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The classical realist theory of international relations has long domin

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The classical realist theory of international relations has long domin  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 27 Feb 2019, 13:18
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 54, Date : 27-FEB-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The classical realist theory of international relations has long dominated both academic institutions and the American government. Even at the birth of the nation, early political thinkers, such as Alexander Hamilton, promoted a realist view of international relations and sought to influence the actions of the government based on this perspective. While the classical realist school of international relations is not entirely homogeneous in nature, there are certain premises that all classical realists share.

The primary principle underlying classical realism is a concern with issues of war and peace. Specifically, classical realists ask, what are the causes of war and what are the conditions of peace? The members of the classical realist school mainly attribute war and conflict to what is termed the security dilemma. In the absence of any prevailing global authority, each nation is required to address its own security needs. However, each nation’s quest for security—through military buildups, alliances, or territorial defenses—necessarily unsettles other nations. These nations react to feelings of insecurity by engaging in their own aggressive actions, which leads other nations to react similarly, perpetuating the cycle.

It is important to note that for realists, unlike idealists or liberal internationalists, international conflict is a necessary consequence of the structural anarchy that nations find themselves in. Whereas other schools may see international conflict as the result of evil dictators, historical chance, flawed sociopolitical systems, or ignorance of world affairs, classical realists see war as the logical result of a system that by its nature lacks a true central authority.

Hand in hand with this view of conflict as an inevitable condition of the global power structure is the realists’ view of the nation as a unitary actor. Because classical realists see international relations as a continuing struggle for dominance, the nation can not be viewed as a collection of individuals with disparate wants, goals, and ideologies. The realist view requires the formulation of a national interest, which in its simplest terms refers to the nation’s ability to survive, maintain its security, and achieve some level of power relative to its competitors. Realism is not without its critics, many of whom challenge the premise that war is the natural condition of international relations or that there can be a truly national interest. However, the realist school of international relations continues to shape foreign policy because of the successes it has had in describing real world interactions between nations.

1. It can be inferred from the passage that members of the classical realist school would be LEAST likely to support

A. an international policy based on building a strong military force to deter threats
B. an international policy that seeks to reduce threats of war by providing humanitarian aid to potential aggressor countries
C. a domestic policy that attempts to unify the nation’s citizens behind a common cause
D. a domestic policy that allocates a majority of the country’s budget for defense spending
E. an international policy based on joining a common defense contract with other nations


2. Which of the following, if true, would best support the classical realist theory of international conflict as it is described in the passage?

A. Some countries ruled by dictators maintain peaceful relations with their neighbors.
B. Despite the presence of a world superpower, many countries continue to fight wars with their neighbors.
C. War has existed from the beginning of recorded history.
D. After the nations of the world form an authoritative world court, wars decrease dramatically.
E. Some countries are able to capture territories from other countries without fear of international consequences.


3. According to the passage, the formation of a national interest serves what function in the classical realist theory of war and peace?

A. It is a convenience used by theorists to describe national interests where none exist.
B. It provides the necessary justification for the classical realist view of a continuous global power struggle.
C. It is less important to the theory than is the idea of the nation as a unitary actor.
D. It is a description of the policies used by world leaders to convince their citizens that war is necessary.
E. It is the part of the theory that receives the most criticism from opponents.


4. The author most likely regards the classical realist theory of international relations with

A. general apathy
B. skeptical dismissal
C. veiled disapproval
D. glowing approval
E. qualified acceptance



Source: McGraw-Hills GMAT 2013 (122-110)
Difficulty Level: 650

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 17 Jun 2018, 13:34.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 27 Feb 2019, 13:18, edited 3 times in total.
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New post 18 Jun 2018, 00:02
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Lowkya wrote:
Hi

Can you please format the questions?

Thanks


Hi

Due to internet connectivity error, i cannot verify the Post after posting Sorry for trouble, Now it looks Good !

Thank You!
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New post 18 Jun 2018, 11:45
Can someone explain the Question 3 and Question 4 in detail. I got Q3 right but want to confirm the thought process. As for Q4 - Why is the answer option E?
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New post 18 Jun 2018, 11:57
pawanpoolla wrote:
Can someone explain the Question 3 and Question 4 in detail. I got Q3 right but want to confirm the thought process. As for Q4 - Why is the answer option E?


Welcome

Question# 3

Answer: B

This is a supporting idea question. Go back to the part of the passage that discusses “national interest.” The answer to this question is in the fourth paragraph, where the author states “Because classical realists see international relations as a continuing struggle for dominance, the nation can not be viewed as a collection of individuals with disparate wants, goals, and ideologies.The realist view requires the formulation of a national interest…” Thus, in order for the theory to work, there must be the idea of a national interest. This is what choice B states. Choices A and D are not supported. Choice C is not close enough, since there is no mention of relative importance. Choice E has a similar problem; the passage says it receives criticism, but doesn’t say “most.”

Question# 4

Answer: E

This is a tone question. Some tone questions require you to consider the passage as a whole, while some ask about a specific part. This is a more general tone question. The passage describes the classical realist view and the author ends by stating that the theory has had “successes” in describing relations in the world.Thus, the tone must be somewhat positive. That leaves only choices D and E as possibilities. Between the two, choice D is too strong. Passages on the GMAT rarely if ever will contain “glowing approval” for their topics.

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New post 27 Feb 2019, 13:23
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New post 27 Feb 2019, 23:28
Can you post official explanations for question 1 & 2 too?
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New post 02 Mar 2019, 07:18
Hello Mike03

Official Explanation


1. It can be inferred from the passage that members of the classical realist school would be LEAST likely to support

Explanation

This is an inference question. Because the entire passage details the classical realist school of thought, your best bet is to start with the answers. Look at each answer choice and see if you can find support for it in the passage. Because this question asks you to find the choice realists would LEAST likely support, the answers with supporting evidence are the wrong answers. Choices A and D are supported by the passage because the second paragraph states that classical realists believe that every nation must take care of its own security needs and that war is a constant threat. Choice C is supported because the fourth power discusses the formulation of a national interest. Choice E is okay as well because the second paragraph states that “alliances” are one way nations can address their security concerns. That leaves choice B as the correct answer. The third paragraph states that realists do not believe wars can be attributed to “flawed sociopolitical systems,” so trying to increase security by sending humanitarian aid would probably not be supported by classical realists.

Answer: B


2. Which of the following, if true, would best support the classical realist theory of international conflict as it is described in the passage?

Explanation

This is an apply information question. In order to answer it, you must first go to the passage to understand the theory of conflict. This information is found in the second paragraph: “In the absence of any prevailing global authority, each nation is required to address its own security needs.” Next, you have to figure out which choice best supports this view. Choice A doesn’t do much.The classical realist school isn’t concerned with the actions of dictators. Choice B seems to hurt the theory. It states that there is a prevailing global authority and yet conflict continues. Choice C just states that war is a persistent problem, but it doesn’t address the causes of it, so this choice doesn’t necessarily support the theory. Choice D does support the theory because it shows that the presence of a global authority reduces war. Remember, the realist view argued that the lack of a global authority led to war, so the presence of a global authority should reduce war. That is what choice D states. Choice E doesn’t address the causes of war or the presence of a global authority.

Answer: D


3. According to the passage, the formation of a national interest serves what function in the classical realist theory of war and peace?

Explanation

This is a supporting idea question. Go back to the part of the passage that discusses “national interest.” The answer to this question is in the fourth paragraph, where the author states “Because classical realists see international relations as a continuing struggle for dominance, the nation can not be viewed as a collection of individuals with disparate wants, goals, and ideologies.The realist view requires the formulation of a national interest…” Thus, in order for the theory to work, there must be the idea of a national interest. This is what choice B states. Choices A and D are not supported. Choice C is not close enough, since there is no mention of relative importance. Choice E has a similar problem; the passage says it receives criticism, but doesn’t say “most.”

Answer: B


4. The author most likely regards the classical realist theory of international relations with

Explanation

This is a tone question. Some tone questions require you to consider the passage as a whole, while some ask about a specific part. This is a more general tone question. The passage describes the classical realist view and the author ends by stating that the theory has had “successes” in describing relations in the world.Thus, the tone must be somewhat positive. That leaves only choices D and E as possibilities. Between the two, choice D is too strong. Passages on the GMAT rarely if ever will contain “glowing approval” for their topics.

Answer: E

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Re: The classical realist theory of international relations has long domin   [#permalink] 02 Mar 2019, 07:18
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