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# Studies of trauma victims suggest that shock brought on by

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Manager
Joined: 30 Jun 2004
Posts: 158
Location: Singapore
Studies of trauma victims suggest that shock brought on by [#permalink]

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03 May 2010, 02:57
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Studies of trauma victims suggest that shock brought on by violent or life-threatening situations causes damage to the hippocampi, structures in the brain that play a crucial role in learning and memory. Researchers found that in combat veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress symptoms, which include nightmares and vivid flashbacks, the hippocampi were eight percent smaller in volume than in combat veterans who suffered no such symptoms. The researchers concluded that the hippocampi had lost cell mass as a result of trauma.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the researchers' conclusion drawn above?

A) In another study, subjects who had experienced the death of a close relative were found to have no reduction in the volume of their hippocampi when compared to those whose close relatives were all still living.
B) In the study, the traumatized veterans were compared with other veterans of similar background, body size, and other characteristics that might have a bearing on brain size.
C) Some individuals are born with hippocampi whose volume is smaller than average, and this reduced volume makes them more susceptible to post¬traumatic stress symptoms.
D) Combat veterans who experience post-traumatic stress symptoms perform significantly worse on tests of verbal memory compared with veterans who suffer no such symptoms.
E) Further study revealed that veterans who had seen more intense combat and had more severe post-traumatic symptoms exhibited even greater reduction in the volume of their hippocampi.
Manager
Joined: 13 Dec 2009
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Re: Trauma Victims [#permalink]

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03 May 2010, 05:18
tarun wrote:
Studies of trauma victims suggest that shock brought on by violent or life-threatening situations causes damage to the hippocampi, structures in the brain that play a crucial role in learning and memory. Researchers found that in combat veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress symptoms, which include nightmares and vivid flashbacks, the hippocampi were eight percent smaller in volume than in combat veterans who suffered no such symptoms. The researchers concluded that the hippocampi had lost cell mass as a result of trauma.

Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the researchers' conclusion drawn above?

A) In another study, subjects who had experienced the death of a close relative were found to have no reduction in the volume of their hippocampi when compared to those whose close relatives were all still living.
B) In the study, the traumatized veterans were compared with other veterans of similar background, body size, and other characteristics that might have a bearing on brain size.
C) Some individuals are born with hippocampi whose volume is smaller than average, and this reduced volume makes them more susceptible to post¬traumatic stress symptoms.
D) Combat veterans who experience post-traumatic stress symptoms perform significantly worse on tests of verbal memory compared with veterans who suffer no such symptoms.
E) Further study revealed that veterans who had seen more intense combat and had more severe post-traumatic symptoms exhibited even greater reduction in the volume of their hippocampi.

casual reasoning argument can be weaken if we can show that the effect is a cause.
In above argument option C does the same. hence option C weakens the argument most. IMO C
Manager
Joined: 05 Mar 2010
Posts: 182
Re: Trauma Victims [#permalink]

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03 May 2010, 05:45
I narrowed it down to A & C
Both weakens the conclusion

What is the OA?
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Joined: 17 Feb 2010
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Re: Trauma Victims [#permalink]

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04 May 2010, 13:15
I narrowed to B and C.

Actually I did not understand the last part of option B.

after reading other explanation I agree it is C

Conclusion:

Trauma ==> reduces hippocampi (brain size)

option C says

reduced hippocampi (brain size) ==> causes Trauma
Manager
Joined: 20 Apr 2010
Posts: 137
Location: I N D I A
Re: Trauma Victims [#permalink]

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05 May 2010, 00:34
i too narrowed to B and C..

But after reading

Conclusion:

Trauma ==> reduces hippocampi (brain size)

option C says

reduced hippocampi (brain size) ==> causes Trauma
I narrowed to B and C.

Actually I did not understand the last part of option B.

after reading other explanation I agree it is C

Conclusion:

Trauma ==> reduces hippocampi (brain size)

option C says

reduced hippocampi (brain size) ==> causes Trauma

i came down to C... Thanks
Manager
Joined: 24 May 2016
Posts: 165
Studies of trauma victims suggest that shock brought on by [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2016, 11:09
Can anyone please give their view on why option A is correct or wrong?

It is definitely a good candidate.

Thank you.
Verbal Expert
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Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
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Re: Studies of trauma victims suggest that shock brought on by [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2016, 15:12
EBITDA wrote:
Can anyone please give their view on why option A is correct or wrong?

It is definitely a good candidate.

Thank you.

The study is about Trauma victims who were affected by the shock brought on by violent or life-threatening situations, not by the death of close relatives. Therefore A is not relevant.

Correct option is C; the question deals with a frequently used concept about weakening statements.

Premise: X and Y are observed to occur.
Conclusion: X causes Y.
Weakening statement: Y causes X. (and not the other way round)

Here X = post traumatic stress.
Y = smaller hippo-campus.

The passage concludes that trauma causes reduction in size of Hippo-campus.
Option C states smaller hippo-campus causes a person to be susceptible to post-traumatic symptom (and not the other way round).
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Location: United States
GMAT 1: 700 Q49 V33
GPA: 3.64
Re: Studies of trauma victims suggest that shock brought on by [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2018, 09:19
A and D are out of scope.
B and E are strengtheners.
C is left. "some" in C does not indicate exceptional cases, or an opinion. "some individuals" actually refer to an alternative explanation. In other words, "some" in C has nothing to do with the study, but with a theory that weakens the conclusion.
Re: Studies of trauma victims suggest that shock brought on by   [#permalink] 08 Jan 2018, 09:19
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# Studies of trauma victims suggest that shock brought on by

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