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S93-07, S93-08, S93-09

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S93-07, S93-08, S93-09 [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 00:47
Although epidemics are often triggered by bacteria and viruses that have undergone genetic mutations, as was the case with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), which mutated into a harmful virus when it was transmitted from monkeys to humans, outbreaks of other diseases are caused by bacteria and viruses whose genetic make-ups have not undergone significant changes. In many cases, such diseases spread as a result of social factors.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a preventable and treatable disease that continues to infect thousands of Americans each year. The widespread global utilization of the BCG vaccine and antibiotics, in addition to generally improved public health, led to a dramatic reduction in both the number of deaths attributed to tuberculosis globally and in the economic burden of the disease between 1940 and 1980. But the short-term success of these tools led to complacency and a decreased interest on the part of governments and pharmaceutical companies in TB research and development. What resulted in the late 1980s in the United States, spurred by the spread of HIV and by the increase in homelessness, incarceration, and intravenous drug use, was a 20 percent increase in TB rates. These TB outbreaks were difficult to control and extremely costly, given that the health infrastructure for dealing with the infection had been allowed to deteriorate due to a lack of funding. In New York City alone, more than $1 billion was needed to regain control of TB.

Today, the United States faces three significant challenges to the elimination of TB. First, our progress in reducing the TB case rate in the United States has stalled. Between 1993 and 2000, the nation's TB rate fell by 7.3 percent, but from 2000 to 2006, the rate of decline slowed to 3.8 percent. This is occuring at a time when domestic TB control categorical funding has been stagnant for a decade. As the history of TB in the United States has demonstrated, complacency and neglect of TB control programs can lead to costly resurgences of the disease.
1. According to the passage, the rise in tuberculosis cases in the late 1980s occurred for which of the following reasons?

(a) The bacteria that causes tuberculosis mutated.
(b) There was an increase in various risky behaviors.
(c) It became costly to control TB outbreaks.
(d) The infrastructure for dealing with TB had deteriorated.
(e) There was a sudden downturn in the economy.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


2. It can be inferred from the passage that HIV affected monkeys in which of the following ways?

(a) it kills them
(b) it alters their genetic makeups
(c) it does not negatively impact them
(d) it is transmitted from one monkey to another
(e) it spreads as a result of social factors
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


3. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

(a) A phenonemon is discussed, problems associated with this phenomenon are laid out, and a warning is issued about the extent of the problems
(b) A phenomenon is discussed, an example of this phenomenon is given, and statistical evidence about the phenomenon is offered
(c) A phenomenon is discussed, a warning is issued about this phenomenon, and statistics are offered to support this warning
(d) A phenomenon is discussed and an example of this phenomenon is given, followed by a counterexample
(e) A phenomenon is discussed, an example of this phenomenon is given, and a warning is issued on the basis of statistics about this example
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


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Re S93-07, S93-08, S93-09 [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 00:47
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question S93-07 explanation
The question asks for information explicitly stated in the passage, although in slightly different language. Look at the second paragraph where the rise in tuberculosis cases that occurred in the late 1980s is discussed. The rise was spurred by the spread of HIV and the increase in homelessness, incarceration, and intravenous drug use.

Choice A states that the bacteria responsible for tuberculosis mutated. The passage states the opposite.

Choice B states that there was a rise in at-risk populations. The passage says that the rise was spurred by an increase in the number of people infected with HIV, the number of people who were homeless, the number of prisoners, and the number of intravenous drug users-populations evidently at risk for contracting tuberculosis. Choice B is correct.

Choice C states that it became expensive to control TB outbreaks. This says nothing about the cause of TB outbreaks.

Choice D states that the infrastructure for dealing with TB had deteriorated. Again, this says nothing about the cause of TB outbreaks.

Choice E states that there was a sudden decline in the economy. The passage says nothing about an economic decline.
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question S93-08 explanation
To make an inference about HIV and monkeys, examine the discussion about HIV and monkeys in the first paragraph. HIV mutated into a harmful virus when it was transmitted from monkeys to humans. It is logical to infer that because HIV mutated into a harmful disease when it was transmitted to humans, it was not harmful prior to this transmission.

Choice A, HIV kills monkeys, is not a logical inference because the passage implies that HIV is not harmful to monkeys.

Choice B, HIV alters the genetic makeups of monkeys, does not make sense because the passage only discusses the genetic mutations of diseases, not the organisms they affect.

Choice C, HIV does not negatively impact monkeys, can be logically inferred because the passage implies that the virus was not harmful before it was transmitted from monkeys to humans. Choice C is correct.

Choice D, HIV is transmitted from one monkey to another, is irrelevant because the passage says nothing about HIV transmission among monkeys.

Choice E, HIV spreads among monkeys as a result of social factors, is also irrelevant because the passage says nothing about social factors in monkey populations.
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question S93-09 explanation
Analyze the structure of the passage in order to answer a question about how the passage is organized. The passage begins by explaining that some epidemics are not caused by genetic mutations in bacteria and viruses, but rather by social conditions. A specific example, tuberculosis, is used to support this general statement and a warning, based on statistical evidence, is made about tuberculosis.

Choice A: Tuberculosis is an example of the phenomenon that is laid out, not a problem associated with it, and the warning about TB has nothing to do with the extent of TB.

Choice B: Statistical evidence is given about tuberculosis, not the tendency of epidemics to be caused by social factors rather than genetic mutations, which is the phenomenon laid out at the beginning of the passage.

Choice C: A warning is issued about tuberculosis, not the tendency of epidemics to be caused by social factors rather than genetic mutations.

Choice D: There is no counterexample to the example of tuberculosis.

Choice E: This accurately describes the structure of the passage laid out above.

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Collection of Questions:
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DS: 1. DS tough questions; 2. DS tough questions part 2; 3. DS tough questions part 3; 4. DS Standard deviation; 5. Inequalities; 6. 700+ GMAT Data Sufficiency Questions With Explanations; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 The Discreet Charm of the DS; 9 Devil's Dozen!!!; 10 Number Properties set., 11 New DS set.


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Re: S93-07, S93-08, S93-09 [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2016, 10:15
Risky Behavior :the increase in homelessness, incarceration, and intravenous drug use.
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Re: S93-07, S93-08, S93-09 [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2016, 10:16
HIV does not negatively impact monkeys.
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Re: S93-07, S93-08, S93-09 [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2016, 10:18
A phenomenon(epidemics) is discussed, an example of this phenomenon(TB) is given, and a warning(complacency and neglect of TB control programs can lead to costly resurgences of the disease) is issued on the basis of statistics about this example
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Re: S93-07, S93-08, S93-09 [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2017, 07:04
i feel this is a low quality question

the answer choice B states "risky behaivours" not "at risk populations" as mentioned in the explanation. Also, homelessness is not a risky behaviour and neither is incarceration, nor HIV. They are at risk, but this is not one of the answer choices.

I feel D is correct as it directly matches the passage word for word

"What resulted in the late 1980s in the United States, spurred by the spread of HIV and by the increase in homelessness, incarceration, and intravenous drug use, was a 20 percent increase in TB rates. These TB outbreaks were difficult to control and extremely costly, given that the health infrastructure for dealing with the infection had been allowed to deteriorate due to a lack of funding."

Thanks
Re: S93-07, S93-08, S93-09   [#permalink] 04 Oct 2017, 07:04
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S93-07, S93-08, S93-09

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