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# Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society,

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Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society,  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2012, 02:12
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48% (01:49) correct 52% (01:48) wrong based on 250 sessions

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Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society, he took the position, which he held for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, proclaiming with Marx that poverty was a crime and the capitalism robbery.
(A) the position, which he held for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody,
(B) the position, and held it for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody,
(C) the position, holding it for the rest of his life, of income being literally and absolutely equal for everybody,
(D) a position that income must be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, and he held it for the rest of his life,
(E) a position that income must be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, holding it for the rest of his life and
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Re: Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2012, 03:50
this is a good question. got carried away with D. Then realized that 'A' it should be.
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Re: Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2012, 07:09
navigator123 wrote:
Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society, he took the position, which he held for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, proclaiming with Marx that poverty was a crime and the capitalism robbery.
(A) the position, which he held for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody,correct usage of "which" modifying the position. Also, correct usage of that again modifying the position
(B) the position, and held it for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody,
pronoun reference of it is unclear
(C) the position, holding it for the rest of his life, of income being literally and absolutely equal for everybody,
--misplaced modifier
(D) a position that income must be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, and he held it for the rest of his life,
pronoun reference of it is unclear
(E) a position that income must be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, holding it for the rest of his life and
pronoun reference of it is unclear

I agree with OA as A, because it describes position crisply. but have a little doubt.

In {B} why cant "it" refer to the position as noun referent, because that is the nearest singular noun available.
Moreover - "he took" {the position}, "and held" are also looking parallel.

Although
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Re: Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2012, 07:34
methevoid wrote:
navigator123 wrote:
Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society, he took the position, which he held for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, proclaiming with Marx that poverty was a crime and the capitalism robbery.
(A) the position, which he held for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody,correct usage of "which" modifying the position. Also, correct usage of that again modifying the position
(B) the position, and held it for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody,
pronoun reference of it is unclear
(C) the position, holding it for the rest of his life, of income being literally and absolutely equal for everybody,
--misplaced modifier
(D) a position that income must be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, and he held it for the rest of his life,
pronoun reference of it is unclear
(E) a position that income must be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, holding it for the rest of his life and
pronoun reference of it is unclear

I agree with OA as A, because it describes position crisply. but have a little doubt.

In {B} why cant "it" refer to the position as noun referent, because that is the nearest singular noun available.
Moreover - "he took" {the position}, "and held" are also looking parallel.

Although

Well in this case 'it' has many referents namely : 'the position' and 'the Fabian Society'

Also, we dont need to parallel took and held as the and has a comma infront of it. ',and' is used for a list like x, y , and z which is not the case here. hence wrong structure.

Hope this helps
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Re: Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2012, 07:50
Isnt't a pronoun supposed to refer the near most noun, in that case - it can refer position, as position is nearer to it than society.
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Re: Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2012, 09:46
methevoid wrote:
Isnt't a pronoun supposed to refer the near most noun, in that case - it can refer position, as position is nearer to it than society.

That is not an absolute rule!

The absolute rule is : THE ANTECEDENT MUST BE UNAMBIGUOUS

in this case it is ambiguous!
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Re: Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2012, 10:59
Does position here refer to an oath kind of thing???
Got confused initially and chose option D in timed mode
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Re: Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2012, 11:35
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Let me weigh in my opinion. The pronoun it has raked in a lively debate with regard to its reference, whether it refer to the Society or the position. A pronoun as I see it is good enough as long as it can pass the logical test. Only when the pronoun has no standing of reasoning, can we dump it as ambiguous or unclear.
In this case, let is replace the pronoun with the Society, one of the hot contenders. Will it be logical to say that George Bernard Shaw held the Fabian Society for the rest of his life? You can now see that the pronoun- it - righteously fits in with the other referent, namely, the position. Therefore, I feel that ambiguity of ‘it’ isn’t the critical decider in this thread. Then what is the decider?

Let’s now delve into the choices.

A. the position, which he held for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, ----- avoids the pronoun pitfall altogether, uses idiomatic expression of introducing the modifier for the noun ‘position’ through a relative clause. Correct choice.

(B) the position, and held it for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody,---- Here holding for the rest of the life is a mere moodier and an inessential modifier at that. To give it equal and parallel status as given to the main verb -took the position- amounts to altering the original meaning

(C) the position, holding it for the rest of his life, of income being literally and absolutely equal for everybody,--- the position of –is at best unidiomatic, if not downrightly awkward.

(D) a position that income must be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, and he held it for the rest of his life, ---- here we must talk about the difference between must and should. The opinion that GBW held was his individual opinon and such individual opinions or judgments which are advisoty or wishful thinkings go best with the modal should. GBW cannot after all command the income to be equal as a universal law.At the sam time, must implies that that it has to be done, come what may; I don’t think the modal –must- aptly reflects the intent of the thread; wrong

(E) a position that income must be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, holding it for the rest of his life and----- same reasoning as in D; wrong
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Re: Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society,  [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2015, 19:58
navigator123 wrote:
Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society, he took the position, which he held for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, proclaiming with Marx that poverty was a crime and the capitalism robbery.

tough one, took me little over 2 mins to crack it.

let's understand the meaning:
after GBS joined FB
He took the position.
the position which he held for the rest of his life.
the position is that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody.
Together with Marx, he proclaimed that poverty was a crime and the capitalism robbery.

the "ing" modifier proclaiming should modify the preceded clause. It does make sense in this case, since he took a position that smth smth. and by taking this position, together with marks, he proclaimed smth.
which modifier correctly used.
"that" is a demonstrative pronoun and is used correctly as well.

(A) the position, which he held for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody,
looks good.

(B) the position, and held it for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody,
this one puts comma before and. Now, if we need to put 2 verbs in parallel, the verbs should be connected properly. in this case, comma is not needed. Moreover, if used in this way, we have an IC right in the middle of the sentence, which doesn't look good because the pronoun that - is very ambiguous now, as the entity which it refers to is not clear.

(C) the position, holding it for the rest of his life, of income being literally and absolutely equal for everybody,
comma + ing modifies the entire clause. here, it is illogical to say that he took a position, and the result is that he held to it for the rest of his life.
position of income ... nope. One more mistake - the should is removed, and this now implies that income is certain literally and absolutely equal for everybody. subtle change of meaning.

(D) a position that income must be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, and he held it for the rest of his life,
a position is not the same as THE position. we have and he held it as IC. now the proclamation with Marks illogically modifies this new IC. Must - I believe changes the meaning.

(E) a position that income must be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, holding it for the rest of his life and
he took a position, and the result he held to it and proclaimed with marks smth. parallelism might fool one to select this answer choice, but the meaning is no longer the same.
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Re: Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society,  [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2018, 22:51
daagh wrote:
Let me weigh in my opinion. The pronoun it has raked in a lively debate with regard to its reference, whether it refer to the Society or the position. A pronoun as I see it is good enough as long as it can pass the logical test. Only when the pronoun has no standing of reasoning, can we dump it as ambiguous or unclear.
In this case, let is replace the pronoun with the Society, one of the hot contenders. Will it be logical to say that George Bernard Shaw held the Fabian Society for the rest of his life? You can now see that the pronoun- it - righteously fits in with the other referent, namely, the position. Therefore, I feel that ambiguity of ‘it’ isn’t the critical decider in this thread. Then what is the decider?

Let’s now delve into the choices.

A. the position, which he held for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, ----- avoids the pronoun pitfall altogether, uses idiomatic expression of introducing the modifier for the noun ‘position’ through a relative clause. Correct choice.

(B) the position, and held it for the rest of his life, that income should be literally and absolutely equal for everybody,---- Here holding for the rest of the life is a mere moodier and an inessential modifier at that. To give it equal and parallel status as given to the main verb -took the position- amounts to altering the original meaning

(C) the position, holding it for the rest of his life, of income being literally and absolutely equal for everybody,--- the position of –is at best unidiomatic, if not downrightly awkward.

(D) a position that income must be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, and he held it for the rest of his life, ---- here we must talk about the difference between must and should. The opinion that GBW held was his individual opinon and such individual opinions or judgments which are advisoty or wishful thinkings go best with the modal should. GBW cannot after all command the income to be equal as a universal law.At the sam time, must implies that that it has to be done, come what may; I don’t think the modal –must- aptly reflects the intent of the thread; wrong

(E) a position that income must be literally and absolutely equal for everybody, holding it for the rest of his life and----- same reasoning as in D; wrong

Daagh,

Your explanation on "it"- the pronoun logical test is awesome. Cleared a number of doubts.

Thanks!!
Re: Shortly after George Bernard Shaw joined the Fabian Society,   [#permalink] 07 Mar 2018, 22:51
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