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Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the

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New post 05 Jan 2019, 11:17
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Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the body out of line, can cause heart and lung problems as well as physical deformity


A. a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the body out of line

B. an abnormal curvature of the spine that throws the body out of line

C. a condition of the spine curving abnormally and in which the body is thrown out of line

D. where the body is thrown out of line by an abnormal curvature of the spine

E. a condition of an abnormal curvature of the spine throwing the body out of line

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Re: Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2019, 11:22
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generis : can you please explain why option B is correct?
Can "that" be used to modify slightly away noun/ noun before prepositional phrase? I thought we can use only "which" not "that".
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Re: Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2019, 17:16
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ArupRS - While generis is going to help you in detail, I think you should go through this link to understand usage of 'that'. To be precise for your answer, if there is a prepositional phrase in between, we can say that it can modify a slightly far away noun as well. such as in this case 'curvature ' is referred by 'that'. 'of the spine' is the prepositional phrase. we can ignore that.

My personal take is to look into the meaning of the sentence, and usage of that must not stating multiple meanings. if so this usage should be correct.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... 43686.html
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Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2019, 18:49
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ArupRS wrote:
generis : can you please explain why option B is correct?
Can "that" be used to modify slightly away noun/ noun before prepositional phrase? I thought we can use only "which" not "that".

ArupRS , yes, "that" can modify a slightly far away noun,
although that scenario is fairly rare on the GMAT.
Your question is good. +1
I suspect that people who avoided option B did so because they, too, had doubts.

You are correct: the word "that" is an essential modifier of curvature.
Yes, that can "jump" over the prepositional phrase to the subject.

The underlined portion is an appositive that defines scoliosis.

• At times, just as "which" does, the word "that" must "jump over" a prepositional phrase

Although the GMAT rarely uses a "that" disconnected from its subject,
this question is a good example of a construction in which it is okay for that to be separated from its noun.

The sentence with B inserted:

Scoliosis, an abnormal curvature of the spine that throws the body out of line, can cause heart and lung problems as well as physical deformity.

We have two vital or essential modifiers of "curvature."
(1) of the spine
(2) that throws the body out of line

The first modifier, the prepositional phrase, cannot be placed in a different position.

..an abnormal of the spine curvature :(

..an abnormal curvature that throws the body out of line of the spine :(

• Takeaway: In cases such as this one, "that" can and does modify a subject that is not right next to the word "that."

We understand that the what throws the body out of line is the abnormal curvature.
"The spine" does not throw the body out of line.

In the blog portion of this article , someone asks a question like yours, here.

HERE is the reply by Mike McGarry.
I like the example that he uses.
Correct: This is a book about kangaroos that I found in the library.
mikemcgarry writes "— in that sentence, it’s very clear I found the book, not the kangaroos, in the library." :)

The structure of this sentence (with option B) is very similar. And correct. :)

Hope that helps.
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New post 09 Jan 2019, 20:23
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Bunuel wrote:
Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the body out of line, can cause heart and lung problems as well as physical deformity


A. a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the body out of line

B. an abnormal curvature of the spine that throws the body out of line

C. a condition of the spine curving abnormally and in which the body is thrown out of line

D. where the body is thrown out of line by an abnormal curvature of the spine

E. a condition of an abnormal curvature of the spine throwing the body out of line

• Option A: Use "when" as a relative pronoun only for actual time or time periods
-- to describe a condition, use "in which" instead
-- But do not automatically eliminate answers with a "when" that is not an actual time. Check. Such answers could be a hidden conditional, this way:
----> If it rains, then the grass will get wet. Also correct: WHEN it rains, the grass will get wet. Zero conditionals can and often do contain when because they are always true.
-- In this case, "when" is not a hidden conditional. Use "in which," though the phrase is not as clear as the logic in (B). See (C)

• Option B: correct

• Option C
-- a condition of the is not correct. (Correct: condition "in which")
-- Further, if we put aside the "of the" error, a condition of the spine curving abnormally should state
a condition of the spine's curving abnormally . . .
-- A noun or pronoun placed before a gerund is called the "subject" of the gerund.
-- That noun tells what or who is doing the gerund. The subject of the gerund should be in possessive form. (The construction often sounds weird.)
Linus objected to Sally's stealing his blanket, even though she wanted only to wash it.
-- the gerund is curving. Subject of the gerund: spine (the spine is doing the curving)
- "the spine's curving" is correct

-- Finally, "and in which" is not as clear as the logically direct clause in (B), X that causes Y

• Option D: GMAC is strict—where is used only for actual places.

• Option E
-- for ailments: a condition "of an abnormal curvature of the spine" is unidiomatic and here, nonsensical.
-- We can use "condition of" at times ("on condition of anonymity" or "a condition of the contract"), but for an ailment the idiomatic construction is "a condition in which" or "a condition that"
-- The condition is not OF an abnormal curvature of the spine; the condition IS an abnormal curvature of the spine.

(BTW, if the rest of the sentence were correct, throwing [i.e., that throws] the body out of line would be fine as an essential modifier that is a bit far from its noun "condition," just as "that" is fine in (B).
Any vital modifier can "jump" over a vital prepositional phrase to get to the modifier's subject if meaning is clear and the prepositional phrase cannot be placed differently.)

In correct option B, we have
-- Scoliosis [subject]
-- an abnormal curvature of the spine that throws the body out of line [appositive]
-- can cause problems [verb and object]

Answer B
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Re: Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2019, 03:37
Bunuel wrote:
Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the body out of line, can cause heart and lung problems as well as physical deformity


A. a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the body out of line

B. an abnormal curvature of the spine that throws the body out of line

C. a condition of the spine curving abnormally and in which the body is thrown out of line

D. where the body is thrown out of line by an abnormal curvature of the spine

E. a condition of an abnormal curvature of the spine throwing the body out of line


KAPLAN OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:



B

When should be used only for references to a time, and where should be used only for references to a place, so (A) and (D) are incorrect. (C) and (E) are wordy and awkward.
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Re: Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2019, 05:00
generis wrote:
ArupRS wrote:
generis : can you please explain why option B is correct?
Can "that" be used to modify slightly away noun/ noun before prepositional phrase? I thought we can use only "which" not "that".

ArupRS , yes, "that" can modify a slightly far away noun,
although that scenario is fairly rare on the GMAT.
Your question is good. +1
I suspect that people who avoided option B did so because they, too, had doubts.

You are correct: the word "that" is an essential modifier of curvature.
Yes, that can "jump" over the prepositional phrase to the subject.

The underlined portion is an appositive that defines scoliosis.

• At times, just as "which" does, the word "that" must "jump over" a prepositional phrase

Although the GMAT rarely uses a "that" disconnected from its subject,
this question is a good example of a construction in which it is okay for that to be separated from its noun.

The sentence with B inserted:

Scoliosis, an abnormal curvature of the spine that throws the body out of line, can cause heart and lung problems as well as physical deformity.

We have two vital or essential modifiers of "curvature."
(1) of the spine
(2) that throws the body out of line

The first modifier, the prepositional phrase, cannot be placed in a different position.

..an abnormal of the spine curvature :(

..an abnormal curvature that throws the body out of line of the spine :(

• Takeaway: In cases such as this one, "that" can and does modify a subject that is not right next to the word "that."

We understand that the what throws the body out of line is the abnormal curvature.
"The spine" does not throw the body out of line.

In the blog portion of this article , someone asks a question like yours, here.

HERE is the reply by Mike McGarry.
I like the example that he uses.
Correct: This is a book about kangaroos that I found in the library.
mikemcgarry writes "— in that sentence, it’s very clear I found the book, not the kangaroos, in the library." :)

The structure of this sentence (with option B) is very similar. And correct. :)

Hope that helps.


aragonn Thank you so much.
generis : Thank you so much for sharing the link. Indeed, a stupendous post from mikemcgarry. Even more was the discussion that followed.
Although I saw you guys reply, I had to save the reading for the weekend, because to comprehend these articles, quiet contemplation is required.

Thanks,
Arup
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Re: Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2019, 23:06
Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the body out of line, can cause heart and lung problems as well as physical deformity


A. a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the body out of line --> use of "when" isn't correct here

B. an abnormal curvature of the spine that throws the body out of line --> correct: usage of "that" is correct here to modify the "curvature"

C. a condition of the spine curving abnormally and in which the body is thrown out of line --> "a condition" & "in which" aren't parallel

D. where the body is thrown out of line by an abnormal curvature of the spine --> "where" can't be used as a relative pronoun for a condition(Scoliosis)

E. a condition of an abnormal curvature of the spine throwing the body out of line --> spin doesn't through the bod out of line, the condition does!
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Re: Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2019, 22:00
we do not need "condition" in choice E. so, it is redundant.
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Re: Scoliosis, a condition when the spine curves abnormally and throws the   [#permalink] 30 Mar 2019, 22:00
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