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Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h

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Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolism generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.

(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.

(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.

(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.

(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 06 Dec 2010, 13:35
Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.
The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.
(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.
(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.
(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.
(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

Can some explain how to tackle assumption efficiently...thanks
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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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ajit257 wrote:
Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?


Conclusion - Newly thin people regain weight.

Possible assumptions - Newly thin people start eating more. or
The metabolism of newly thin people further slows down thereby not burning calories,leading to increased weight.




(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level. - Hold

(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight. - Para is Talking about overweight people. Out of scope.

(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual. - Out of scope.

(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents. - Out of scope.

(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it. - Hold

Can some explain how to tackle assumption efficiently...thanks


Now between A and E use negation and see its effect of conclusion.Negation should undermine the conclusion.

E Not Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally do not have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it. - Dosen't effect the conclusion at all.

A No very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tended to continue to consume substantially more calories than do people whose weight is at that level." - If this is true then how Newly thin people regained weight ? Hence this undermines the conclusion.

Hence A prevails.
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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2010, 17:11
thanks Amit ...I realized my mistake that i am overlooking the fact that assumtion is closely tied to conclusion ...awesome explanation.
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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2010, 20:25
ajit257 wrote:
thanks Amit ...I realized my mistake that i am overlooking the fact that assumtion is closely tied to conclusion ...awesome explanation.


Amit has pretty much covered all the ground. Let me just add here that an assumption is a missing premise that is necessary for the conclusion to be true. The assumption has to be true for the conclusion to be true. Hence if you are lost between 2-3 choices, negate each choice. Once you negate an option, if your conclusion can still be true, it means the option is not an assumption. It is a very useful trick.
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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2011, 03:52
I went with A. By the statements, if one loses weight and he does not continue to be on the diet then he ll gain weight. Meaning people who are already on that weight size will consume more than he does

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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2011, 04:12
tuanquang269 wrote:
Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates,
lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn
significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such
newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic
rate.
The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume
substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.
(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of
people who have been very overweight.
(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is
consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.
(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be
accelerated by means of chemical agents.
(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much
difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

I found this question in another topic, but the explanation is still unclear to me. So, I want to make new thread to open more discussion on this problem. OA later.


Negating option E: Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally don't have as much
difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.This weakens the conclusion and is the correct answer

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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2011, 22:12
A..A newly thin person will regain the same weight(what was before dieting) if that person takes more calories as compared to what is suitable to his new weight.

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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2012, 07:04
For some reasons, i find this question is hard and confusing (mostly because of the vocab). I was able to make the right choice but mostly through POE rather than logical thinking. Wonder if anyone think the same?

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New post 11 Aug 2012, 12:07
Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.
The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.
(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.
(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.
(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.
(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.
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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2012, 12:26
(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level. Tell us that Formerly overweight people will consume more calories and burn less due to lower metabolic rate. As a result they will again gain weight.
(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight. Argument is not concerned with this category. So B is out of Scope
(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual. Out of scope
(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents. Tricky choice but it has no bearing on the argument. If this option tells that artificially metabolism rate can not be accelerated, then it would have been a possible answer choice.
(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it. Out of scope. We are not concerned abt this group.

Answer: A
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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2012, 09:24
Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.
The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.
(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.
(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.
(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.
(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.
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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2012, 11:01
Meaning of the passage : very overweight people loose weight via dieting -> metabolism rate remains same -> new weight, old metabolism -> can't burn what they eat -> Finally go to their old weight

Assumption here is, even after reducing weight, they continue to consume as much calories as they used to. Option A states this assumption, and hence is right.

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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2012, 04:47
I am not convinced over the reason why D is wrong.
The conclusion clearly states: Such newly thin persons will ultimately regain weight until their body size matches their metabolic rate.
If somehow a method is found to accelerate the metabolic rate, then we can't be sure of the conclusion to hold true.
Please let me know if I am missing something.
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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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Here is a reason why (C) does not work.

(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.

Ask ourselves...does knowing the amount of calories burned in a day affect our argument that these dieters will actually REGAIN weight? We already know that dieters' calorie burn is LOWER than that of normal people for a given weight. If weight gain is determined by calorie INTAKE minus calorie burned, then the missing part to this equation is actually calorie INTAKE (or food eaten)...which is what (A) already addressed. Does (C) address calorie INTAKE?

Is (C) something the argument DEPENDS on? This is the "A vs Not A" Framework.

Does the following work:
A case)Amount of calories burned is DETERMINED by amount consumed (rather than individual's weight) => dieters will REGAIN weight
"Not A" case) Amount of calories burned is NOT DETERMINED by amount consumed (instead, determined by individual's weight) => dieters will NOT REGAIN weight

Well, in the opposite case which is where calories burned is determined by individual's weight...then the calorie burns will be equal between avg person and the dieter because now the dieter has lost weight and become the same weight as the average person. So the amount of calories burned will equal. Thus, dieteres will NOT REGAIN weight. However, this conflicts with information in the passage...that since dieters' natural metabolism is lower, the calorie burn is LOWER than the average person. Thus conflicting information. Dieters' calorie burn cannot be LOWER than the average person AND the SAME.

Then in the "A" case, calorie burn is determined by amount consumed. Well, the dieters consume less than the average person. What does that mean for calorie burn? We know consumption is LINKED to calorie burn, but we don't know the direction. Is it dieters consume less so then calorie burn is HIGHER? or is it that the calorie burn is LOWER?

So you can see, (C) has a number of problems when the "A vs Not A" framework is applied.

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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.

(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.

(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.

(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.

(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2012, 00:18
skamal7 wrote:
Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.

(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.

(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.

(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.

(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

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Conclusion: Newly thin persons will ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

This is a find assumption question. The best way to approach it is to negate the assumption to see if the conclusion is negated or not.

(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.

NOT (A) Almost all very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.

If that be the case, then the newly thin people, who fewer calories will not gain weight even if their metabolism is low. This negates the conclusion. Hence this is the correct choice.

(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.

NOT (B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more stable than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.

This has no bearing on the conclusion. It only means that over weight people can have varying metabolism compared to the others.

The other choices are fairly straight forward. We don't even need to negate them to check. They are all out of context choices.

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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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skamal7 wrote:
Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.

The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.

(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.

(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.

(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.

(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

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In addition to the specific techniques of answering a particular type of question, a general aid to answering a question is to simplify the language. That will make life a lot easier.

For example ,

The premise of the argument: ".....They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level."

The conclusion of the argument: "Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate."

The gist of the premise can be noted down as follows: burn significantly fewer calories
The gist of the conclusion can be noted down as follows: ultimately gain weight

An assumption is something which connects the two.

The gist of choice A: Few continue to consume few calories

We can see that A makes sense as if overweight people burn fewer calories and continue to consume more calories at the reduced weight , they will ultimately regain weight.

The bold one is the premise, the underlined one is the assumption and the one in italics is the conclusion.

At least if one has a rough sense of the answer quickly, one can spend more time on it to check its correctness.
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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2012, 07:39
Hey
Conclusion: Newly thin person will regain the weight that they had losed.
Premise 1; They have lost weight by doing dieting, and they have low metabolism rate.
Premise 2: They will burn fewer calories at their newer weight.
Premise 3 : Metabolism reamins constant.

Prethinking
possible assumptions:
1. They start eating too mcuch; they give up dieting after attaining a desired weight.

Option A :(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.
it means that there are many newly thin persons who tend to eat more. This is it ...Option A

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Re: Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to h [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2013, 12:28
ajit257 wrote:
Researchers have found that when very overweight people, who tend to have relatively low metabolic rates, lose weight primarily through dieting, their metabolisms generally remain unchanged. They will thus burn significantly fewer calories at the new weight than do people whose weight is normally at that level. Such newly thin persons will, therefore, ultimately regain weight until their body size again matches their metabolic rate.
The conclusion of the argument above depends on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Relatively few very overweight people who have dieted down to a new weight tend to continue to consume substantially fewer calories than do people whose normal weight is at that level.
(B) The metabolisms of people who are usually not overweight are much more able to vary than the metabolisms of people who have been very overweight.
(C) The amount of calories that a person usually burns in a day is determined more by the amount that is consumed that day than by the current weight of the individual.
(D) Researchers have not yet determined whether the metabolic rates of formerly very overweight individuals can be accelerated by means of chemical agents.
(E) Because of the constancy of their metabolic rates, people who are at their usual weight normally have as much difficulty gaining weight as they do losing it.

Can some explain how to tackle assumption efficiently...thanks


In my humble opinion spend some time on the premise instead of jumping on to the answers. The premise is saying that 'since the metabolism of the overweight people is less than the normal people at that weight, the overweight people who have reduced their weight by dieting will eventually gain the weight'. If you just think about this then only possibility which can make the premise true is if the people who reduced their weight eat the equivalent calories that the normal people at that weight eat. since overwieght people already have low metabolism, they will not burn much and store as fat.

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chiccufrazer1 wrote:
would you please explain a little bit more on how negation works and how useful it is when tackling questions like these..thanks

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It's something we call the ANT (Assumption Negation Technique)
To understand it, you first need to understand what an assumption is. An assumption is a necessary missing premise. Premises support the conclusion. An assumption is also a premise but it is not given in the argument. Additionally, it is a necessary premise for the conclusion to hold true.

Say, take a simple example:

You are studying very hard. You are putting in 10 hrs a day. You work your way through many questions every day. You will pass the test.

Premises:
You are studying very hard.
You are putting in 10 hrs a day.
You work your way through many questions every day.

Conclusion:
You will pass the test.

Assumption:
Is there a premise you NEED to make the conclusion hold?
"Hard work is sufficient to pass the test"

This is an assumption the author is making. He hasn't said this as such in his argument but he is assuming it. He is assuming that hard work is enough to pass.

The argument would be more complete if it looked like this:
You are studying very hard. You are putting in 10 hrs a day. You work your way through many questions every day. Hard work is sufficient to pass the test. Hence, you will pass the test.

What if I negate this assumption and make it: "Hard work is not sufficient to pass the test"
Can my conclusion still hold?
So you are studying very hard but hard work alone may not be enough. Can I say that you will pass the test? No. This is the point of negating the assumption. If the assumption is negated, the conclusion cannot hold. It is necessary that the assumption must hold if the conclusion has to hold.

If you negate an option and there is still a possibility that the conclusion can hold, it means the option is not an assumption.
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