the fact that they are asleep while experiencing a dream shows that lucid dreamers have a higher level of metacognition than non-lucid dreamers.
Lucid dreamers are aware of their dreams because of above average metacognition abilities. Not the other way round. Always be cautious of the causal statements.

E. The neuroscientists found that the non-lucid dreamers did not have a high level of insight as the brain activity in their prefrontal cortex was limited.
Nothing is mentioned about non-lucid dreamers. The passage implies the "level of insight" was higher in lucid dreamers than it is in non-lucid dreamers. That's all we know.


I hope the explanations were clear. Cheers!
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Re: Research has discovered that lucid dreamers  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2018, 21:43
1
1. Which of the following is the primary purpose of the passage?


We see that in the first paragraph, the author introduces the skills of lucid dreamers and mentions the hypothesis presented by neuroscientists. The second paragraph is completely dedicated to describing the details of the hypothesis and how it was arrived at. Therefore, the passage is dedicated to mainly talking about the hypothesis and presenting its details.

A. To detail a study dealing with the reason behind the mentioned skills of lucid dreamers

Correct

This choice matches our pre-thinking analysis.

B. To distinguish between the metacognitive skills of lucid and non-lucid dreamers

Incorrect: Out of Context

The author does present this difference but it is presented in the context of the hypothesis, which deals with the reason behind the mentioned skills of lucid dreamers. The author himself/herself does not make any attempt to bring out the difference between the metacognitive skills of the two groups.

C. To describe the skills of lucid dreamers in two specific areas

Incorrect: Partial Scope

This choice barely captures the scope of the first paragraph.

D. To evaluate a study that deals with finding the reasons behind the special skills of lucid dreamers

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not evaluate or analyze the merits/demerits of the study. In fact, the author never gives any opinion in the passage.

E. To establish a link between two unrelated skills that lucid dreamers possess

Incorrect: Out of Context

Yes, the neuroscientists say that both the skills are a result of a higher level of insight that lucid dreamers possess. But the author mention this as a part of the hypothesis that he/she attempts to describe in detail. The author himself/herself does not make an attempt to link any two facts/skills.

2. Which of the following is supported by the analysis presented by the neuroscientists?


A. While solving a problem, non-lucid dreamers are not able to spot any connections because their metacognitive abilities are not as developed as those of the lucid dreamers.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The comparably higher level of insight possessed by lucid dreamers enables them to find hidden connections and hence renders them with better problem solving abilities. From this fact we can understand that the non-lucid dreamers probably lag behind in finding these connections. But this choice does not talk about hidden connections. It states any connection.

B. Not all happenings in dreams are considered coherent with what is regarded sensible in the awake world.

Correct

This statement can be inferred from the following statement made in the passage:

Neuroscientists say that it is this level of cognitive ability in lucid dreamers that enables them to spot incongruities within their dream, signaling their brain that they are in a dream, since the events in the dream would not make much sense otherwise…

C. Because lucid dreamers are aware of their higher than average metacognition abilities, they know that they are asleep when they experience a dream.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The passage does not mention whether lucid dreamers’ awareness of their metacognitive abilities has any impact on the mentioned skills. Hence, there is no basis for this conclusion.

D. The ability to find connections or inconsistencies helps the development of metacognition skills.

Incorrect: Opposite

The passage mentions just the opposite. The metacognitive abilities help lucid dreamers find hidden connections and inconsistencies.

E. By developing self-reflection skills, non-lucid dreamers can experience lucid dreaming.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no information given in the passage to support any inference about how non-lucid dreamers can experience lucid dreaming. The capability to self-reflect is mentioned as part of the feature of the pre-frontal cortex, but there is no information about how this capability can be augmented or what the result of that increase would be.

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?


A. Neuroscientists think that lucid dreamers have better problem solving abilities than non-lucid dreamers since they can take active parts in their dreams.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The author states that as per the neuroscientists, the reason behind both the skills - better PS abilities and the ability to take active part in their dreams – could be the brain structure of lucid dreamers. Hence, the cause and effect relation presented is not in line with the information given in the passage.

B. As per the neuroscientists, the metacognitive abilities of those who experience lucid dreaming once and those who never experience it are not comparable.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The neuroscientists put both the mentioned groups in this choice in the same category. The comparison is not between them; it is between the category they formed and the category of regular lucid dreamers. Hence, this information goes against the given information in the passage.

C. As per the neuroscientists, the higher level of insight possessed by lucid dreamers, as opposed to non-lucid dreamers, enables them to spot odd events both in dreams and reality.

Correct

This choice restates the information given to us in the last two sentences of the passage. The author states that:

Neuroscientists say that it is this level of cognitive ability in lucid dreamers that enables them to spot incongruities within their dream... The same insight also transcends in to the waking world when it comes to finding solution to a problem by spotting hidden connections or inconsistences.

D. Studies have shown that the awareness of the fact that they are asleep while experiencing a dream shows that lucid dreamers have a higher level of metacognition than non-lucid dreamers.

Incorrect: Out of Context

As per the research, the reason that lucid dreamers are able to realize that they are in a dream is that they have comparably higher metacognition skills. However, this conclusion was arrived at because the researchers noted the brain activity of subjects during some test performed when these subjects were awake and not asleep. So, this choice mixes two pieces of information and twists the context in which the original information was presented.

E. The neuroscientists found that the non-lucid dreamers did not have a high level of insight as the brain activity in their prefrontal cortex was limited.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

The passage gives a comparison between the level of insight lucid and non-lucid dreamers possess, saying that non-lucid dreamers do not have a higher level of insight. However, this choice makes an absolute statement about the non-lucid dreamers, saying that their level of insight was not high.
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Re: Research has discovered that lucid dreamers &nbs [#permalink] 25 Aug 2018, 21:43
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