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# The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first

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The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2013, 09:22
6
8
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Difficulty:

15% (low)

Question Stats:

74% (01:12) correct 26% (01:42) wrong based on 643 sessions

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The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970's, when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(B) the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals

(C) the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals

(D) the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals

(E) the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals

Need explanation.................
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2013, 09:39
9
5
mun23 wrote:
The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970's,when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
(B) the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals
(C) the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals
(D) the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals
(E) the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals

Dear mun23,

Idiomatically, the verb "show" (like the verbs "think", "tell", "know", "believe" and a host of other "cognitive" verbs) must take a "that"-clause.
show that P does Q
The word "that" is omitted in colloquial, informal English, but it's absolutely needed on the GMAT. The only choice that does this correctly is (A).
We can't use the infinitive structure
show P to do Q
This is the mistake of (B).
The other choices have a variety of idiomatically incorrect options --- participles, "P as Q", etc. The verb "show" demands a "that"-clause.

Does this make sense?

Mike
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2013, 09:58
2
just to add the option C ,D and E is implying that the study literally showed the compounds entering into the food chain as if it is some kind of physical process !!
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2013, 10:36
mun23 wrote:
The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970's,when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(B)the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals

(C)the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals

(D)the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals

(E)the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals

Need explanation.................

I am not yet very thorough with idioms, thus request screening of my approach by experts

Choice A is correct - uses past perfect correctly to represent the earliest action
Choice B - uses infinitive actual verb missing
Choices C, D and E - are missing action verbs (using noun - harmful/harmfulness and gerund - entering and harming without preceding ,)

Choices C, D and E also distorts meaning "studies showed the entry of the compounds...." as per intended meaning : studies showed the compound X had already entered food chain and were harmful to some animals"
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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19 May 2014, 05:46
mikemcgarry wrote:
mun23 wrote:
The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970's,when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
(B) the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals
(C) the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals
(D) the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals
(E) the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals

Dear mun23,

Idiomatically, the verb "show" (like the verbs "think", "tell", "know", "believe" and a host of other "cognitive" verbs) must take a "that"-clause.
show that P does Q
The word "that" is omitted in colloquial, informal English, but it's absolutely needed on the GMAT. The only choice that does this correctly is (A).
We can't use the infinitive structure
show P to do Q
This is the mistake of (B).
The other choices have a variety of idiomatically incorrect options --- participles, "P as Q", etc. The verb "show" demands a "that"-clause.

Does this make sense?

Mike

How are "show" and "tell" cognitive verbs?
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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19 May 2014, 11:45
2
TooLong150 wrote:
How are "show" and "tell" cognitive verbs?

Dear TooLong150
As I am using the term, a "cognitive" verb does not necessarily imply incredible intelligence. It simply means that the direct object of the verb is a "that"-clause containing some factual information.

Think about the factual piece of data: Henry VIII was King of England for 37 years.
I can know that Henry VIII was King of England for 37 years.
I can show the class that Henry VIII was King of England for 37 years.
I can tell you that Henry VIII was King of England for 37 years.

Because all these verbs can take factual data as their direct object, I classify them all as cognitive.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2014, 02:46
mikemcgarry wrote:
mun23 wrote:
The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970's,when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
(B) the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals
(C) the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals
(D) the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals
(E) the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals

Dear mun23,

Idiomatically, the verb "show" (like the verbs "think", "tell", "know", "believe" and a host of other "cognitive" verbs) must take a "that"-clause.
show that P does Q
The word "that" is omitted in colloquial, informal English, but it's absolutely needed on the GMAT. The only choice that does this correctly is (A).
We can't use the infinitive structure
show P to do Q
This is the mistake of (B).
The other choices have a variety of idiomatically incorrect options --- participles, "P as Q", etc. The verb "show" demands a "that"-clause.

Does this make sense?

Mike

Is there a way to classify and identify cognitive verb.
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2014, 10:41
1
honchos wrote:
Is there a way to classify and identify cognitive verb.

Dear honchos,
I'm happy to respond. I would say, that's not the best question to ask. I would say that it's better just to study the GMAT idioms, and learn the idioms that go with each individual verb. Here's a set of GMAT idiom flashcards:
https://gmat.magoosh.com/flashcards/idioms
I hope this helps.
Mike
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2014, 23:16
Can someone explain the verb tense in A, please?
I thought the compounds would continue enter the food chain after the studies show the results.
This sentence doesn't have some markers to indicate we should use past perfect verb tense.
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 17 Nov 2014, 16:59
liu1993918 wrote:
Can someone explain the verb tense in A, please?
I thought the compounds would continue enter the food chain after the studies show the results.
This sentence doesn't have some markers to indicate we should use past perfect verb tense.

Two things happened in the past:

i) In the 1970's, studied showed something
ii) Compounds entered the food chain (at some unspecified time between 1929 and 1970`s)

When two events happen in the past, and we need to depict the chronological sequence of the two events, we use past perfect to depict the event that happened earlier, in this case: Compounds entered the food chain.

This is in fact the most classical usage of past perfect.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses past perfect tense, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail you the corresponding section.
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Originally posted by EducationAisle on 16 Nov 2014, 22:26.
Last edited by EducationAisle on 17 Nov 2014, 16:59, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2014, 11:44
liu1993918 wrote:
Can someone explain the verb tense in A, please?
I thought the compounds would continue enter the food chain after the studies show the results.
This sentence doesn't have some markers to indicate we should use past perfect verb tense.

Dear liu1993918,
I'm happy to respond.

With all due respect to EducationAisle, I would frame this a bit differently. This is indirect speech. The verb "showed" is a communication verb (like "say", "tell", "express", etc.) We are not given a direct quote from the studies: instead, we are simply told what they showed. This is indirect speech. In indirect speech, the verb tenses follow a set of rules know as sequence of tenses. See this article:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/sequence-o ... orrection/

If the speaker (in this case, the "studies") is speaking or communicating in our past, and it speaks about something in the speaker's past, we communicate that with the past perfect tense.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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The industrial pollutants known as PCBs were first manufactured  [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2014, 08:52
The industrial pollutants known as PCBs were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970`s,when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(B)the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals

(C)the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals

(D)the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals

(E)the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCBs were first manufactured  [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2014, 06:57
1
IMO - A

The industrial pollutants known as PCBs were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970`s,when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
>> correct idiom : show that X is Y. Only option A has this correct idiomatic structure. Lets analyse the options further.
(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
>> correct idiom. Corrent tense transition (use of double past. entering happened first and then became harmful)
(B) the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals
>> to have entered the food chain...awkward
(C) the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals
>> studies showed the entry of the comp....again awkward
(D) the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals
>> same as C
(E) the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals
>> meaning as if comp. was entering just to harm some animal. Is this motto of the compound? nonsensical.
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2015, 15:06
mikemcgarry wrote:
liu1993918 wrote:
Can someone explain the verb tense in A, please?
I thought the compounds would continue enter the food chain after the studies show the results.
This sentence doesn't have some markers to indicate we should use past perfect verb tense.

Dear liu1993918,
I'm happy to respond.

With all due respect to EducationAisle, I would frame this a bit differently. This is indirect speech. The verb "showed" is a communication verb (like "say", "tell", "express", etc.) We are not given a direct quote from the studies: instead, we are simply told what they showed. This is indirect speech. In indirect speech, the verb tenses follow a set of rules know as sequence of tenses. See this article:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/sequence-o ... orrection/

If the speaker (in this case, the "studies") is speaking or communicating in our past, and it speaks about something in the speaker's past, we communicate that with the past perfect tense.

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Hi Mik,

Please help me to clarify choice A. Although I understand its meaning, I did not choose it because, for the purpose of parallelism and unambiguity, I thought there must be a second "that" before "were harmful...", as ".... and that they were harmful...". Without it, I think this sentence is ambiguous since "were harmful..." could refer to "studies".

About choice D, I don't think the absence of "that" after "showed" is a problem. "entry" and "harmfulness" are nouns, not facts. So "the studies showed the entry and the harmfulness" is ok, just as "The deep analysis of GMAT score shows his weakness in SC part". Also, the pronoun "it" refers to "entry", and I don't think pronoun ambiguity is a reason to eliminate a choice in GMAT SC.

I agree that the meaning in choice A is better, but I still think D is ok. So please help me with this. Thank you so much!
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2015, 20:49
2
tronghieu1987 wrote:
Hi Mik,

Please help me to clarify choice A. Although I understand its meaning, I did not choose it because, for the purpose of parallelism and unambiguity, I thought there must be a second "that" before "were harmful...", as ".... and that they were harmful...". Without it, I think this sentence is ambiguous since "were harmful..." could refer to "studies".

About choice D, I don't think the absence of "that" after "showed" is a problem. "entry" and "harmfulness" are nouns, not facts. So "the studies showed the entry and the harmfulness" is ok, just as "The deep analysis of GMAT score shows his weakness in SC part". Also, the pronoun "it" refers to "entry", and I don't think pronoun ambiguity is a reason to eliminate a choice in GMAT SC.

I agree that the meaning in choice A is better, but I still think D is ok. So please help me with this. Thank you so much!

Dear tronghieu1987,
I'm happy to respond.

The parallelism in choice (A) is between two verbs for the same subject. There is absolutely no ambiguity about this.
(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
In other words:
...that the compounds
and
//were harmful to some animals.

In this construction, it's very clear that the two verbs are parallel. We do NOT need to insert "that they" to change this from parallel verbs to parallel clauses, because that would be wordier and awkward.

The basic structure of (D) is grammatically correct. You are right: when the verb "to show" is followed by a simple noun direct object, not a clause, there is absolutely no need of the word "that."
Here are the problems with (D).
1) It's not so much a mistake in the pronoun; rather, the pronoun changes the meaning. Exactly what causes harm to the animals? According to the prompt, it would be the compounds themselves. According to (D), it's the entry of the compounds, not the compounds, that causes harm. Hmmm. That's subtle, but it is a change in meaning, which is not allowed.
2) Even if there were no pronoun problem, think about it. Choice (A) had full clauses with full verbs: it was packed with active language. Choice (D) is stuff full of nouns. This may be grammatically correct, but it's a rhetorical disaster. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/active-verbs-on-the-gmat/
The phrasing in (A) is direct, powerful, and rippling with action. The phrasing in (D) clumsy and congealed into inaction. Think about the scientist who would speak this sentence. He is telling us about how dangerous these chemicals are. He would want to be persuasive about this important point. Active & direct language, containing full verbs inside full clauses, is very persuasive. Indirect awkward language that freezes all the action inside nouns is not very exciting at all. That's really the problem with (D). So what if it is grammatically correct---it's a rhetorical trainwreck!

Remember, the GMAT SC is not simply about grammar. It's about how a sentence works at the levels of grammar, logic, and rhetoric. All three are important, and if you focus on one and ignore the other two, the GMAT will frustrate you.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2015, 22:05
mikemcgarry wrote:
With all due respect to EducationAisle, I would frame this a bit differently. This is indirect speech. The verb "showed" is a communication verb (like "say", "tell", "express", etc.)

Hi Mike, even without the usage of showed, past perfect is the right tense here.

So, for example, following sentence (which removes showed and hence, has been slightly altered).

The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America, but by 1970's, the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2015, 22:06
mikemcgarry wrote:
tronghieu1987 wrote:
Hi Mik,

Please help me to clarify choice A. Although I understand its meaning, I did not choose it because, for the purpose of parallelism and unambiguity, I thought there must be a second "that" before "were harmful...", as ".... and that they were harmful...". Without it, I think this sentence is ambiguous since "were harmful..." could refer to "studies".

About choice D, I don't think the absence of "that" after "showed" is a problem. "entry" and "harmfulness" are nouns, not facts. So "the studies showed the entry and the harmfulness" is ok, just as "The deep analysis of GMAT score shows his weakness in SC part". Also, the pronoun "it" refers to "entry", and I don't think pronoun ambiguity is a reason to eliminate a choice in GMAT SC.

I agree that the meaning in choice A is better, but I still think D is ok. So please help me with this. Thank you so much!

Dear tronghieu1987,
I'm happy to respond.

The parallelism in choice (A) is between two verbs for the same subject. There is absolutely no ambiguity about this.
(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
In other words:
...that the compounds
and
//were harmful to some animals.

In this construction, it's very clear that the two verbs are parallel. We do NOT need to insert "that they" to change this from parallel verbs to parallel clauses, because that would be wordier and awkward.

The basic structure of (D) is grammatically correct. You are right: when the verb "to show" is followed by a simple noun direct object, not a clause, there is absolutely no need of the word "that."
Here are the problems with (D).
1) It's not so much a mistake in the pronoun; rather, the pronoun changes the meaning. Exactly what causes harm to the animals? According to the prompt, it would be the compounds themselves. According to (D), it's the entry of the compounds, not the compounds, that causes harm. Hmmm. That's subtle, but it is a change in meaning, which is not allowed.
2) Even if there were no pronoun problem, think about it. Choice (A) had full clauses with full verbs: it was packed with active language. Choice (D) is stuff full of nouns. This may be grammatically correct, but it's a rhetorical disaster. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/active-verbs-on-the-gmat/
The phrasing in (A) is direct, powerful, and rippling with action. The phrasing in (D) clumsy and congealed into inaction. Think about the scientist who would speak this sentence. He is telling us about how dangerous these chemicals are. He would want to be persuasive about this important point. Active & direct language, containing full verbs inside full clauses, is very persuasive. Indirect awkward language that freezes all the action inside nouns is not very exciting at all. That's really the problem with (D). So what if it is grammatically correct---it's a rhetorical trainwreck!

Remember, the GMAT SC is not simply about grammar. It's about how a sentence works at the levels of grammar, logic, and rhetoric. All three are important, and if you focus on one and ignore the other two, the GMAT will frustrate you.

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Super great explanation, Mike! Thank you so much! I just wonder how people could figure these things out within 2 minutes
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2015, 22:09
tronghieu1987 wrote:
I thought there must be a second "that" before "were harmful...", as ".... and that they were harmful..."

Hi tronghieu1987, I had discussed this issue about repetition of that in detail in this post:

gmatprep-challengeq-the-bones-of-majungatholus-atopus-176167.html#p1394601
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2015, 15:55
EducationAisle wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
With all due respect to EducationAisle, I would frame this a bit differently. This is indirect speech. The verb "showed" is a communication verb (like "say", "tell", "express", etc.)

Hi Mike, even without the usage of showed, past perfect is the right tense here.

So, for example, following sentence (which removes showed and hence, has been slightly altered).

The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America, but by 1970's, the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

Dear EducationAisle,
My friend, the example sentence you provided would never appear as such on the GMAT. You have used the simple past, "manufactured" and "used," for the earlier events, and then the past perfect for a considerably later event. The GMAT would scrupulous avoid this confusing scenario. It's true that if the latter half stood as a sentence on its own, then the past perfect would be justified. It's harder to appreciate the GMAT's perspective on the sentence as a whole.
Mike
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2015, 18:38
mikemcgarry wrote:
Dear EducationAisle,
My friend, the example sentence you provided would never appear as such on the GMAT. You have used the simple past, "manufactured" and "used," for the earlier events, and then the past perfect for a considerably later event. The GMAT would scrupulous avoid this confusing scenario.

Hi Mike, thanks for your post.

So, are you suggesting that the usage of Past Perfect on GMAT would always be accompanied by indirect speech?

Also, curious to know why you say it's a confusing scenario.
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Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first &nbs [#permalink] 25 Nov 2015, 18:38

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