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# The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem

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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
Hi - For the below question, i selected A but the OA was C.

Question : why isnt A the right answer ? The following reason is why i picked "A"

wording in passage " according to David Pearce, that illusion stems from the fact that “services” provided by ecological systems are not traded on the commodities market,and thus have no readily quantifiable value"..........

Did not like C because counting the international visitors is quantifiable ...hence eliminated C..

In A, the impact of the good location on the hotel is not countable ...

Thoughts ?

---------------------------------------------

Which of the following most clearly represents an example of an “ecological service” as that term is used in line 20?

A. A resort hotel located in an area noted for its natural beauty
B. A water-purifying plant that supplements natural processes with nontoxic chemicals
C. A wildlife preserve that draws many international travelers
D. A nonprofit firm that specializes in restoring previously damaged ecosystems
E. A newsletter that keeps readers informed of ecological victories and setbacks
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
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jabhatta@umail.iu.edu wrote:
Hi - For the below question, i selected A but the OA was C.

Question : why isnt A the right answer ? The following reason is why i picked "A"

wording in passage " according to David Pearce, that illusion stems from the fact that “services” provided by ecological systems are not traded on the commodities market,and thus have no readily quantifiable value"..........

Did not like C because counting the international visitors is quantifiable ...hence eliminated C..

In A, the impact of the good location on the hotel is not countable ...

Thoughts ?

---------------------------------------------

Which of the following most clearly represents an example of an “ecological service” as that term is used in line 20?

A. A resort hotel located in an area noted for its natural beauty
B. A water-purifying plant that supplements natural processes with nontoxic chemicals
C. A wildlife preserve that draws many international travelers
D. A nonprofit firm that specializes in restoring previously damaged ecosystems
E. A newsletter that keeps readers informed of ecological victories and setbacks

Hi,

It would really help if you look closely at the sentence following your cited one:
"To remedy this, says Pearce, one has to show that all ecosystems have economic value—indeed, that all ecological services are economic services."

--> The "quantifiable value" should be understood from economics perspective. Frankly speaking, it's all about money.

C. A wildlife preserve that draws many international travelers
--> "Tourists visiting wildlife preserves, for example, create jobs and generate income for national economies;" In order to facilitate good services for tourists, many companies specializing in transportation, tour guides and other kinds will emerge, thus creating jobs and generating income for national economies... These economic values cannot be realized immediately, but rather in the long-run. CORRECT

Regarding why option (A) is wrong:

A. A resort hotel located in an area noted for its natural beauty
--> Yes, I agree with you that "In A, the impact of the good location on the hotel is not countable ..." as you said; however, the option should be understood as: "A resort hotel......[modifier]......" most clearly represents an example of an “ecological service”. In other words, "resort hotel", instead of "natural beauty" of its location, is the example this option suggests. As you may know, "resort hotel" is not an "ecosystems". OUT.

The above is just my personal thought. I'm not sure how OG explains the correct answer, so you can read OG for clarification.
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
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I have taken 2mins:15secs to read and write the point of the passage:

I took
110secs - 1st Q - Wrong
70 secs - 2nd Q - Wrong
75 secs - 3rd Q - Right
12 secs - 4th Q - Wrong

The accuracy you see above tells you that I'm not an expert on the Topic. But this is what my analysis of my shortcoming:
Mistake#1:
Reading the passage: Thinking about reading the whole passage in 2mins kills the comprehension ability, I skim all the important decision points. Because of which, I have a different story about the passage in my head.

Q1: This is an inference Question
The context of the passage which you need to know to answer this Q lies between line 15 and 25.
Analysis: Monetization has to elements in it, they are Environment and Economical benefits. So, Our Buddy David believes that Monetization is an environmental conservation strategy and it is difficult to prove the economic benefit of it. So, we should somehow to link this strategy to an economic benefit. And David give two examples to explain the same idea to dumb people like me, who don't understand complex structured sentences.

B- Nowhere in the whole passage, we see testing or not testing a strategy - Eliminate
C- This is complete crap because David told that we have to link the Environmental strategy like monetization to commercial benefits, but this choice talks about restricting to only ecological service. Moreover, GMAT authors think we test takers are idiots and add so heard words like tourism and recreation. Dumbasses like me chose this choice. Like I did, because of the wordings.
E- This choice is a clear NO because David's idea was to portray the ecological goals to commercial benefits - Eliminate

Two devil choices: D Vs A:
A is good till the environmentalists but fails to reference indicate who are these Critics. We generally tend to think critics are opponents to Environmentalists, that not the case. A group of critics may comprise of Environmentalists and Economists. - Eliminate;

D- Correct.

Q2: This is a Specific Details Question
Read line 19 to 20 quickly to get the taste of what is being tested there. So, David believes that Services are ecological only when they provide economic benefits.

A- We are not sure, what is happening with this hotel, is it operating? People prefer to visit that? Are people working? No answers to these questions. - Eliminated
B- See the above reasons mentioned for A, the choices B C E, are all same with a different type of businesses, we are 100% sure that these businesses provide any economic/commercial benefits. Screw them - Eliminated.

But Choice D answers perfectly, Wildlife preserves- preserves wildlife = Environmental benefits & attracts tourist = Commerical benefit. Cool... This is the answer.

Q3: According to the passage,...... ---> Specific Q.
There are two steps to perform to answer a specific Question,
Step1: Find the context, read the lines in the passage.
Step2: Answer choice you choose should comprehend the same as what you comprehended in step1

So, here Context is Daily's idea about monetization. It is easy to locate Names in the passage, with that you can see last 5 lines would be the place to have to read and comprehend.
Frankly speaking, I could comprehend 100% of Daily's idea, but what I could get is the monetization effects human behavior.So, answer choice that talks about human behavior is A.

Q4: This is again an inference Q
Read the line 8 to get the context. My comprehension is that some critics blame environmentalists for the strategy of monetization is not have shown any improvement in conservation.
A- There is no income or financial aspect happened between some critics and environmentalists - Eliminated
B- We don't know about the number that group- Eliminated
D- We don't know who is the front seat and who is at the back - Eliminated
E - This talks about 'Groups' of environmentalists, can you name two names of groups- No then Eliminate this choice

C- references the right spot that Environmentalists sometimes need to take the blame because they might sometimes fail on strategies. - Correct

If you enjoyed and learned from my analysis-Good, but please point out any errors in my analysis. At the end of the day that is what matters the most, LEARNING NEW STUFF.
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
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AbdurRakib wrote:
GMAT® Official Guide 2018

Practice Question
Question No.:
Online test bank question number : RC00344-02 ~ RC00344-06

The argument for “monetizing”—or putting a monetary value on—ecosystem functions may be stated thus: Concern about the depletion of natural resources is widespread, but this concern, in the absence of an economic argument for conservation, has not translated into significant conservational progress. Some critics blame this impasse on environmentalists, whom they believe fail to address the economic issues of environmental degradation. Conservation can appear unprofitable when compared with the economic returns derived from converting natural assets (pristine coastlines, for example) into explicitly commercial ones (such as resort hotels). But according to David Pearce, that illusion stems from the fact that “services” provided by ecological systems are not traded on the commodities market, and thus have no readily quantifiable value. To remedy this, says Pearce, one has to show that all ecosystems have economic value—indeed, that all ecological services are economic services. Tourists visiting wildlife preserves, for example, create jobs and generate income for national economies; undisturbed forests and wetlands regulate water runoff and act as water-purifying systems, saving millions of dollars worth of damage to property and to marine ecosystems. In Gretchen Daily’s view, monetization, while unpopular with many environmentalists, reflects the dominant role that economic considerations play in human behavior, and the expression of economic value in a common currency helps inform environmental decision-making processes.
(Book Question: 415)
1. Information in the passage suggests that David Pearce would most readily endorse which of the following statements concerning monetization?

(A) Monetization represents a strategy that is attractive to both environmentalists and their critics.

(B) Monetization is an untested strategy, but it is increasingly being embraced by environmentalists.

(C) Monetization should at present be restricted to ecological services and should only gradually be extended to such commercial endeavors as tourism and recreation.

(D) Monetization can serve as a means of representing persuasively the value of environmental conservation.

(E) Monetization should inform environmental decision-making processes only if it is accepted by environmentalist groups.

(Book Question: 416)
2. Which of the following most clearly represents an example of an “ecological service” as that term is used in line 20?

(A) A resort hotel located in an area noted for its natural beauty

(B) A water-purifying plant that supplements natural processes with nontoxic chemicals

(C) A wildlife preserve that draws many international travelers

(D) A nonprofit firm that specializes in restoring previously damaged ecosystems

(E) A newsletter that keeps readers informed of ecological victories and setbacks

(Book Question: 417)
3. According to the passage, Daily sees monetization as an indication of which of the following?

(A) The centrality of economic interests to people’s actions

(B) The reluctance of the critics of environmentalism to acknowledge the importance of conservation

(C) The inability of financial interests and ecological interests to reach a common ideological ground

(D) The inevitability of environmental degradation

(E) The inevitability of the growth of ecological services in the future

(Book Question: 418)
4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the environmentalists mentioned in line 8?

(A) They are organized in opposition to the generation of income produced by the sale of ecological services.

(B) They are fewer in number but better organized and better connected to the media than their opponents.

(C) They have sometimes been charged with failing to use a particular strategy in their pursuit of conservational goals.

(D) They have been in the forefront of publicizing the extent of worldwide environmental degradation.

(E) They define environmental progress differently and more conservatively than do other organized groups of environmentalists.

----------------
Did all correct for the first time but it took me 8min30s which is too slow....

1. Information in the passage suggests that David Pearce would most readily endorse which of the following statements concerning monetization?

(A) Monetization represents a strategy that is attractive to both environmentalists and their critics.

(B) Monetization is an untested strategy, but it is increasingly being embraced by environmentalists.

(C) Monetization should at present be restricted to ecological services and should only gradually be extended to such commercial endeavors as tourism and recreation.

(D) Monetization can serve as a means of representing persuasively the value of environmental conservation.=> says Pearce, one has to show that all ecosystems have economic value—indeed, that all ecological services are economic services.

(E) Monetization should inform environmental decision-making processes only if it is accepted by environmentalist groups.

2. Which of the following most clearly represents an example of an “ecological service” as that term is used in line 20?

(A) A resort hotel located in an area noted for its natural beauty

(B) A water-purifying plant that supplements natural processes with nontoxic chemicals

(C) A wildlife preserve that draws many international travelers => one has to show that all ecosystems have economic value—indeed, that all ecological services are economic services. Tourists visiting wildlife preserves, for example, create jobs and generate income for national economies;=> It means that ecological brings money and revenue for the economic system

(D) A nonprofit firm that specializes in restoring previously damaged ecosystems

(E) A newsletter that keeps readers informed of ecological victories and setbacks

3. According to the passage, Daily sees monetization as an indication of which of the following?

(A) The centrality of economic interests to people’s actions => monetization, while unpopular with many environmentalists, reflects the dominant role that economic considerations play in human behavior, and the expression of economic value in a common currency helps inform environmental decision-making processes.

(B) The reluctance of the critics of environmentalism to acknowledge the importance of conservation

(C) The inability of financial interests and ecological interests to reach a common ideological ground

(D) The inevitability of environmental degradation

(E) The inevitability of the growth of ecological services in the future

4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the environmentalists mentioned in line 8?

(A) They are organized in opposition to the generation of income produced by the sale of ecological services.

(B) They are fewer in number but better organized and better connected to the media than their opponents.

(C) They have sometimes been charged with failing to use a particular strategy in their pursuit of conservational goals.

(D) They have been in the forefront of publicizing the extent of worldwide environmental degradation.

(E) They define environmental progress differently and more conservatively than do other organized groups of environmentalists.=> in the absence of an economic argument for conservation, has not translated into significant conservational progress. Some critics blame this impasse on environmentalists, whom they believe fail to address the economic issues of environmental degradation. => This means environmentalists don't concern about economic aspect when running a conservation project

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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
Hi,
GMATNinja mikemcgarry please could you help me with the following OG question

2. Which of the following most clearly represents an example of an ???ecological service??? as that term is used in line 20?

We are looking for an answer choice that shows how the "ecological factors" create some economic value and thus be termed as "ecological services"

(C) it is clear cut an "ecological services" because the wildlife preserve that draws many international travelers will create job opportunity as well as income

But what about (A) A resort does create job opportunities and since it is located in an area of natural beauty can't we say that this natural beauty is responsible for a part of the income generation? and thus be termed as an "ecological service"?

Is this a far fetched assumption?
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
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Hoozan wrote:
Hi,
GMATNinja mikemcgarry please could you help me with the following OG question

2. Which of the following most clearly represents an example of an ???ecological service??? as that term is used in line 20?

We are looking for an answer choice that shows how the "ecological factors" create some economic value and thus be termed as "ecological services"

(C) it is clear cut an "ecological services" because the wildlife preserve that draws many international travelers will create job opportunity as well as income

But what about (A) A resort does create job opportunities and since it is located in an area of natural beauty can't we say that this natural beauty is responsible for a part of the income generation? and thus be termed as an "ecological service"?

Is this a far fetched assumption?

While your point might be completely valid in the world outside of this passage, let's look at what the passage itself says about resort hotels: "Conservation can appear unprofitable when compared with the economic returns derived from converting natural assets (pristine coastlines, for example) into explicitly commercial ones (such as resort hotels)."

Here, we have a direct contrast between natural and commercial assets, with resort hotels listed as an example of a commercial asset. Because the author treats resort hotels as commercial assets, they are not great examples of “ecological services” that have not been previously monetized. Eliminate (A).

I hope that helps!
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
Hi,
AnishPassiTGC @abhimanha GMATNinja VeritasKarishma ChiranjeevSingh can you explain the usage of colon in this line , your understanding of this line or how you approached to understand this line because of so many punctuations in it.

The argument for “monetizing”—or putting a monetary value on—ecosystem functions may be stated thus: Concern about the depletion of natural resources is widespread, but this concern, in the absence of an economic argument for conservation, has not translated into significant conservational progress.
And what purpose of gretchen daily's view serves in the passage.
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
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saby1410 wrote:
Hi,
AnishPassiTGC @abhimanha GMATNinja VeritasKarishma ChiranjeevSingh can you explain the usage of colon in this line , your understanding of this line or how you approached to understand this line because of so many punctuations in it.

The argument for “monetizing”—or putting a monetary value on—ecosystem functions may be stated thus: Concern about the depletion of natural resources is widespread, but this concern, in the absence of an economic argument for conservation, has not translated into significant conservational progress.
And what purpose of gretchen daily's view serves in the passage.

The argument for “monetizing”—or putting a monetary value on—ecosystem functions may be stated thus:

Information in hyphens can be sidelined. This is an explanation of something already mentioned.

Here "or putting a monetary value on" is the definition of "monetizing" to help the reader understand.

Everything after the colon explains the "argument for monetising". Basically, all of it explains why monetising is beneficial. That why having a quantifiable number to the benefit of ecosystems is good. An example given in the passage explains this - "undisturbed forests and wetlands regulate water runoff and act as water-purifying systems, saving millions of dollars worth of damage to property and to marine ecosystems."
So giving a monetary value of say 10 million dollars to an undisturbed forest helps make environmental decisions.

The passage is basically trying to say that since we derive economic benefit from environment (say cutting down a forest will help the govt earn a million dollars), we are not taking conservational decisions. Now, if you put a number to the value of the undisturbed forest (if it is removed, you will need to pay 10 million dollars to regulate water runoff and purify water), it will help us make decisions favouring conservation.

Gretchen Daily's view - if you put express economic value in terms of a single currency (as we did in terms of dollars above), you can make environmental decisions.
Now that we have two figures to compare - '1 million benefit' vs '10 million loss' if we remove the forest - we will decide to keep the forest.
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
I think there is a subtle reason to choose Option D over Option C, in Question 1.

Can anyone please explain why C is wrong?

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
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kamrulhasan26043 wrote:
I think there is a subtle reason to choose Option D over Option C, in Question 1.

Can anyone please explain why C is wrong?

Posted from my mobile device

Hi kamrulhasan26043,

Option C is incorrect. As mentioned in the passage: "But according to David Pearce, that illusion stems from the fact that “services” provided by ecological systems are not traded on the commodities market, and thus have no readily quantifiable value. To remedy this, says Pearce, one has to show that all ecosystems have economic value—indeed, that all ecological services are economic services.Tourists visiting wildlife preserves, for example, create jobs and generate income for national economies; ", implying Option C is opposite of what David Pearce believes. According to him some types of tourism are also ecological services, that have economic value and hence should be monetized.

Hope this Helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
Q1 Reached to D through POE. But while reviewing the answer, cam't understand exactly what D means. Could you please elaborate? Specifically what does value refer to in D? Quantitative or qualitative value? Many thanks
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
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Jainam24 wrote:
Q1 Reached to D through POE. But while reviewing the answer, cam't understand exactly what D means. Could you please elaborate? Specifically what does value refer to in D? Quantitative or qualitative value? Many thanks

But according to David Pearce, that illusion stems from the fact that “services” provided by ecological systems are not traded on the commodities market, and thus have no readily quantifiable value.
To remedy this, says Pearce, one has to show that all ecosystems have economic value—indeed, that all ecological services are economic services.

The passage tells us that David Pearce says that because “services” provided by ecological systems are not traded on the commodities market, people believe that their services do not have a readily quantifiable value. But ecosystems have quantifiable economic value.

Monetization is putting a monetary value on ecosystem.

So David Pearce would endorse that monetization can serve as a means of representing persuasively the value of environmental conservation. That economic value can represent the value of environmental conservation and hence persuade people to conserve.
This is what (D) says.
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
I got Question 3 wrong. I selected option C and I was confused between option A and C.

Below is my understanding of the question and the options, please help correct where did I go wrong :

3. According to the passage, Daily sees monetization as an indication of which of the following?

(A) The centrality of economic interests to people’s actions
Found it too generic as Daily had compared the environmentalist's actions with human behavior only once

(B) The reluctance of the critics of environmentalism to acknowledge the importance of conservation
Not true

(C) The inability of financial interests and ecological interests to reach a common ideological ground
I found this as the essence of the Daily's point and hence selected this one

(D) The inevitability of environmental degradation
Not discussed in the passage

(E) The inevitability of the growth of ecological services in the future
Not discussed in the passage
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
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nivi2084 wrote:
I got Question 3 wrong. I selected option C and I was confused between option A and C.

Below is my understanding of the question and the options, please help correct where did I go wrong :

3. According to the passage, Daily sees monetization as an indication of which of the following?

(A) The centrality of economic interests to people’s actions
Found it too generic as Daily had compared the environmentalist's actions with human behavior only once

(B) The reluctance of the critics of environmentalism to acknowledge the importance of conservation
Not true

(C) The inability of financial interests and ecological interests to reach a common ideological ground
I found this as the essence of the Daily's point and hence selected this one

(D) The inevitability of environmental degradation
Not discussed in the passage

(E) The inevitability of the growth of ecological services in the future
Not discussed in the passage

Hi nivi2084,

Daily's point of view can be directly inferred from the lines : "In Gretchen Daily’s view, monetization, while unpopular with many environmentalists, reflects the dominant role that economic considerations play in human behavior, and the expression of economic value in a common currency helps inform environmental decision-making processes.", We cannot infer C from this, whereas A can be inferred. Thus A is the correct answer.

Hope This Helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
(Book Question: 416)
2. Which of the following most clearly represents an example of an “ecological service” as that term is used in line 20?

(A) A resort hotel located in an area noted for its natural beauty

(B) A water-purifying plant that supplements natural processes with nontoxic chemicals

(C) A wildlife preserve that draws many international travelers

(D) A nonprofit firm that specializes in restoring previously damaged ecosystems

(E) A newsletter that keeps readers informed of ecological victories and setbacks

dear AndrewN,GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo,

from the passage, I got I need to find a choice that could reveal the ecologic systems are economic value, or ecological services are economic services.
for me , B is ok. because the water-purifying plant can bring economic value, because nontoxic chemical is one of the economic service.
C is also good for me. preserve draws many international travelers can bring economic value.
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Re: The argument for monetizingor putting a monetary value onecosystem [#permalink]
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Question 2

zoezhuyan wrote:
(Book Question: 416)
2. Which of the following most clearly represents an example of an “ecological service” as that term is used in line 20?

(A) A resort hotel located in an area noted for its natural beauty

(B) A water-purifying plant that supplements natural processes with nontoxic chemicals

(C) A wildlife preserve that draws many international travelers

(D) A nonprofit firm that specializes in restoring previously damaged ecosystems

(E) A newsletter that keeps readers informed of ecological victories and setbacks

dear AndrewN,GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo,

from the passage, I got I need to find a choice that could reveal the ecologic systems are economic value, or ecological services are economic services.
for me , B is ok. because the water-purifying plant can bring economic value, because nontoxic chemical is one of the economic service.
C is also good for me. preserve draws many international travelers can bring economic value.

Take a closer look at (B):

Quote:
(B) A water-purifying plant that supplements natural processes with nontoxic chemicals

The problem with (B) is that the water-purifying process described is NOT an ecological one.

The passage mentions undisturbed forests and wetlands that act as water-purifying systems as examples of an ecological service. But (B) describes a man-made, water-purifying plant that uses chemicals in addition to natural processes. In other words, the chemicals, whether toxic or not, are not part of the natural process. Therefore, (B) does not describe an ecological service, and it can be eliminated.

I hope that helps!
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Question 1

Information in the passage suggests that David Pearce would most readily endorse which of the following statements concerning monetization?

(A) Monetization represents a strategy that is attractive to both environmentalists and their critics. Monetization may represent a strategy that is attractive to environmentalist but the passage does not indicate who the critics are.

(B) Monetization is an untested strategy, but it is increasingly being embraced by environmentalists. The passage doesn’t speak of strategies, tested or non- tested.

(C) Monetization should at present be restricted to ecological services and should only gradually be extended to such commercial endeavors as tourism and recreation. Pearce has linked Environmental strategy to commercial benefits, but this choice talks about restricting to only ecological service.

(D) Monetization can serve as a means of representing persuasively the value of environmental conservation. This option points out that it can be shown that ecological systems have economic value.

(E) Monetization should inform environmental decision-making processes only if it is accepted by environmentalist groups. Pearce's idea was only to portray the ecological goals of commercial benefits

Question 2

Which of the following most clearly represents an example of an “ecological service” as that term is used in line 20?

(A) A resort hotel located in an area noted for its natural beauty Pearce believes that services are ecological only when they provide economic benefits. We just know this resort is known for its beauty. We don’t know if it is operational or whether it has any economic benefits.

(B) A water-purifying plant that supplements natural processes with nontoxic chemicals Not clear if there is any economic benefit

(C) A wildlife preserve that draws many international travelers This option implies that the tourists will pay money to visit this preserve.

(D) A nonprofit firm that specializes in restoring previously damaged ecosystems Nonprofit makes it clear that there is no financial benefit

(E) A newsletter that keeps readers informed of ecological victories and setbacks Not clear if there is any economic benefit

Question 3

According to the passage, Daily sees monetization as an indication of which of the following?

(A) The centrality of economic interests to people’s actions The passage clearly mentions that monetization reflects the fact that economic considerations play a major role in people’s actions.

(B) The reluctance of the critics of environmentalism to acknowledge the importance of conservation The page just states that monetization is unpopular with many environmentalists. There is no reference to the critics of environmentalism

(C) The inability of financial interests and ecological interests to reach a common ideological ground In contrast, Daily says that monetization has helped to “inform environmental decision-making processes.”

(D) The inevitability of environmental degradation No such reference has been made by Daily.

(E) The inevitability of the growth of ecological services in the future Daily has said that monetization has helped to explain the economic value in a manner that helps environmental decision-making processes. No reference has been made to the inevitability of the growth of ecological services in the future

Question 4

Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the environmentalists mentioned in line 8?

(A) They are organized in opposition to the generation of income produced by the sale of ecological services. They do not oppose making money with the sale of ecological services. They just haven’t taken into consideration that environmental degradation can have economic consequences.

(B) They are fewer in number but better organized and better connected to the media than their opponents. We can’t infer about their number of their connection and organizational skills.

(C) They have sometimes been charged with failing to use a particular strategy in their pursuit of conservational goals. This can be inferred because critics have blamed them for the lack of economic argument for conservational progress

(D) They have been in the forefront of publicizing the extent of worldwide environmental degradation. In contrast, they have been have blamed them for the lack of economic argument for conservational progress

(E) They define environmental progress differently and more conservatively than do other organized groups of environmentalists. This can’t be inferred.

- Nitha
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