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# Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest

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Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 17 Mar 2018, 23:02
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Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

(A) because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will

(B) with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target

(C) because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would

(D) due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target

(E) due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

Originally posted by jj32 on 09 May 2008, 13:14.
Last edited by hazelnut on 17 Mar 2018, 23:02, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2012, 03:25
7
November is yet to come and the process of prediction by analysts is continuing; therefore, there is no room for a past tense verb here; So, B, C and E are just out at the first kick. A raise in target is not a matter of command subjunctive; can analysts command the FED? Never. By dropping the word will, the clause is unduly rendered subjunctive. Therefore, D is also out. A, the winner all the way.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2014, 22:50
8
5
Mountain14 wrote:
Can we have " Due to " rather than " because" in option A?

I know due to is used where " Caused by" can be replaced. But isn't due to better than because in this case...

'because of' modifies a verb phrase
'due to' modifies a noun/noun phrase.

Ex:

It is cold in USA because of the polar vortex.
Why is it cold? because of polar vortex.

The cold wave in USA is due to polar vortex.
The cold wave in USA is caused by polar vortex.

Back to the question stem,

Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times because of economy's continued
strength.
Why did the FR raise interest rate? because of economy's continued strength.

If you want to use 'due to', your sentence should look like

The raise in short-term interest rate is due to economy's continued strength.
The raise is caused by economy's continued strength.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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09 May 2008, 17:48
1
jj32 wrote:
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target XXX
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

This one is really hard in a form of easy way.
Some say A. Some say C, some say D.

Someone said the official answer is D, tho I still doubt it... Can anyone come to the rescue here?

I say A
B & C have meaning problem. Both sounds like the analysts used period of weeks to predict.
D is not right either. "predict" is not subjunctive mood!
E has two problems: "due to" is modifying the verb "predicted". "The fact" is redundant.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2011, 19:37
1
1
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

(A) because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
(B) with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
(C) because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
(D) due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
(E) due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

Though he had had success broadcasting his controversial radio program on highly regulated terrestrial airwaves, Howard Stern opted out of terrestrial broadcasting in favor of the less regulated satellite radio medium.
b)Though he has had
c) Even though he had
e) Having achieved

OA=A
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2011, 22:11
1
crick20002002 wrote:
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

Ans : A

Rule - 'due to' in Gmat is synonymous to 'caused by'. As a check, replace 'due to' with 'caused by' in the sentence, if it sounds odd, then stick to the answer option that has 'because'.

crick20002002 wrote:
Though he had had success broadcasting his controversial radio program on highly regulated terrestrial airwaves, Howard Stern opted out of terrestrial broadcasting in favor of the less regulated satellite radio medium.
b)Though he has had
c) Even though he had
e) Having achieved

Ans: A

We are talking about two events here:
1. his success in broadcasting over regulated terrestrial airwaves
2. him opting out of terrestrial broadcasting in favour of something else

Since both events are in the past, with (1) being completed earlier than (2), we use 'had had' when referring to (1).

RULE
i. there must be two events
ii. both events are in the past
iii. use 'had had' with the earlier of the two past events.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2011, 22:13
4
2
Sample 1. Two things leaning more on grammar are important here.
1.Which to use Whether analysts predicted or analysts have been predicting. Considering that, the prediction is still going on and not a competed task, we need to use present progressive tense. So A and D survive.
2. Use of the subjunctive mood verb 'be raised' in the sub clause is inappropriate. Prediction is not a bossy theme to entail the command subjunctive.

Therefore, A is the choice

Sample 2 deals with use of past perfect tense. In the underlined, portion the first ‘had’ denotes the past perfect marker and the second ‘had’ denotes the past participle of the verb ‘have’ meaning ‘achieved’.

a) Though he had had --- use of past perfect is appropriate since he had done so before he opted out - a verb of simple of past ---- correct choice.
b) Though he has had … use of present perfect is wrong when the whole scenario is in past setting.
c) Even though he had … absence of the first [color=#0000FF]had means the sentence is using two simple past tenses for denoting two events that happened at two different times; we need to use past perfect for the earlier event. .. Wrong [/color]
d) Having had ----A contrast marker is essential; Instead of contrast, the clause marks cause and effect … a case of altered intent
e) Having achieved ---- same as D
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2012, 02:28
Can someone please explain why C is wrong?

Thanks!
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2012, 03:29
dianamao wrote:
Can someone please explain why C is wrong?

Thanks!
Diana

There are two problems with C: "continued strong" and "analysts predicted for". The first of these is marginally acceptable in colloquial use, but is slightly unwieldy and therefore unacceptable for the purposes of the GMAT, and particularly so for this question, where there are more suitable answers. The latter, meanwhile, is wrong because it's in the wrong tense; since the analysts predicted a certain target last week, predicted the same target this week, and will probably predict the same target next week, we should employ the present perfect continuous tense - "have been".
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2012, 11:27
will vote for A

Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

Main clause:
the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times

subject: Federal Reserve
verb: has raised (present perfect tense)

subordinate clause: because of the economy’s continued strength [not sure if its a subordinate clause or modifer]
subject: the economy’s [not sure , might be expert can help me with this]
verb: continued [not sure about this, might be expert can help me with this]

main clause:
analysts have been predicting for weeks
subject: analysts
verb: have been predicting

subordinate clause:
"that the target will be raised again in November" modifies verb in main clause "have been predicting"

B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
--> i think the analysts action should be in continued tense and not in simplet past tense.
with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target be raised again in November???

C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
--> i think the analysts action should be in continued tense and not in simplet past tense.

D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
the subordinate clause "that the target raised again in November" cannot be in past tense, because we have the main clause in continued tense "analysts have been predicting for weeks"

E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will
--> i think the analysts action should be in continued tense and not in simplet past tense.
and also sentence is wordy
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2013, 21:12
gmatopoeia wrote:
crick20002002 wrote:
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

Ans : A

Rule - 'due to' in Gmat is synonymous to 'caused by'. As a check, replace 'due to' with 'caused by' in the sentence, if it sounds odd, then stick to the answer option that has 'because'.

crick20002002 wrote:
Though he had had success broadcasting his controversial radio program on highly regulated terrestrial airwaves, Howard Stern opted out of terrestrial broadcasting in favor of the less regulated satellite radio medium.
b)Though he has had
c) Even though he had
e) Having achieved

Ans: A

We are talking about two events here:
1. his success in broadcasting over regulated terrestrial airwaves
2. him opting out of terrestrial broadcasting in favour of something else

Since both events are in the past, with (1) being completed earlier than (2), we use 'had had' when referring to (1).

RULE
i. there must be two events
ii. both events are in the past
iii. use 'had had' with the earlier of the two past events.

Due to = caused by, excellent, thank you!

but cannot agree with the rule for "had had", it's too generic. Ex: we went out, rain caugth us. No need for "had gone" for 1st verb, since it's just a sequence of events.
But in the example above, "had had" refers to "accomplishemet", that's why it's used. Excellent explanation by daagh!
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2014, 22:35
Can we have " Due to " rather than " because" in option A?

I know due to is used where " Caused by" can be replaced. But isn't due to better than because in this case...
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2014, 15:54
sivasanjeev wrote:
Mountain14 wrote:
Can we have " Due to " rather than " because" in option A?

I know due to is used where " Caused by" can be replaced. But isn't due to better than because in this case...

'because of' modifies a verb phrase
'due to' modifies a noun/noun phrase.

Ex:

It is cold in USA because of the polar vortex.
Why is it cold? because of polar vortex.

The cold wave in USA is due to polar vortex.
The cold wave in USA is caused by polar vortex.

Back to the question stem,

Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times because of economy's continued
strength.
Why did the FR raise interest rate? because of economy's continued strength.

If you want to use 'due to', your sentence should look like

The raise in short-term interest rate is due to economy's continued strength.
The raise is caused by economy's continued strength.

Thanks.... Your examples helped me.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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09 Jan 2014, 18:17
it should be A. 1.because main clause :present perfect tense. 2. process of prediction is going on .so we should use present perfect continuous.
3.predict is not subjunctive and 'will be' modifies the preceding present perfect tense.
4.Use of “due to” is not correct and due to should not be used in place of caused by.it does not give out very logical meaning. We need “will” after target because “predict” does not require subjunctive.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2016, 07:06
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

IM-Should nt choice c be correct,

-it makes sense to use simple past tense and use would with the same.
-in choice e, the analysts have been predicting, is understandable but how can someone predict about the future using the word "will", since its a prediction should'nt it be would.

I would request you to post a detailed solution as I have other problems in this question too.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2016, 10:03
Hi Sahil,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

Choice cannot be the correct answer. The sentence clearly says that Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times. This means that at present also, the raised interest continues.

Then the sentence says that the analysts have been predicting for weeks. Use of present perfect continuous tense is absolutely correct because the analysts started the action of predicting in the recent past, and the action is still continued. This prediction is being made about an even that is going to take place in the future for the reason that the economy in the present is strong. If the cause is written in the present tense, how can the effect take place in the past?

So please take into consideration of the context of the sentence to decide the correct verb tense.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2016, 02:13

Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target TENSE MISMATCH
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would TENSE MISTACH
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target CAN'T MODIFY A CALUSE; ONLY NOUNS
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target willCAN'T MODIFY A CALUSE; ONLY NOUNS
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2016, 09:54
daagh wrote:
November is yet to come and the process of prediction by analysts is continuing; therefore, there is no room for a past tense verb here; So, B, C and E are just out at the first kick. A raise in target is not a matter of command subjunctive; can analysts command the FED? Never. By dropping the word will, the clause is unduly rendered subjunctive. Therefore, D is also out. A, the winner all the way.

hi daagh,

aprreciate ur inouts on this question .Although i marked A have some doubts for C

after reading the option C for first time i think it lacked 'have' (analysts have predicted )

if have was there in C was C also correct?
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2016, 00:48
hsbinfy wrote:
daagh wrote:
November is yet to come and the process of prediction by analysts is continuing; therefore, there is no room for a past tense verb here; So, B, C and E are just out at the first kick. A raise in target is not a matter of command subjunctive; can analysts command the FED? Never. By dropping the word will, the clause is unduly rendered subjunctive. Therefore, D is also out. A, the winner all the way.

hi daagh,

aprreciate ur inouts on this question .Although i marked A have some doubts for C

after reading the option C for first time i think it lacked 'have' (analysts have predicted )

if have was there in C was C also correct?

No, the present perfect tense (e.g. have predicted) is used to refer to an action that happened in the past but whose effect is still present. Nonethelesss, if the action is still continuing to happen in the present then a present perfect continuous tense (have been predicting) is preferred in order to emphasise the on-going aspect of the verb.

With phrases such as "for 10 months", "since Tuesday" etc., the present perfect continous fits better.
I have deen feeling this pain since last Friday... (means I am still feeling)
He has been studying for the last 2 hours.... ( means he is still sick)
BUT
I have felt the pain. (means I felt the pain in past, but the effect of the feeling is still there)
He has studied. (means he studied in past, but the effect of studying is still there)
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2016, 05:19
jj32 wrote:
Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will
B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target
C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would
D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target
E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will

A. because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will. The sentence is in 'present perfect' tense, and hence 'will' form of verb looks perfectly fine. 'because of' is also right. Hold it.

B. with the economy’s strength continuing, analysts predicted for weeks that the target. 'with the economy strength continuing' has meaning issues. Analysts predicted because of economy’s strength continuing?

C. because the economy continues strong, analysts predicted for weeks that the target would. 'predicted' and 'would' are redundant.

D. due to the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target. replace 'due to' with 'caused by', and we will not get the meaning.

E. due to the fact of the economy’s continued strength, analysts predicted for weeks that the target will replace 'due to' with 'caused by', and we will not get the meaning.

A is the answer
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Re: Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest &nbs [#permalink] 24 Jun 2016, 05:19

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