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# Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this

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Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2015, 11:14
2
9
00:00

Difficulty:

45% (medium)

Question Stats:

67% (01:47) correct 33% (02:09) wrong based on 406 sessions

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Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this information into long-term memory have shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few of an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in the ease with which that information is encoded in our brains.

A) have shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few of an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in the ease with which
B) has shown the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book to far outweigh the few conferred using an electronic reader, because where text is located plays a major role in how readily
C) has shown the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few of an electronic reader, as the physical location of the text plays a major role in the ease in which
D) has shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few conferred by an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in how readily
E) have shown that the advantages of text retention conferred by a physical book to far outweigh the few conferred by an electronic reader, where the text is located playing a major role in how readily

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Re: Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2015, 16:42
1
The sentence has a 3/2 split. The correct verb form is research...has shown. So we can eliminate A and E.

(B) states the advantages...to far outweigh the few, which is ungrammatical
(C) states the advantages conferred by x...far outweigh the few of y, which lacks parallelism
(D) is the only option left, and it keeps parallel structure: advantages conferred by x outweigh the few conferred by y

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Re: Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this  [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2015, 21:58
D looks fine but I don't understand the use of "playing"

Should it be "plays" ?

Can anyone elaborate?
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Re: Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this  [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2015, 23:13
The rapid-fire solution to this long question is that it is enough to consider two requirements to solve this question: The main verb has to be singular and that the advantages have to be expressed in a relative clause. D is the only one choice with that kind of a combination.
The phrase starting with the “the physical location” until the end of the sentence is modifying how a hard copy is better than a soft copy. Here a verb such as ‘plays’ does not work because, a verb will render it a comma splice with two independent clauses joined just by comma
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Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2016, 16:11
Hi All,

Got it correct, but need a concept cleared.

Option D:
"....the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in the ease with which that information is encoded in our brains.."

is this part an absolute phrase?
If so then which subject is it modifying?

Or

This is an independent Clause?

If so then Does it have a comma splice issue?

Or

Option 3

An expert's advise would be appreciated.

Best
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Re: Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2016, 21:11
Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this information into long-term memory have shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few of an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in the ease with which that information is encoded in our brains.

1) Research……………………has shown
3) Physical location……………....plays
4) Information…………………………..is encoded
Can someone please explain the OA I am little confused here with point 3. 'Playing' does not act as a verb here and correct verb form for 'physical location' would be 'plays'.

Thanks
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Re: Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this  [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2016, 08:16
Shiv2016 wrote:
Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this information into long-term memory have shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few of an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in the ease with which that information is encoded in our brains.

1) Research……………………has shown
3) Physical location……………....plays
4) Information…………………………..is encoded
Can someone please explain the OA I am little confused here with point 3. 'Playing' does not act as a verb here and correct verb form for 'physical location' would be 'plays'.

Thanks

The part "the physical location..... playing ...... in our brains" is an absolute phrase modifying the entire main clause "Research ........have shown that the advantages .... outweigh the few of an electronic reader". An absolute phrase comprises of a noun / noun phrase and a noun modifier - in option D,

noun phrase: "the physical location of the text on the page"
noun modifier: "playing.... in our brains"

Here "playing" is a present participle modifier, not a verb. If "playing" were a verb then the second part "the physical location.... plays....our brains" would be an independent clause, and in that cause the sentence would be a run-on sentence since two independent clauses would then be joined using just a comma without a conjunction.
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Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this  [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2017, 13:48
Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this information into long-term memory have shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few of an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in the ease with which that information is encoded in our brains.

A) have shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few of an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in the ease with which
B) has shown the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book to far outweigh the few conferred using an electronic reader, because where text is located plays a major role in how readily
C) has shown the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few of an electronic reader, as the physical location of the text plays a major role in the ease in which
D) has shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few conferred by an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in how readily
E) have shown that the advantages of text retention conferred by a physical book to far outweigh the few conferred by an electronic reader, where the text is located playing a major role in how readily

Research is singular thus 'has' is correct, Eliminate A and E.
B is ungramatical and C is unparallel.

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Re: Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this  [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2018, 18:14
OE:
Subject verb agreement

The subject of the sentence is “research”. Therefore, the verb should be “has” not “have” Eliminate (A) and (E).

Idiom

To show THAT. Eliminate (B) and (C). The 'that' in (C) is functioning as a relative pronoun and is not part of the idiom "show that".

Parallelism

We are comparing “advantages in text retention CONFERRED BY a book” and “advantages in text retention CONFERRED BY an electronic reader”. Eliminate (C).

False Split

“The ease in which” vs. “how readily”. Technically, both are correct though the GMAT would almost always choose the latter given its brevity. Nevertheless, this distinction is too subtle and should be not be a deciding split, at least initially.

(A) In addition to the “have shown” not agreeing with the single noun “research”, “Conferred by” is not parallel with “few of”. The phrase would have to be “few conferred by an electronic reader” in order to maintain parallelism.

(B) “where text is located” is very vague. We are talking specifically about “where text is located” on the page.

(C) “the physical location of the text” is too vague. The physical location of text is technically on the page, or wherever the book happens to be. The original answer clearly refers to the importance of where text is located on the page. Far more subtle is the use of “and” and a comma to split an idea into two independent clauses, falsely implying that the two ideas aren’t that closely tied together.

(E) “Have/has” split. “Shown…TO” is unidiomatic. “Where the text is located” is vague. The original sentence clearly indicates that it is the location of the text upon the page, not its location in general.
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Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2018, 21:20
Plugging (D) in the original question: Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this information into long-term memory has shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few conferred by an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in how readily that information is encoded in our brains.

Doesn't the part before "the physical location of...." need to begin with a semicolon? It seems like its own clause. Please explain!
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Re: Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2018, 22:04
sidvarma wrote:
Plugging (D) in the original question: Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this information into long-term memory has shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few conferred by an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in how readily that information is encoded in our brains.

Doesn't the part before "the physical location of...." need to begin with a semicolon? It seems like its own clause. Please explain!

; defines that both part are independent clause. Do you think both of these part will independently hang around , if ';' used ?
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Re: Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2018, 22:13
Harley1980 wrote:
Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this information into long-term memory have shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few of an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in the ease with which that information is encoded in our brains.

A) have shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few of an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in the ease with which

B) has shown the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book to far outweigh the few conferred using an electronic reader, because where text is located plays a major role in how readily

C) has shown the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few of an electronic reader, as the physical location of the text plays a major role in the ease in which

D) has shown that the advantages in text retention conferred by a physical book far outweigh the few conferred by an electronic reader, the physical location of the text on the page playing a major role in how readily

E) have shown that the advantages of text retention conferred by a physical book to far outweigh the few conferred by an electronic reader, where the text is located playing a major role in how readily

Two errors are sufficient to reach the right answer choice. But for improving skills you can go as much deep as possible.

Error - 1 : SV disagreement - We need "Research has shown and not have shown".

A and E are out.

Error- 2 : We need "shown that"

B and C are out.

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Re: Research into how our brains process the written word and encode this &nbs [#permalink] 30 Apr 2018, 22:13
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