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The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ

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The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 05 Oct 2019, 09:37
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 324, Date : 11-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special type of neuron, in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and controls several important maternal functions in mammalian females. Not all hypothalamic neurons secrete hormones; many behave as normal neurons do and form synapses with other neurons, thereby transmitting impulses to various parts of the body. The neurons that secrete oxytocin are unusual even among neuroendocrine cells, in that they affect parts of the body far away from the brain.

Studies have shown that releasing oxytocin into the blood creates maternal behavior. When studying the effects of this hormone, researchers injected rats with oxytocin and immediately observed behaviors typical of mother rats. Researchers found more evidence that oxytocin creates maternal behavior when they released oxytocin antagonists into the bloodstream of rats which had just given birth. The new mother rats failed to show signs of maternal behavior for their newborn pups until the injections ceased.

Oxytocin has an almost identical structure to another hormone, vasopressin, which reveals much about oxytocin’s evolutionary history. Although the two hormones are synthesized in the same place in the brain and share most of their amino acid structure, their functions are completely separate. Both hormones are found only in mammals; in other vertebrates there is only one hormone, called vasotocin. Some scientists hypothesize that, early in mammalian evolution, the gene for vasotocin split, originally creating two identical genes. These genes mutated, producing what we know today as oxytocin and vasopressin. While vasopressin maintained the function of vasotocin, oxytocin began to control actions that were either specific to mammals or more developed in mammals than in other vertebrates.

B
As the last sentence of the second paragraph indicates, when the injection of oxytocin antagonists, or blockers, ceased, the mother rats started behaving maternally. So we learn that when oxytocin is suppressed, maternal behavior is also suppressed, to return after oxytocin is no longer suppressed. From this we learn of the direct relationship between oxytocin and maternal behavior. Since no other interventions (e.g. no oxytocin injections, or other additions of oxytocin) are described, we can infer that oxytocin was already present in the mother rat's bloodstream, but suppressed by the antagonists. Therefore, the mother rat must have produced the hormone herself and released it into her bloodstream.


1. Which of the following does the author suggest occurs when a mother rat gives birth?

A. Their normal amount of oxytocin drops significantly.
B. Oxytocin is released into the bloodstream.
C. Oxytocin antagonists are released into the bloodstream.
D. Vasopressin is released into the bloodstream.
E. The normal amount of oxytocin antagonists decreases drastically.


A
The first paragraph describes the hormone oxytocin, the second describes one of its functions and the third describes its evolutionary history.

2. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. describe the hormone oxytocin, its evolutionary history and one of its important functions
B. discuss neuroendocrine cells and their function in the body
C. investigate the hormones produced in the hypothalamus, their function and their evolutionary history
D. explain how vasopressin is similar to oxytocin
E. reveal the function of oxytocin in mammalian females


B
The passage explicitly states that the new mother rats failed to show signs of maternal behavior for their newborn pups until the injections ceased.

3. According to the passage, which of the following was the result of the release of oxytocin antagonists into the blood of new mother rats?

A. maternal behavior
B. a lack of maternal behavior
C. behavior which contradicted the researchers' expectations
D. behavior which confirmed the researchers' expectations
E. normal behavior


D
The second paragraph discusses oxytocin's role in maternal behavior, which supports the author's statement that oxytocin controls important maternal functions.


4. The function of the second paragraph is to

A . discuss several issues raised in the first paragraph
B. introduce an issue which the third paragraph expands upon
C. question an assertion made in the first paragraph
D. provide support for a statement made in the first paragraph
E. compare the structures of two different hormones


5. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage about neuroendocrine cells?

A. The supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus are composed completely of neuroendocrine cells.
B. The function of neuroendocrine cells is to create substances that control important maternal functions in mammalian females.
C. The areas of the body which the neuroendocrine cells that create oxytocin control make them different from most other neuroendocrine cells.
D. Most neuroendocrine cells affect areas of the brain or the surrounding tissue.
E. Neuroendocrine cells are different from other hypothalamic neurons in that the former connect to other neurons and form synapses whereas the latter secrete hormones.


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Originally posted by reto on 24 May 2015, 10:43.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 05 Oct 2019, 09:37, edited 5 times in total.
Added Q #5 Updated - Complete topic (272).
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 05:03
daagh workout
I have a question here. The passage says "Researchers found more evidence that oxytocin creates maternal behavior when they released oxytocin antagonists into the bloodstream of rats which had just given birth."
So isnt the OA of question 1 wrong, it should be C
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2018, 07:23
1
Got 4/4 correct in 5:10 min including 3:45 for reading the passage.

Passage Map:


1) The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, => Production of oxytocin

2) Studies have shown that releasing oxytocin into the blood creates maternal behavior. => Experiments to show that oxytocin causes maternal behaviour.

3) Oxytocin has an almost identical structure to another hormone, vasopressin, which reveals much about oxytocin’s evolutionary history. => Comparison with Vasopressin
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 14:30
GMATNinja


For Q1 - i was not sure between option B and option E

--- How can one infer (B) per the choice ? All the passage said that
A) Studies have shown releasing oxytocin into the blood creates maternal behavior
B) Studying the effects of this hormone (via injecting rats with this hormone) - researchers observed behaviors typical of mother rats

Its quite possible

-- These hormones go into the blood stream not during child birth but perhaps right after child birth ?
OR

-- That mother rats are "motherly" because of their gender perhaps (being female) or perhaps because of other neurons releasing other things into their blood stream during childbirth ?

Please assist as i think this is CR inference type question and i am quiet weak in CR
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 21:50
Ques 3 why answer is not 1?
In 2nd paragraph 5/6th line it's mentioned that ' Researchers found more evidence that oxytocin creates maternal behavior when they released oxytocin antagonists into the bloodstream of rats'.
Kindly explain.

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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2019, 03:41
For Q no 3 I also got stuck with option B & D. However, the passage nowhere explicitly or vaguely says that researchers expected certain result out of their experiments. Rather the passage states that they got more evidence about a particular behavior.
In light of above the correct choice is option B.
Well to say the least sometimes it seems how can an answer on GMAT be so straight forward? Alas in this case it is!
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2019, 23:22
Question to be added

Which of the following is mentioned in the passage about neuroendocrine cells?

A. The supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus are composed completely of neuroendocrine cells.
B. The function of neuroendocrine cells is to create substances that control important maternal functions in mammalian females.
C. The areas of the body which the neuroendocrine cells that create oxytocin control make them different from most other neuroendocrine cells.
D. Most neuroendocrine cells affect areas of the brain or the surrounding tissue.
E. Neuroendocrine cells are different from other hypothalamic neurons in that the former connect to other neurons and form synapses whereas the latter secrete hormones.

Spoiler: :: OA
C

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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2019, 09:29
SajjadAhmad Pls explain Q5 ?
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2019, 10:31
Alpha14 wrote:
SajjadAhmad Pls explain Q5 ?


Official Explanation


5. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage about neuroendocrine cells?

Explanation

This is a Detail question, which asks us to identify what is explicitly stated in the passage about neuroendocrine cells. We find information about neuroendocrine cells in the first and last sentence of the first paragraph.

From the information in this paragraph, we learn that the neuroendocrine cells which produce oxytocin are unlike most other neuroendocrine cells because the parts of the body they affect are far away from the brain.

The passage states that the neuroendocrine cells (a type of neuron) that secrete oxytocin are unusual even among neuroendocrine cells, in that they affect parts of the body far away from the brain.

Answer: C


Hope it helps
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2019, 23:43
why is 'b' wrong in question 5?
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New post 08 Oct 2019, 02:16
vp680 wrote:
why is 'b' wrong in question 5?


Although we know that oxytocin, which controls important maternal functions in mammalian females, is created by neuroendocrine cells, we do not know that producing it is their only function.

Hope it helps
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ   [#permalink] 08 Oct 2019, 02:16
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