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The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ

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The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Jul 2018, 23:06
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The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special type of neuron, in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and controls several important maternal functions in mammalian females. Not all hypothalamic neurons secrete hormones; many behave as normal neurons do and form synapses with other neurons, thereby transmitting impulses to various parts of the body. The neurons that secrete oxytocin are unusual even among neuroendocrine cells, in that they affect parts of the body far away from the brain.

Studies have shown that releasing oxytocin into the blood creates maternal behavior. When studying the effects of this hormone, researchers injected rats with oxytocin and immediately observed behaviors typical of mother rats. Researchers found more evidence that oxytocin creates maternal behavior when they released oxytocin antagonists into the bloodstream of rats which had just given birth. The new mother rats failed to show signs of maternal behavior for their newborn pups until the injections ceased.

Oxytocin has an almost identical structure to another hormone, vasopressin, which reveals much about oxytocin’s evolutionary history. Although the two hormones are synthesized in the same place in the brain and share most of their amino acid structure, their functions are completely separate. Both hormones are found only in mammals; in other vertebrates there is only one hormone, called vasotocin. Some scientists hypothesize that, early in mammalian evolution, the gene for vasotocin split, originally creating two identical genes. These genes mutated, producing what we know today as oxytocin and vasopressin. While vasopressin maintained the function of vasotocin, oxytocin began to control actions that were either specific to mammals or more developed in mammals than in other vertebrates.


B
As the last sentence of the second paragraph indicates, when the injection of oxytocin antagonists, or blockers, ceased, the mother rats started behaving maternally. So we learn that when oxytocin is suppressed, maternal behavior is also suppressed, to return after oxytocin is no longer suppressed. From this we learn of the direct relationship between oxytocin and maternal behavior. Since no other interventions (e.g. no oxytocin injections, or other additions of oxytocin) are described, we can infer that oxytocin was already present in the mother rat's bloodstream, but suppressed by the antagonists. Therefore, the mother rat must have produced the hormone herself and released it into her bloodstream.


Which of the following does the author suggest occurs when a mother rat gives birth?

A. Their normal amount of oxytocin drops significantly.
B. Oxytocin is released into the bloodstream.
C. Oxytocin antagonists are released into the bloodstream.
D. Vasopressin is released into the bloodstream.
E. The normal amount of oxytocin antagonists decreases drastically.


A
The first paragraph describes the hormone oxytocin, the second describes one of its functions and the third describes its evolutionary history.

The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. describe the hormone oxytocin, its evolutionary history and one of its important functions
B. discuss neuroendocrine cells and their function in the body
C. investigate the hormones produced in the hypothalamus, their function and their evolutionary history
D. explain how vasopressin is similar to oxytocin
E. reveal the function of oxytocin in mammalian females


B
The passage explicitly states that the new mother rats failed to show signs of maternal behavior for their newborn pups until the injections ceased.

According to the passage, which of the following was the result of the release of oxytocin antagonists into the blood of new mother rats?

A. maternal behavior
B. a lack of maternal behavior
C. behavior which contradicted the researchers' expectations
D. behavior which confirmed the researchers' expectations
E. normal behavior


D
The second paragraph discusses oxytocin's role in maternal behavior, which supports the author's statement that oxytocin controls important maternal functions.


The function of the second paragraph is to

A . discuss several issues raised in the first paragraph
B. introduce an issue which the third paragraph expands upon
C. question an assertion made in the first paragraph
D. provide support for a statement made in the first paragraph
E. compare the structures of two different hormones


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Originally posted by reto on 24 May 2015, 10:43.
Last edited by workout on 28 Jul 2018, 23:06, edited 1 time in total.
Formatted according to RC rules
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2015, 07:31
Kindly review and revert for answers below
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New post 30 May 2015, 14:27
OA are provided - see above (spoilers).
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2015, 00:09
Thanks Reto for the response. New to club and learning :)
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2015, 05:23
reto wrote:
OA are provided - see above (spoilers).


I think the answer for the 3rd question should be D and not B.
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2015, 00:43
KS15 wrote:
reto wrote:
OA are provided - see above (spoilers).


I think the answer for the 3rd question should be D and not B.


It would have been correct, if somewhere in the passage author had said that the experiment "confirmed the researchers' expectation". Also we don't know what researcher is thinking, as the passage is all about what the author's POV is. Also the question is about the reaction of an action, so the correct answer in B.
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New post 28 Jul 2018, 22:42
Hi workout

Please reformat the passage and questions, and add the Timers.
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2018, 23:13
gmat1393 wrote:
Hi workout

Please reformat the passage and questions, and add the Timers.


The passage has been formatted as per the RC rules.
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 05:03
daagh workout
I have a question here. The passage says "Researchers found more evidence that oxytocin creates maternal behavior when they released oxytocin antagonists into the bloodstream of rats which had just given birth."
So isnt the OA of question 1 wrong, it should be C
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The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2018, 07:23
Got 4/4 correct in 5:10 min including 3:45 for reading the passage.

Passage Map:


1) The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, => Production of oxytocin

2) Studies have shown that releasing oxytocin into the blood creates maternal behavior. => Experiments to show that oxytocin causes maternal behaviour.

3) Oxytocin has an almost identical structure to another hormone, vasopressin, which reveals much about oxytocin’s evolutionary history. => Comparison with Vasopressin
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The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 14:30
GMATNinja


For Q1 - i was not sure between option B and option E

--- How can one infer (B) per the choice ? All the passage said that
A) Studies have shown releasing oxytocin into the blood creates maternal behavior
B) Studying the effects of this hormone (via injecting rats with this hormone) - researchers observed behaviors typical of mother rats

Its quite possible

-- These hormones go into the blood stream not during child birth but perhaps right after child birth ?
OR

-- That mother rats are "motherly" because of their gender perhaps (being female) or perhaps because of other neurons releasing other things into their blood stream during childbirth ?

Please assist as i think this is CR inference type question and i am quiet weak in CR
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 15:10
Hi GMATNinja

Could you confirm how to do question 4 in this case please ?
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Re: The hormone oxytocin is created by neuroendocrine cells, a special typ   [#permalink] 17 Jan 2019, 15:10
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