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# The country of Virodia has, until now, been barely self-sufficient in

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Re: The country of Virodia has, until now, been barely self-sufficient in [#permalink]
parkhydel wrote:
The country of Virodia has, until now, been barely self-sufficient in both meat and grain. Greater prosperity there has gone hand in hand with steadily increasing per capita consumption of meat, and it takes several pounds of grain used as feed to produce one pound of meat. Per capita income is almost certain to rise further, yet increases in domestic grain production are unlikely.

Which of the following is most strongly supported by the information given?

A. Some land in Virodia that is currently used for grain production will soon be turned into pastureland for grazing cattle for meat.

B. In the future, per capita income in Virodia is unlikely to increase as rapidly as it has in the past.

C. In Virodia, the amount of grain it takes to produce one pound of meat is likely to increase in coming years.

D. Grain is soon likely to make up a larger proportion of the average Virodian's diet than ever before.

E. Virodia is likely to become an importer of grain or meat or both.

CR25550.02

"Which of the following is most strongly supported" means we don't need to find a typical conclusion-premise(s) structure. What are we told?

Prosperity --> increased meat and grain CONSUMPTION.
Increased grain PRODUCTION is unlikely. Well, if we're going to use more but we aren't going to make more, where is it going to come from?!?

A. Some land in Virodia that is currently used for grain production will soon be turned into pastureland for grazing cattle for meat.
Nothing in the argument tells us about conversion of land from one specific use to another. Wrong.
B. In the future, per capita income in Virodia is unlikely to increase as rapidly as it has in the past.
We are told that per capita income is going to rise but are given no information about whether it will be as fast as, slower than, or the same as the previous rate of increase. Wrong.
C. In Virodia, the amount of grain it takes to produce one pound of meat is likely to increase in coming years.
Nothing from the argument tells us anything about how much grain goes into raising meat. Wrong.
D. Grain is soon likely to make up a larger proportion of the average Virodian's diet than ever before.
We aren't told anything about proportions of the diet. Wrong.
E. Virodia is likely to become an importer of grain or meat or both.
Oh! Well that sounds nice! Sure helps explain how we're going to consume more while producing less.

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The country of Virodia has, until now, been barely self-sufficient in [#permalink]
MartyTargetTestPrep wrote:
VatsSaraf wrote:
hello,
I was going to mark E as my answer but I changed as I thought if meat consumption is going to increase then grain consumption will decrease which can be used in the production of meat and everything would be balanced. not that any other answer looks relevant but this one also seems quite illogical.

The key thing we have to notice is this detail in the passage, "it takes several pounds of grain used as feed to produce one pound of meat."

That information indicates that, even if people eat less grain as they eat more meat, if they consume the same amount of food in terms of pounds of food per person, every pound of meat they eat will take multiple pounds of grain to produce.

For instance, if a person used to eat 1 pound of meat per week and 6 pounds of grain, for a total of 7 pounds of food, now maybe the same person eats 2 pound of meat and 5 pounds of grain. However, although that person is not eating any more pounds of food in total, still 7, more grain gets consumed, because the production of that extra pound of meat takes "several pounds of grain."

In fact, even if the person goes from 1 pound of meat and 6 pounds of grain to two pounds of meat and 3 pounds of grain, STILL more grain will be consumed if it take "several" pounds of grain to produce the additional pound of meat.

In that situation, it's reasonable to conclude that they will have to start importing if they are eating more meat.

Hi!

I totally agree why E is right but up to a extent,
According to me,
The first line of the passage "The country of Virodia has, until now, been barely self-sufficient in both meat and grain" , i interpreted that, this implies that the country is now self sufficient and thus doesnt need any help/imports of any sorts from outside.

So i went with option A
According to A) it implies that, the grain production is not going to increase and instead of grain the cattles get thier "feed" from grazing, thus the reasoning for " increases in domestic grain production are unlikely." is justified.

Thank you
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Re: The country of Virodia has, until now, been barely self-sufficient in [#permalink]
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PiyushKap wrote:
Hi!

I totally agree why E is right but up to a extent,
According to me,
The first line of the passage "The country of Virodia has, until now, been barely self-sufficient in both meat and grain" , i interpreted that, this implies that the country is now self sufficient and thus doesnt need any help/imports of any sorts from outside.

The key word is to see that the first sentence says that Virodia has been self-sufficient in grain and mean UNTIL NOW.

So, that statement is about the past and the present, not about the future, whereas the conclusion is about the future.

Quote:
So i went with option A
According to A) it implies that, the grain production is not going to increase and instead of grain the cattles get thier "feed" from grazing, thus the reasoning for " increases in domestic grain production are unlikely." is justified.

The passage says that "INCREASES in grain production are unlikely," but the implication of (A) is that there will be a DECREASE in grain production. Since the passage says nothing that indicates that grain production will decrease, (A) is not supported.

Also, the passage doesn't imply that there is an advantage to having cattle graze rather than consume grain or indicate anything about cattle grazing at all. So, there's really no support for (A).
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Re: The country of Virodia has, until now, been barely self-sufficient in [#permalink]
MartyTargetTestPrep wrote:
heidy333 wrote:
hello
can you please explain why B is wrong?

Here's (B).

(B) In the future, per capita income in Virodia is unlikely to increase as rapidly as it has in the past.

Since this is a Conclusion question, the correct answer will be supported by or follow logically from what the passage says.

The only information the passage provides about the future is the following:

Per capita income is almost certain to rise further.

Increases in domestic grain production are unlikely.

We can also presume given what the passage say that meat consumption will likely increase in the future.

None of those facts or presumptions indicates anything about the rate of increase in per capita income (without our making up some kind of convoluted story, such as, for instance, that meat consumption will result in heart attacks and thus cause a reduction in the rate of increase of per capita income).

So, (B) is not supported by what the passage says.

I chose B and I thought it was the most logical. I still don't quite understand why B is wrong. If there is not enough grain to produce the meat, then the people cannot consume more and more meat. i.e. Eventually, meat consumption will increase less and less rapidly as the maximum meat available are going down. As a result, per capital income (which is linked to increase in meat consumption) will increase less rapidly.
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Re: The country of Virodia has, until now, been barely self-sufficient in [#permalink]
ellenckh wrote:
I chose B and I thought it was the most logical. I still don't quite understand why B is wrong. If there is not enough grain to produce the meat, then the people cannot consume more and more meat. i.e. Eventually, meat consumption will increase less and less rapidly as the maximum meat available are going down. As a result, per capital income (which is linked to increase in meat consumption) will increase less rapidly.

Hi ellenckh.

That's an interesting question, and here's what's going on.

Per capita income and meat consumption are linked, but only in one direction. The direction is that increases in per capita income result in increases in meat consumption.

While the passage doesn't specify that the relationship is one way, we can use common knowledge and common sense in answering CR questions, and common knowledge and common sense indicate that the relationship would work in one direction - higher income results in increased meat consumption - and not in the other direction.

So, for there to be an increase in meat consumption, there has to be an increase in per capita income. On the other hand, there does not have to be an increase in meat consumption for there to be an increase in per capita income.

Thus, even if meat consumption does not increase or even decreases, per capita income could still increase.

So, (B) is not supported.
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Re: The country of Virodia has, until now, been barely self-sufficient in [#permalink]
The passage states that Virodia has been barely self-sufficient in both meat and grain, and that greater prosperity has resulted in steadily increasing per capita consumption of meat, which takes several pounds of grain used as feed to produce. The passage also notes that per capita income is likely to continue rising, but increases in domestic grain production are unlikely.

The answer that is most strongly supported by this information is (E) Virodia is likely to become an importer of grain or meat or both, as the country's demand for meat is likely to continue increasing while its domestic grain production is unlikely to keep pace. This implies that Virodia will need to obtain grain and/or meat from other countries in order to meet its needs. Option (A) is unlikely since the passage states that increases in domestic grain production are unlikely, so it would not make sense for land currently used for grain production to be converted to pastureland for cattle. Option (B) is not supported by the passage, which says nothing about the rate of increase in per capita income in the future. Option (C) is also not supported by the passage, which does not give any indication of how the amount of grain needed to produce meat might change over time. Option (D) is also unsupported by the passage, which does not give any indication that grain will make up a larger proportion of the average Virodian's diet.
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Re: The country of Virodia has, until now, been barely self-sufficient in [#permalink]
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