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# The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent crimina

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The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent crimina  [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2012, 21:52
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58% (01:08) correct 42% (01:07) wrong based on 437 sessions

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The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent criminals to subject a victim to humiliations similar to those which they experienced as children.

A. similar to those which they experienced as children.
B. similar to those that they experienced as a child.
C. similar to those that they experienced as children.
D. such as those, which they experienced as a child.
E. such as those that they experienced as children.
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent crimina  [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2012, 01:15
4
4
macjas wrote:
The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent criminals to subject a victim to humiliations similar to those which they experienced as children.

A. similar to those which they experienced as children.
B. similar to those that they experienced as a child.
C. similar to those that they experienced as children.
D. such as those, which they experienced as a child.
E. such as those that they experienced as children.

As against the more popular "like vs such as" comparison, this test idiomatic usage of "similar to vs such as". Remember that "such as" is always used for inclusion or meaning "for example". Illustration: Jacob likes many flavors of ice cream such as chocolate, vanilla and strawberry. This implies that Jacob like ice creams; he definitely likes chocolate, vanilla and strawberry flavors among others.

In the given sentence, we are talking about humiliations that violent criminals subject on victims. Criminologists are saying that just like they experiences humiliations when they were children, they would like to subject these now on other victims.The type of humiliations are not talked about to draw a parallel between those that the criminals were subjected to, to the ones that they cause now. So we reject choices D and E.

Choice B has a singular-plural mismatch between "they" and "as a child". Reject B.

Between A and C it is "which" vs "that". Though the difference is subtle, you should understand that "that" is a restrictive clause that changes the meaning of a sentence. But using "which", a non-restrictive clause, does not change the meaning of a sentence. In this case, the humiliations received by criminals in their childhood is important and adds to the meaning of the sentence, especially connecting to the humiliations that they cause now. Hence "that" is appropriate choice making option (C) as correct.
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent crimina  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 08:48
2
I doubt whether this question will stand the rigor of GMAT. Because in my opinion, GMAT avers that it would not decide a topic on the choice of which or that alone, the concept being controversial,

Look at the following choice

Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
(A) which kept
(B) that keeps
(C) which has kept
(D) that has been keeping
(E) having kept

OE

Verb form; Rhetorical construction The use of the past tense (kept) is incorrect because a current situation is discussed; the present tense (keeps) is consistent with the other verbs in the sentence. In (A) and (C), which introduces a restrictive clause. Some writers follow the convention that which can only be used for nonrestrictive clauses, but insistence on this rule is controversial, and both (A) and (C) can be rejected on other grounds.

A Kept is the wrong tense.

B Correct. The verb keeps indicates a current situation and is consistent with the other verbs in the sentence. The sentence is clear and concise.

C Mistaken shift in tense: In this sentence the present tense expresses a timeless general principle; in contrast, has kept indicates a more definite context and time period and suggests that the heat-exchange network
may no longer have this effect.

D Has been keeping is the wrong tense.

E Having is awkward and imprecise; kept is the wrong tense.

The given topic on violence is tested solely on the use of which or that and therefore may not cross the doors of GMAT
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent crimina  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 09:03
1
daagh wrote:
I doubt whether this question will stand the rigor of GMAT. Because in my opinion, GMAT avers that it would not decide a topic on the choice of which or that alone, the concept being controversial,

Look at the following choice

Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
(A) which kept
(B) that keeps
(C) which has kept
(D) that has been keeping
(E) having kept

OE

Verb form; Rhetorical construction The use of the past tense (kept) is incorrect because a current situation is discussed; the present tense (keeps) is consistent with the other verbs in the sentence. In (A) and (C), which introduces a restrictive clause. Some writers follow the convention that which can only be used for nonrestrictive clauses, but insistence on this rule is controversial, and both (A) and (C) can be rejected on other grounds.

A Kept is the wrong tense.

B Correct. The verb keeps indicates a current situation and is consistent with the other verbs in the sentence. The sentence is clear and concise.

C Mistaken shift in tense: In this sentence the present tense expresses a timeless general principle; in contrast, has kept indicates a more definite context and time period and suggests that the heat-exchange network
may no longer have this effect.

D Has been keeping is the wrong tense.

E Having is awkward and imprecise; kept is the wrong tense.

The given topic on violence is tested solely on the use of which or that and therefore may not cross the doors of GMAT

This is good to know! The OE has it down to meaning between C & E: such as (providing an example) : : similar to (comparison)
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent crimina  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 10:00
Yes; I agree this brings about the nuance of using the comparison marker similar to vs example marker such as. Good topic and good explantion by Edvento Kudos to both
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent crimina  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2013, 04:06
1
Here is the official explanation from Kaplan.

Answer C Choices between "that" and "which" are difficult for many students, but the rule is actually very clear and definitive. Specifically, if the expression further restricts or further identifies the particular objects in question, "that" is always correct. If the expression is merely descriptive of the object being modified without further restricting or identifying it, "which" is the proper word.

In this case, the expression further defines the similar humiliations to which we are referring. Therefore, “that” is required and only choices (B), (C) and (E) can possibly be right. Choice (B) can be eliminated because it associates the plural pronoun "they" which corresponds to the antecedent "violent criminals", with the singular "a child." Choice (E) can be eliminated because "such as" is used to introduce examples of a general concept. Here, "similar to" properly reflects our meaning, so choice (C) is the correct answer.

Hope it helps.
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent crimina  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2013, 12:08
daagh wrote:
Yes; I agree this brings about the nuance of using the comparison marker similar to vs example marker such as. Good topic and good explantion by Edvento Kudos to both

Daagh, if possible, would you clarify GMAT's stance on Which Vs That? choices A & C are almost the same. what are the chances that a question as this would come up in the test, and how do I choose between them?
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent crimina  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2013, 03:14
2
1
SaraLotfy wrote:
daagh wrote:
Yes; I agree this brings about the nuance of using the comparison marker similar to vs example marker such as. Good topic and good explantion by Edvento Kudos to both

Daagh, if possible, would you clarify GMAT's stance on Which Vs That? choices A & C are almost the same. what are the chances that a question as this would come up in the test, and how do I choose between them?

Use which when the information after which can be omitted, and you can do without it:
The big house on the street, which is red, is owned by the Smiths. (there is one big house, and it happens to be red)

Use that when the description after "that" is needed for clarification:
The big house on the street that is red, is owned by the Smiths. (we have many big houses on the street, the red one is the Smiths')

So in this sentence, if we used which, we could as well skip what's after the which like so:
The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent criminals to subject a victim to humiliations. (we don't know what humiliations, maybe general? who knows)

The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent criminals to subject a victim to humiliations similar to those that they experienced as children. (we specify that we only care about the humiliations experienced as children).

P.S That sentence sounds dodgy but that's what it is!
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent crimina  [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2013, 14:15
3
1
Skag55 wrote:
SaraLotfy wrote:
daagh wrote:
Yes; I agree this brings about the nuance of using the comparison marker similar to vs example marker such as. Good topic and good explantion by Edvento Kudos to both

Daagh, if possible, would you clarify GMAT's stance on Which Vs That? choices A & C are almost the same. what are the chances that a question as this would come up in the test, and how do I choose between them?

Use which when the information after which can be omitted, and you can do without it:
The big house on the street, which is red, is owned by the Smiths. (there is one big house, and it happens to be red)

Use that when the description after "that" is needed for clarification:
The big house on the street that is red, is owned by the Smiths. (we have many big houses on the street, the red one is the Smiths')

So in this sentence, if we used which, we could as well skip what's after the which like so:
The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent criminals to subject a victim to humiliations. (we don't know what humiliations, maybe general? who knows)

The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent criminals to subject a victim to humiliations similar to those that they experienced as children. (we specify that we only care about the humiliations experienced as children).

P.S That sentence sounds dodgy but that's what it is!

All about the modifiers with 'that' and 'which' and Their exceptions
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/mis ... 10633.html
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/that-vs-which-on-the-gmat/
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/tha ... 17577.html
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/tha ... t5730.html
http://www.gmathacks.com/sentence-corre ... which.html
http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=575
noun-noun-modifiers-the-most-versatile-modifier-137292.html
Enjoy!
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent  [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2018, 22:26
Confused between A & C.Kindly explain why A is incorrect.
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent  [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2018, 02:52
5
prashant6923 wrote:
Confused between A & C.Kindly explain why A is incorrect.

Hi,

That VS Which - what is the difference ?

Best way to remember the difference between that and which: If removing the words that follow would change the meaning of the sentence, use "that." Otherwise, "which" is fine.

Example of Non Restrictive Clause

Ferrari, which is expensive always attracts attention (We all know that Ferrari is expensive, so here if we leave out words " which is expensive " wont change the meaning of sentence)

Example of Restrictive Clause

Ferraris that cost more than 500k attract more attention. ( So here we are talking about particular case, hence we use "that" )

All in all use "which" in non restrictive clause ( if leaving out does not change meaning) and use "that" in restrictive clause ( if leaving out changes meaning )

Hope it helps
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent crimina  [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2018, 09:05
KAPLAN OE :

Choosing between "that" and "which" is difficult for many students, but the rule is clear. If the expression further identifies the particular object(s) in question, "that" is correct. If the expression is merely providing more information about the thing(s) but not identifying which one(s), "which" is the proper word. For example, consider the difference between The book that has a red cover is mine and The book, which has a red cover, is mine. That implies the presence of multiple books, and the that clause singles out the one with a red cover. Which implies the presence of just one book, and the which clause merely describes it further.

In this sentence, the expression "which they experienced as children" further identifies the humiliations that lead criminals to degrade their victims. Not just any humiliations result in violent behavior but specifically childhood humiliations do so. Therefore, that is required. Eliminate (A) for using "which."

A scan of the answer choices shows that (D) also uses "which," while the other choices use "that." All the choices use the correct plural pronoun "they" to refer to "criminals," but (B) and (D) end with "child" and (A), (C), and (E) end with "children." There is also a 3-2 split between "similar to" and "such as"; "similar to" is used to make a comparison, while "such as" is used to introduce an example.

Eliminate (D) for retaining "which" and for using the singular "child." Eliminate (B) for using "child." Look more closely at (C) and (E).

(E) changes "similar to" to "such as." Such as is used to introduce specific examples (for example, I like breakfast foods such as bacon and eggs). The author does not use a specific example of humiliation here, instead comparing the humiliations visited upon victims to those suffered by criminals as children. Eliminate (E).

(C) is the correct answer. It changes "which" to "that" and keeps phrase "similar to" to make the comparison.
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent crimina   [#permalink] 17 Sep 2018, 09:05
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