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The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer

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The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 29 Dec 2018, 09:32
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The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer enough that it exposes regions as far south as Sweden by heightened UV radiation, also increasing rates of skin cancer in the northern regions by as much as 50 percent.

A. that it exposes regions as far south as Sweden by heightened UV radiation, also increasing
B. that regions as far south as Sweden have been exposed to heightened UV radiation, as well as having increased
C. to expose regions as far south as Sweden to heightened UV radiation, increased
D. to expose regions as far south as Sweden to heightened UV radiation and increase
E. that exposure to heightened UV radiation in regions as far south as Sweden, as well as increasing

Source: McGraw Hill's GMAT
Difficulty Level: 500

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 04 Jan 2017, 22:28.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 29 Dec 2018, 09:32, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2017, 07:36
The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer enough that it exposes regions as far south as Sweden by heightened UV radiation, also increasing rates of skin cancer in the northern regions by as much as 50 percent.

A. that it exposes regions as far south as Sweden by heightened UV radiation, also increasing
B. that regions as far south as Sweden have been exposed to heightened UV radiation, as well as having increased
C. to expose regions as far south as Sweden to heightened UV radiation, increased
D. to expose regions as far south as Sweden to heightened UV radiation and increase
E. that exposure to heightened UV radiation in regions as far south as Sweden, as well as increasing
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Re: The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2017, 22:27
In option C, "increased" refers to "UV radiation" and not "gap" , so why it is wrong because increased the rate of skin cancer can also modifies "UV radiation"
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Re: The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2017, 00:52
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The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer enough that it exposes regions as far south as Sweden by heightened UV radiation, also increasing rates of skin cancer in the northern regions by as much as 50 percent.

A. that it exposes regions as far south as Sweden by heightened UV radiation, also increasing ----Also increasing rates of cancer is the second factor; therefore, we need a conjunction. If it was meant to be a modifier modifying the gap, then we should not use 'also'.
B. that regions as far south as Sweden have been exposed to heightened UV radiation, as well as having increased.... have been exposed is passive while the --having increased- is active. wrong structure.
C. to expose regions as far south as Sweden to heightened UV radiation, increased -- It is not clear what the phrase started by increased modifies. If it is meant to modify UV radiation, then increasing without a comma should be used.
D. to expose regions as far south as Sweden to heightened UV radiation and increase... to expose and (to) increase is the correct structure. Correct choice.

E. that exposure to heightened UV radiation in regions as far south as Sweden, as well as increasing ..... This is a fragment.

In C, it is not --- increased the rate---- but -increased rates- increased is not used as a verb but as an adjective modifying the noun rates
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Re: The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2017, 10:02
VKat wrote:
In option C, "increased" refers to "UV radiation" and not "gap" , so why it is wrong because increased the rate of skin cancer can also modifies "UV radiation"


You are right that "increased rate of radiation..." may refer to "UV radiation". But this is a past participle modifier - a past participle modifier does not signify what the noun DOES, but what IS DONE on the noun OR what the noun IS. On the other hand a present participle modifier signifies what the noun DOES.

Past participle:
The chairman, frustrated by the other board members, left the meeting. (The chairman IS frustrated, not that he DOES frustrate others).

Present participle:
The chairman, frustrating other board members, left the meeting. (The chairman DOES frustrate others, not that he IS frustrated).

Now you would see why in C using the past participle "increased rate of skin cancer" is wrong. The UV radiation IS not increased by skin cancer, but it DOES increase skin increase. Therefore if the modifier were to refer to "UV radiation", use of present participle ("increasing") would be required.
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Re: The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2017, 00:10
SajjadAhmad wrote:
The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer enough that it exposes regions as far south as Sweden by heightened UV radiation, also increasing rates of skin cancer in the northern regions by as much as 50 percent.

A. that it exposes regions as far south as Sweden by heightened UV radiation, also increasing
B. that regions as far south as Sweden have been exposed to heightened UV radiation, as well as having increased
C. to expose regions as far south as Sweden to heightened UV radiation, increased
D. to expose regions as far south as Sweden to heightened UV radiation and increase
E. that exposure to heightened UV radiation in regions as far south as Sweden, as well as increasing


Hi daagh sir

I have a doubt regarding D

In D , "to expose" is giving a sense as Gap in the ozone layer is purpose fully doing some thing...I should be that "that exposes"

Please help.
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Re: The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2018, 06:19
Official Explanation

ANSWER: D The construction “exposes . . . by heightened UV radiation” in A is unidiomatic. In B, the construction “that regions . . . have been exposed” makes “regions” the subject of the clause, and this does not work with the following clause, where it appears that the regions, rather than the radiation, are increasing rates of skin cancer. C and E both form sentence fragments. D is the clearest and most standard statement of the information.
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Re: The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2018, 22:56
sobby wrote:
SajjadAhmad wrote:
The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer enough that it exposes regions as far south as Sweden by heightened UV radiation, also increasing rates of skin cancer in the northern regions by as much as 50 percent.

A. that it exposes regions as far south as Sweden by heightened UV radiation, also increasing
B. that regions as far south as Sweden have been exposed to heightened UV radiation, as well as having increased
C. to expose regions as far south as Sweden to heightened UV radiation, increased
D. to expose regions as far south as Sweden to heightened UV radiation and increase
E. that exposure to heightened UV radiation in regions as far south as Sweden, as well as increasing


Hi daagh sir

I have a doubt regarding D

In D , "to expose" is giving a sense as Gap in the ozone layer is purpose fully doing some thing...I should be that "that exposes"

Please help.






GMATNinja, aragonn, sayantanc2k, generis, daagh ,please advice whether it is correct use of 'to' in GMAT?
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Re: The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Dec 2018, 00:51
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Quote:
The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer enough that it exposes regions as far south as Sweden by heightened UV radiation, also increasing rates of skin cancer in the northern regions by as much as 50 percent.

A. that it exposes regions as far south as Sweden by heightened UV radiation, also increasing
B. that regions as far south as Sweden have been exposed to heightened UV radiation, as well as having increased
C. to expose regions as far south as Sweden to heightened UV radiation, increased
D. to expose regions as far south as Sweden to heightened UV radiation and increase
E. that exposure to heightened UV radiation in regions as far south as Sweden, as well as increasing


Read together with enough to, we can make two interpretations. One is that the doer or the subject has some intention of willfully doing something.

The second is that 'enough to' can also mean that the condition is not an extreme one but just something at the threshold of a requirement.


Obviously, we can see there is no intention to expose in such random happenings in the given text. A gap, after all, cannot exhibit such abstract things. Therefore, to expose may not be very appropriate in the given case.

Second, does the text indicate some extraordinary happening? Yes, I suppose. Because it says that the gap can widen so broad and cause fifty 50 more skin cancer, then the matter is serious. Enough is not the correct diction to describe such a situation.

Because the word enough has not been underlined, the topic is unable to convey the reality of the issue.


Let us see some official question in this regard

Quote:
1. Technically, “quicksand” is the term for sand that is so saturated with water as to acquire a liquid's character.

(A)that is so saturated with water as to acquire a liquid's character.

(B) that is so saturated with water that it acquires the character of a liquid

(C) that is saturated with water enough to acquire liquid characteristics

(D) saturated enough with water so as to acquire the character of a liquid

B is the OA, C and D are wrong.

2. Often major economic shifts are so gradual as to be indistinguishable at first from ordinary fluctuations in the financial markets

(A) so gradual as to be indistinguishable
(B) so gradual so that they can be indistinguishable
(C) so gradual that they are unable to be distinguished
(D) gradual enough not to be distinguishable
(E) gradual enough so that one cannot distinguish them
OA is A.

3. With corn, soybean, and wheat reserves being low enough so a poor harvest would send prices skyrocketing, grain futures brokers and their clients are especially interested in weather that could affect crops.

(A) being low enough so
(B) so low such that
(C) so low that
(D) that are low enough so
(E) that are so low such that
OA: C.

4. The city has proposed a number of water treatment and conservation projects the cost of which raises water bills high enough so that even environmentalists are beginning to raise alarms.

(A) the cost of which raises water bills high enough so that

(B) cost-raising water bills so high that

(C) at a cost which raises water bills high enough so

(D) whose cost will raise water bills so high that

(E) whose cost will raise water bills high enough so that

OA: D.


I think there are countless more where enough to has been rejected by GMAT, probably because it is unidiomatic. However, one can see that there may be some cases, which may be passable usage in GMAT. However, they are far and few.
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Re: The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Dec 2018, 08:29
Thanks daagh sir.
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Re: The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer &nbs [#permalink] 24 Dec 2018, 08:29
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The gap in the ozone hole over the North Pole can expand each summer

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