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# Some microbiologists study bacteria in an effort to learn about the

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Manager
Joined: 10 Feb 2015
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GMAT 1: 710 Q48 V38
Some microbiologists study bacteria in an effort to learn about the  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 30 Sep 2018, 04:34
5
00:00

Difficulty:

25% (medium)

Question Stats:

76% (00:53) correct 24% (00:52) wrong based on 301 sessions

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Some microbiologists study bacteria in an effort to learn about the structure of the earliest organic life. A flaw in this strategy is that bacteria are extremely varied. Indeed, any bacterium alive today is at the tail end of a long evolutionary process and has undergone considerable change since the earliest organic life appeared on Earth.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the criticism above of the microbiologists’ strategy?

(A) All bacteria throughout evolutionary history have had a number of important features in common that are absent from other kinds of organisms.

(B) Most ancient strains of bacteria either became extinct or adapted to changing environmental conditions.

(C) All microbiologists study one kind or another of organic life.

(D) Many microbiologists who study today’s bacteria do not draw inferences about the origins of organic life on the basis of their studies.

(E) Even those strains of bacteria that have not significantly evolved in millions of years are importantly different from the first strains of bacteria that appeared on Earth.

Normally, you should be suspicious of answer choices that use extreme language such as “all, “every,” and “only.” In this problem, however, the author’s criticism (analogous to the conclusion) is that “bacteria are extremely varied.”

Weakening that criticism will involve showing that bacteria are NOT extremely varied.

Answer (A) does that effectively, by showing that bacteria as a group share special traits in common that distinguish them from other organisms.

Answers (B) and (E) strengthen the original criticism, not weaken it.

Answers (C) and (D) focus on the microbiologists, but the original argument criticizes the microbiologists’ strategy, not the microbiologists themselves.

Therefore, answers (C) and (D) are out of scope.

Originally posted by rukna on 01 Aug 2015, 05:25.
Last edited by hazelnut on 30 Sep 2018, 04:34, edited 2 times in total.
Formatted the question
Senior Manager
Joined: 01 Nov 2013
Posts: 297
GMAT 1: 690 Q45 V39
WE: General Management (Energy and Utilities)
Re: Some microbiologists study bacteria in an effort to learn about the  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2015, 06:12
3
rukna wrote:
Some microbiologists study bacteria in an effort to learn about the structure of the earliest organic life. A flaw in this strategy is that bacteria are extremely varied. Indeed, any bacterium alive today is at the tail end of a long evolutionary process and has undergone considerable change since the earliest organic life appeared on Earth.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the criticism above of the microbiologists’ strategy?

A. All bacteria throughout evolutionary history have had a number of important features in common that are absent from other kinds of organisms.
B. Most ancient strains of bacteria either became extinct or adapted to changing environmental conditions.
C. All microbiologists study one kind or another of organic life.
D. Many microbiologists who study today’s bacteria do not draw inferences about the origins of organic life on the basis of their studies.
E. Even those strains of bacteria that have not significantly evolved in millions of years are importantly different from the first strains of bacteria that appeared on Earth.

Can someone explain me A and D options.
In A even if bacteria had common features, we are told that they have evolved and we are not sure whether they have common features today or not.

So, i chose best out of worst option D. I Thought if scientist are not drawing inferences then we cant find flaw in their strategies.

Thanks

This question mimics OG 13 Question 43.It is a copy-cat version of the same.

The argument says that the bacteria have undergone CONSIDERABLE change BUT does not say that they have COMPLETELY changed.

Simply put,Option A says that there are some common features left which have not changed.If there are common features, then it really makes sense to study the present bacteria.

Option D is not correct because even if it were true, it will not weaken the argument. The argument does not say that the Microbiologist study the bacteria to find out about the origins of life but only about the structure of the earliest organic life. The microbiologist may know that they can not study these bacteria wrt the origin of life because the bacteria have changed. But this option is not relevant to the study of the structure of the earliest life forms.

Beware of such traps which sound similar but are actually out of scope.

Hope the above helps.

I do not mind Kudos.!!!!!
_________________

Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time.

I hated every minute of training, but I said, 'Don't quit. Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion.-Mohammad Ali

Manager
Joined: 10 Feb 2015
Posts: 107
GMAT 1: 710 Q48 V38
Re: Some microbiologists study bacteria in an effort to learn about the  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2015, 06:38
samichange wrote:
rukna wrote:
Some microbiologists study bacteria in an effort to learn about the structure of the earliest organic life. A flaw in this strategy is that bacteria are extremely varied. Indeed, any bacterium alive today is at the tail end of a long evolutionary process and has undergone considerable change since the earliest organic life appeared on Earth.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the criticism above of the microbiologists’ strategy?

A. All bacteria throughout evolutionary history have had a number of important features in common that are absent from other kinds of organisms.
B. Most ancient strains of bacteria either became extinct or adapted to changing environmental conditions.
C. All microbiologists study one kind or another of organic life.
D. Many microbiologists who study today’s bacteria do not draw inferences about the origins of organic life on the basis of their studies.
E. Even those strains of bacteria that have not significantly evolved in millions of years are importantly different from the first strains of bacteria that appeared on Earth.

Can someone explain me A and D options.
In A even if bacteria had common features, we are told that they have evolved and we are not sure whether they have common features today or not.

So, i chose best out of worst option D. I Thought if scientist are not drawing inferences then we cant find flaw in their strategies.

Thanks

This question mimics OG 13 Question 43.It is a copy-cat version of the same.

The argument says that the bacteria have undergone CONSIDERABLE change BUT does not say that they have COMPLETELY changed.

Simply put,Option A says that there are some common features left which have not changed.If there are common features, then it really makes sense to study the present bacteria.

Option D is not correct because even if it were true, it will not weaken the argument. The argument does not say that the Microbiologist study the bacteria to find out about the origins of life but only about the structure of the earliest organic life. The microbiologist may know that they can not study these bacteria wrt the origin of life because the bacteria have changed. But this option is not relevant to the study of the structure of the earliest life forms.

Beware of such traps which sound similar but are actually out of scope.

Hope the above helps.

I do not mind Kudos.!!!!!

Thanks.
One last point, The option A doesnt say that there are some common features left which have not changed.

I am not sure about this. I dont know whether they have any common features left now or not. It just says that they had common features. This is same confusion I had while answering this question in exam
Senior Manager
Joined: 01 Nov 2013
Posts: 297
GMAT 1: 690 Q45 V39
WE: General Management (Energy and Utilities)
Re: Some microbiologists study bacteria in an effort to learn about the  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2015, 07:18
rukna wrote:

Thanks.
One last point, The option A doesnt say that there are some common features left which have not changed.

I am not sure about this. I dont know whether they have any common features left now or not. It just says that they had common features. This is same confusion I had while answering this question in exam

Option A- All bacteria throughout evolutionary history have had a number of important features in common that are absent from other kinds of organisms.

If there are some features that have been common throughout the evolutionary history , it means that these features have not changed and so the microbiologists can study the modern/recently evolved bacteria and find out/learn something about the old ones.

I would recommend you to go through the OE Of OG 13 Q 43.
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Joined: 27 Apr 2015
Posts: 13
Re: Some microbiologists study bacteria in an effort to learn about the  [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2015, 23:12
A is the best answer as we have to find the flaw in the criticism and not in the strategy of microbiologists.
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Joined: 31 May 2015
Posts: 103
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23 Dec 2017, 02:40
It would be nice if no comments on right or wrong answers would be posted along the gmat questions, it makes the user unconsciously pick an answer based on those comments.
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Re: Some microbiologists study bacteria in an effort to learn about the &nbs [#permalink] 23 Dec 2017, 02:40
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