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Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul

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Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 442, Date: 09-Nov-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simultaneously with Earth from the primordial accretion disc. Although such a hypothesis agrees with the hypothetical model on which our solar system is believed to have been built, it nevertheless remains inherently flawed, as it fails to address the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system and the lack of metallic iron in the Moon's core. Since the amount of metallic iron in the cores of other planetary bodies in our solar system is considerable, the latter finding is especially damaging to the aforementioned theory's credibility. Nevertheless, another, more plausible theory has emerged which accounts for the Moon's formation. Dubbed the Giant Impact Hypothesis, it conjectures that the Moon was created as a result of a collision of the proto-Earth and another large planetary body roughly the size of Mars. Computer simulations have confirmed that such a hypothesis would indeed produce the existing angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system and the small amount of metallic iron that currently exists in the Moon's core. The Giant Impact Hypothesis is further supported by the findings indicating that samples of mantle rock collected from the Moon's surface are similar in their geochemical composition to loose rock on the Earth's surface.

Answer Choice E:
Lunar formation means "how the moon was formed". The passage deals with two possible theories of how the moon as created:
1) first sentence: created simultaneously with Earth from the primordial accretion disc. The passage then goes on to explain the problems with this theory, leading up to:
2) 7th sentence:Nevertheless, another, more plausible theory has emerged which accounts for the Moon's formation. Dubbed the Giant Impact Hypothesis, it conjectures that the Moon was created as a result of a collision of the proto-Earth and another large planetary body roughly the size of Mars. thus the answer is correct.

1. The author's primary purpose is to

A. compare competing theories of the Moon's creation
B. applaud reputable astrophysicists for their theory on lunar formation
C. emphasize scientists' lack of knowledge regarding the Moon's formation
D. show why all theories of the Moon's creation are inherently flawed
E. promote a theory of lunar formation over a competing theory


Answer Choice E. Mantle rock is a component of the Moon's surface, and the passage tells us that it is similar to loose rock, another component, of the Earth's surface.

2. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage about the Moon's surface?

A. It is exactly identical to the Earth's surface in geochemical composition.
B. Its geochemical composition puts the Giant Impact Hypothesis in doubt.
C. Computer simulations show that its geochemical composition is similar to that of Earth.
D. It contains small amounts of metallic iron.
E. Some of its components are similar to those on Earth's surface.


Answer A. Since this theory is weakened by the Moon's lack of iron, we can infer that Earth's core has a large amount of iron in it.

3. What can be inferred about Earth from the first hypothesis mentioned in the passage?

A. Its core contains a high concentration of metallic iron.
B. It was created after the Moon.
C. The Moon was originally part of Earth.
D. The high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system casts doubt on our theories of the age of the Earth.
E. Scientists do not know how the Earth was created.


Answer C. A pair of twins is created simultaneously, just like the Earth and the Moon according to the first hypothesis of the passage.

4. According to the first hypothesis mentioned in the passage, the Moon and the Earth are most similar to which of the following?

A. wheat and bread
B. a parent and a child
C. a pair of twins conceived at the same time
D. Earth and the satellites which orbit around it
E. two cars next to each other on an assembly line



5. Which of the following arguments most closely parallels the reasoning behind the author's analysis of the first hypothesis?

A. Tests revealing that hummingbirds can measure the amount of sugar in nectar have no bearing on the hypothesis that hummingbirds choose the flowers they pollinate.
B. Despite the empirical evidence that queen termites reproduce with many mates, the hypothesis that termite colonies contain a monogamous royal couple should be discounted purely on the basis of its disagreement with the Insect Mating Hypothesis.
C. The hypothesis that dust mites are a cause of asthma should be accepted as fact because it fits with the hypothesis that the fecal matter of insects contain allergenic enzymes.
D. Despite speculations that blowfish are similar to chameleons, the theory that blowfish use camouflage to defend themselves has been cast into doubt because of recent findings that their particular form of movement influences their natural defenses.
E. Although tests have shown that entognatha are similar to secondary insects, scientists need more evidence to disprove the theory that they are derived from winged ancestors.



6. The author cites a lack of metallic iron in the Moon's core in order to

A. describe a hypothesis discussed in the passage
B. explain the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system
C. support a theory discussed in the passage
D. agree with the model of our solar system mentioned in the passage
E. explain why a theory discussed in the passage is faulty



7. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage about other planetary bodies?

A. The amount of metallic iron in their cores casts doubt on the Giant Impact Hypothesis.
B. Scientists have cast doubt on a theory of their creation.
C. The amount of metallic iron in their cores discredits the theory that the Moon and the Earth were created at the same time.
D. They were created simultaneously with the Earth.
E. They have a negligible amount of metallic iron in their cores.



8. If the Giant Impact Hypothesis is true, what may be inferred about the Moon?

A. It is older than Earth.
B. It is smaller than Earth and Mars.
C. It is roughly the size of Mars.
D. It was created at the same time as Earth.
E. It was created from material that was originally part of Earth.


Originally posted by reto on 29 Jul 2015, 11:05.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 09 Nov 2019, 09:30, edited 6 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (492).
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Re: Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 01:38
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reto wrote:
Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simultaneously with Earth from the primordial accretion disc. Although such a hypothesis agrees with the hypothetical model on which our solar system is believed to have been built, it nevertheless remains inherently flawed, as it fails to address the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system and the lack of metallic iron in the Moon's core. Since the amount of metallic iron in the cores of other planetary bodies in our solar system is considerable, the latter finding is especially damaging to the aforementioned theory's credibility. Nevertheless, another, more plausible theory has emerged which accounts for the Moon's formation. Dubbed the Giant Impact Hypothesis, it conjectures that the Moon was created as a result of a collision of the proto-Earth and another large planetary body roughly the size of Mars. Computer simulations have confirmed that such a hypothesis would indeed produce the existing angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system and the small amount of metallic iron that currently exists in the Moon's core. The Giant Impact Hypothesis is further supported by the findings indicating that samples of mantle rock collected from the Moon's surface are similar in their geochemical composition to loose rock on the Earth's surface.
1. The author's primary purpose is to

A. compare competing theories of the Moon's creation
B. applaud reputable astrophysicists for their theory on lunar formation
C. emphasize scientists' lack of knowledge regarding the Moon's formation
D. show why all theories of the Moon's creation are inherently flawed
E. promote a theory of lunar formation over a competing theory

Answer Choice E:
Lunar formation means "how the moon was formed". The passage deals with two possible theories of how the moon as created:
1) first sentence: created simultaneously with Earth from the primordial accretion disc. The passage then goes on to explain the problems with this theory, leading up to:
2) 7th sentence:Nevertheless, another, more plausible theory has emerged which accounts for the Moon's formation. Dubbed the Giant Impact Hypothesis, it conjectures that the Moon was created as a result of a collision of the proto-Earth and another large planetary body roughly the size of Mars. thus the answer is correct.


2. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage about the Moon's surface?

A. It is exactly identical to the Earth's surface in geochemical composition.
B. Its geochemical composition puts the Giant Impact Hypothesis in doubt.
C. Computer simulations show that its geochemical composition is similar to that of Earth.
D. It contains small amounts of metallic iron.
E. Some of its components are similar to those on Earth's surface.

Answer Choice E. Mantle rock is a component of the Moon's surface, and the passage tells us that it is similar to loose rock, another component, of the Earth's surface.


3. What can be inferred about Earth from the first hypothesis mentioned in the passage?

A. Its core contains a high concentration of metallic iron.
B. It was created after the Moon.
C. The Moon was originally part of Earth.
D. The high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system casts doubt on our theories of the age of the Earth.
E. Scientists do not know how the Earth was created.

Answer A. Since this theory is weakened by the Moon's lack of iron, we can infer that Earth's core has a large amount of iron in it.


4. According to the first hypothesis mentioned in the passage, the Moon and the Earth are most similar to which of the following?

A. wheat and bread
B. a parent and a child
C. a pair of twins conceived at the same time
D. Earth and the satellites which orbit around it
E. two cars next to each other on an assembly line

Answer C. A pair of twins is created simultaneously, just like the Earth and the Moon according to the first hypothesis of the passage.



Took 6:54 minutes!
All correct!

My take-

1. The author's primary purpose is to[/b]

A. compare competing theories of the Moon's creation- not comparing! Author supports the second theory hands down!
B. applaud reputable astrophysicists for their theory on lunar formation-OFS
C. emphasize scientists' lack of knowledge regarding the Moon's formation-No, partial scope.
D. show why all theories of the Moon's creation are inherently flawed-No, not all!
E. promote a theory of lunar formation over a competing theory-Perfect, he selected second theory over one!

Answer Choice E:
Lunar formation means "how the moon was formed". The passage deals with two possible theories of how the moon as created:
1) first sentence: created simultaneously with Earth from the primordial accretion disc. The passage then goes on to explain the problems with this theory, leading up to:
2) 7th sentence:Nevertheless, another, more plausible theory has emerged which accounts for the Moon's formation. Dubbed the Giant Impact Hypothesis, it conjectures that the Moon was created as a result of a collision of the proto-Earth and another large planetary body roughly the size of Mars. thus the answer is correct.


2. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage about the Moon's surface?

A. It is exactly identical to the Earth's surface in geochemical composition.-No, it lacks metallic core unlike Earth!
B. Its geochemical composition puts the Giant Impact Hypothesis in doubt.-No, OFS
C. Computer simulations show that its geochemical composition is similar to that of Earth.-Computer simulations dont show this!
D. It contains small amounts of metallic iron.-Moon's surface doesnt contain metallic iron, its core does!
E. Some of its components are similar to those on Earth's surface.-True, refer "samples of mantle rock collected from the Moon's surface are similar in their geochemical composition to loose rock on the Earth's surface."

Answer Choice E. Mantle rock is a component of the Moon's surface, and the passage tells us that it is similar to loose rock, another component, of the Earth's surface.


3. What can be inferred about Earth from the first hypothesis mentioned in the passage?

A. Its core contains a high concentration of metallic iron.-Correct refer "Since the amount of metallic iron in the cores of other planetary bodies in our solar system is considerable"
B. It was created after the Moon.-No, opposite!
C. The Moon was originally part of Earth.-No, created simultaneously!
D. The high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system casts doubt on our theories of the age of the Earth.-OFS, age of earth is not questioned anywhere.
E. Scientists do not know how the Earth was created.-No, they know"primordial accretion disc"(whatever the hell that means! :D)

Answer A. Since this theory is weakened by the Moon's lack of iron, we can infer that Earth's core has a large amount of iron in it.


4. According to the first hypothesis mentioned in the passage, the Moon and the Earth are most similar to which of the following?

A. wheat and bread-Nopes!one is not derived from other! They are created at the same time!
B. a parent and a child-Nopes
C. a pair of twins conceived at the same time-Correct!
D. Earth and the satellites which orbit around it-Nopes
E. two cars next to each other on an assembly line-Nopes

[spoiler=]Answer C. A pair of twins is created simultaneously, just like the Earth and the Moon according to the first hypothesis of the passage.
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Re: Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 07:49
Passage Map:

Astrophysicists proposal about Moon fomation is flawed because it does not address 2 things

1. high angular momentum b/w earth and moon

2. lack of iron in the core of moon

Gaint impact theory:Moon is formed due to collision of earth and planetary body

computer simulation supports gaint impact theory

composition of rock samples supports the theory

Primary Purpose:Author supports gaint impact theory over Astrophysicts theory
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Re: Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2018, 11:10
Nice passage, All correct in 6 mins, including 2 mins 40 seconds to read
1. The author's primary purpose is to
A. compare competing theories of the Moon's creation - Incorrect - the Giant Impact Hypothesis is better while the first theory is flawed
B. applaud reputable astrophysicists for their theory on lunar formation - Incorrect
C. emphasize scientists' lack of knowledge regarding the Moon's formation - Incorrect
D. show why all theories of the Moon's creation are inherently flawed - Incorrect
E. promote a theory of lunar formation over a competing theory - Correct - the author promotes Giant Impact Hypothesis over the theory that states that the Moon was created simultaneously with Earth from the primordial accretion disc.
Answer E

2. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage about the Moon's surface?
A. It is exactly identical to the Earth's surface in geochemical composition. - Incorrect - samples of mantle rock collected from the Moon's surface are similar in their geochemical composition to loose rock on the Earth's surface.
B. Its geochemical composition puts the Giant Impact Hypothesis in doubt. - Incorrect - it supports
C. Computer simulations show that its geochemical composition is similar to that of Earth. - Incorrect
D. It contains small amounts of metallic iron. - Incorrect - small amount of metallic iron that currently exists in the Moon's core
E. Some of its components are similar to those on Earth's surface. - Correct - samples of mantle rock collected from the Moon's surface are similar in their geochemical composition to loose rock on the Earth's surface.
Answer E

3. What can be inferred about Earth from the first hypothesis mentioned in the passage?

A. Its core contains a high concentration of metallic iron. - Correct - one of the flaw of first hypothesis is the lack of metallic iron in the Moon's core. Since the amount of metallic iron in the cores of other planetary bodies in our solar system is considerable, the latter finding is especially damaging to the aforementioned theory's credibility.
B. It was created after the Moon. - Incorrect - the Moon was created simultaneously with Earth from the primordial accretion disc
C. The Moon was originally part of Earth. - Incorrect
D. The high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system casts doubt on our theories of the age of the Earth. - Out of scope
E. Scientists do not know how the Earth was created. - Incorrect



4. According to the first hypothesis mentioned in the passage, the Moon and the Earth are most similar to which of the following?
Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simultaneously with Earth from the primordial accretion disc.
A. wheat and bread - Incorrect
B. a parent and a child - Incorrect - no such relationship is mentioned
C. a pair of twins conceived at the same time - Correct
D. Earth and the satellites which orbit around it - Incorrect
E. two cars next to each other on an assembly line - Incorrect - but we don't know whether these cars were manufactured at the same time.

Answer C

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasKarishma , DmitryFarber , ChiranjeevSingh , other experts - is option E incorrect because we don't know whether the two adjacent cars were manufactured simultaneously?
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Re: Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2018, 17:10
Skywalker18 wrote:
4. According to the first hypothesis mentioned in the passage, the Moon and the Earth are most similar to which of the following?
Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simultaneously with Earth from the primordial accretion disc.
A. wheat and bread - Incorrect
B. a parent and a child - Incorrect - no such relationship is mentioned
C. a pair of twins conceived at the same time - Correct
D. Earth and the satellites which orbit around it - Incorrect
E. two cars next to each other on an assembly line - Incorrect - but we don't know whether these cars were manufactured at the same time.

Answer C

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasKarishma , DmitryFarber , ChiranjeevSingh , other experts - is option E incorrect because we don't know whether the two adjacent cars were manufactured simultaneously?

Hi Skywalker18,

Yes, in a sense -- two adjacent cars in an assembly line means that one was manufactured immediately before the other one. That isn't the case here, where we're talking about two things that were created at exactly the same time. So if one was right after the other, they weren't created at the same time.

Hope that helps! :)
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Re: Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Feb 2019, 09:07
1
Hi SajjadAhmad
please add the following question to the passage

q. Which of the following arguments most closely parallels the reasoning behind the author's analysis of the first hypothesis?

A. Tests revealing that hummingbirds can measure the amount of sugar in nectar have no bearing on the hypothesis that hummingbirds choose the flowers they pollinate.

B. Despite the empirical evidence that queen termites reproduce with many mates, the hypothesis that termite colonies contain a monogamous royal couple should be discounted purely on the basis of its disagreement with the Insect Mating Hypothesis.

C. The hypothesis that dust mites are a cause of asthma should be accepted as fact because it fits with the hypothesis that the fecal matter of insects contain allergenic enzymes.

D. Despite speculations that blowfish are similar to chameleons, the theory that blowfish use camouflage to defend themselves has been cast into doubt because of recent findings that their particular form of movement influences their natural defenses.

E. Although tests have shown that entognatha are similar to secondary insects, scientists need more evidence to disprove the theory that they are derived from winged ancestors.




could not solve this one. Can somebody help? How do you tackle this kind of question?
Thanks
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Re: Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2019, 17:54
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PeepalTree wrote:
Hi SajjadAhmad
please add the following question to the passage

q. Which of the following arguments most closely parallels the reasoning behind the author's analysis of the first hypothesis?

A. Tests revealing that hummingbirds can measure the amount of sugar in nectar have no bearing on the hypothesis that hummingbirds choose the flowers they pollinate.

B. Despite the empirical evidence that queen termites reproduce with many mates, the hypothesis that termite colonies contain a monogamous royal couple should be discounted purely on the basis of its disagreement with the Insect Mating Hypothesis.

C. The hypothesis that dust mites are a cause of asthma should be accepted as fact because it fits with the hypothesis that the fecal matter of insects contain allergenic enzymes.

D. Despite speculations that blowfish are similar to chameleons, the theory that blowfish use camouflage to defend themselves has been cast into doubt because of recent findings that their particular form of movement influences their natural defenses.

E. Although tests have shown that entognatha are similar to secondary insects, scientists need more evidence to disprove the theory that they are derived from winged ancestors.




could not solve this one. Can somebody help? How do you tackle this kind of question?
Thanks

Hi PeepalTree,

Glad to help! :)

To approach questions like these, we want to break the options down into very simple terms. Here's the author's analysis of the first hypothesis:

Quote:
Although such a hypothesis agrees with the hypothetical model on which our solar system is believed to have been built, it nevertheless remains inherently flawed, as it fails to address the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system and the lack of metallic iron in the Moon's core. Since the amount of metallic iron in the cores of other planetary bodies in our solar system is considerable, the latter finding is especially damaging to the aforementioned theory's credibility.


Basically, the author is saying that the hypothesis is flawed because of scientific findings that are incompatible with the hypothesis. So, to answer this question, we want to find an answer choice that follows this same line of reasoning. Let's go through the answer choices:

Quote:
A. Tests revealing that hummingbirds can measure the amount of sugar in nectar have no bearing on the hypothesis that hummingbirds choose the flowers they pollinate.

This is saying that the hypothesis is unaffected by the scientific findings, which is not what we want -- INCORRECT

Quote:
B. Despite the empirical evidence that queen termites reproduce with many mates, the hypothesis that termite colonies contain a monogamous royal couple should be discounted purely on the basis of its disagreement with the Insect Mating Hypothesis.

This is saying that the scientific findings should be ignored, and that there is a different reason to doubt the hypothesis. This is not really what we want -- INCORRECT

Quote:
C. The hypothesis that dust mites are a cause of asthma should be accepted as fact because it fits with the hypothesis that the fecal matter of insects contain allergenic enzymes.

This is saying that the hypothesis is correct because it is supported by the scientific evidence, which is not what we want -- INCORRECT

Quote:
D. Despite speculations that blowfish are similar to chameleons, the theory that blowfish use camouflage to defend themselves has been cast into doubt because of recent findings that their particular form of movement influences their natural defenses.

This says that the hypothesis is flawed because of recent scientific findings. This is the same as the author's analysis -- CORRECT

Quote:
E. Although tests have shown that entognatha are similar to secondary insects, scientists need more evidence to disprove the theory that they are derived from winged ancestors.

This says that there is not enough evidence to discount the hypothesis -- INCORRECT

So really all we're trying to do here is break down the original passage and answer choices into simple forms, and see which ones match. If there were multiple answer choices that fit the same format, then we'd have to go into a little detail. But since there's only one, answer choice D, we have our answer.

I hope that helps! :)
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Re: Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2019, 09:32
Added three fresh questions (Q# 6, 7 and 8) and included the passage into RC butler project.
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Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2019, 10:58
#5 - On B versus D, I cannot seem to wrap my head around why D is correct....if it isn't obvious, I chose B :

Can someone help me understand my faults?

My reasoning:

B - The passage uses empirical evidence (high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system and the lack of metallic iron in the Moon's core) to disclaim the hypothesis that the Earth and Moon were simultaneously created.

D - While the first hypothesis is technically speculation, nothing in the passage suggests that the evidence (high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system and the lack of metallic iron in the Moon's core) is recent. It simply exists, so I decided against D.
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Re: Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2019, 21:18
Can anyone pls explain the answer of q7? I don't understand y d is wrong, because in the first hypothesis it is not mentioned that the notion that the earth and moon were created same time is false. Instead, the author agreed that they were created same time, but the first hypothesis doesn't include the matter of angular notion and iron.

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Re: Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2019, 09:15
Hea234ven wrote:
Can anyone pls explain the answer of q7? I don't understand y d is wrong, because in the first hypothesis it is not mentioned that the notion that the earth and moon were created same time is false. Instead, the author agreed that they were created same time, but the first hypothesis doesn't include the matter of angular notion and iron.

Posted from my mobile device


To answer this Detail question, we need to read the third sentence of the passage in which the author mentions other planetary bodies and look for what is stated. We learn two things from this sentence: (a) they have a considerable, or plentiful, amount of metallic iron in their cores and (b) this fact is damaging to the aforementioned theory.

The passage mentions that a theory of the Moon's creation, not of the other planetary bodies, has been discredited.
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Re: Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul   [#permalink] 12 Nov 2019, 09:15

Some reputable astrophysicists propose that the Moon was created simul

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