GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 20 Jul 2018, 00:07

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

4 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Status: struggling with GMAT
Joined: 06 Dec 2012
Posts: 169
Location: Bangladesh
Concentration: Accounting
GMAT Date: 04-06-2013
GPA: 3.65
The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Mar 2013, 10:22
4
1
6
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  15% (low)

Question Stats:

74% (00:51) correct 26% (01:09) wrong based on 569 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970's, when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(B) the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals

(C) the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals

(D) the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals

(E) the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals

Need explanation.................
Most Helpful Expert Reply
Expert Post
9 KUDOS received
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4667
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Mar 2013, 10:39
9
5
mun23 wrote:
The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970's,when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
(B) the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals
(C) the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals
(D) the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals
(E) the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals


Dear mun23,

Idiomatically, the verb "show" (like the verbs "think", "tell", "know", "believe" and a host of other "cognitive" verbs) must take a "that"-clause.
show that P does Q
The word "that" is omitted in colloquial, informal English, but it's absolutely needed on the GMAT. The only choice that does this correctly is (A).
We can't use the infinitive structure
show P to do Q
This is the mistake of (B).
The other choices have a variety of idiomatically incorrect options --- participles, "P as Q", etc. The verb "show" demands a "that"-clause.

Does this make sense?

Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Image

Image

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

General Discussion
2 KUDOS received
Director
Director
avatar
Joined: 05 Sep 2010
Posts: 780
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Mar 2013, 10:58
2
just to add the option C ,D and E is implying that the study literally showed the compounds entering into the food chain as if it is some kind of physical process !!
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Joined: 23 Mar 2011
Posts: 434
Location: India
GPA: 2.5
WE: Operations (Hospitality and Tourism)
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Mar 2013, 11:36
mun23 wrote:
The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970's,when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(B)the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals

(C)the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals

(D)the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals

(E)the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals

Need explanation.................


I am not yet very thorough with idioms, thus request screening of my approach by experts

Choice A is correct - uses past perfect correctly to represent the earliest action
Choice B - uses infinitive actual verb missing
Choices C, D and E - are missing action verbs (using noun - harmful/harmfulness and gerund - entering and harming without preceding ,)

Choices C, D and E also distorts meaning "studies showed the entry of the compounds...." as per intended meaning : studies showed the compound X had already entered food chain and were harmful to some animals"
_________________

"When the going gets tough, the tough gets going!"

Bring ON SOME KUDOS MATES+++



-----------------------------
Quant Notes consolidated: http://gmatclub.com/forum/consolodited-quant-guides-of-forum-most-helpful-in-preps-151067.html#p1217652

My GMAT journey begins: http://gmatclub.com/forum/my-gmat-journey-begins-122251.html

All about Richard Ivey: http://gmatclub.com/forum/all-about-richard-ivey-148594.html#p1190518

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 10 Mar 2013
Posts: 236
GMAT 1: 620 Q44 V31
GMAT 2: 690 Q47 V37
GMAT 3: 610 Q47 V28
GMAT 4: 700 Q50 V34
GMAT 5: 700 Q49 V36
GMAT 6: 690 Q48 V35
GMAT 7: 750 Q49 V42
GMAT 8: 730 Q50 V39
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 May 2014, 06:46
mikemcgarry wrote:
mun23 wrote:
The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970's,when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
(B) the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals
(C) the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals
(D) the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals
(E) the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals


Dear mun23,

Idiomatically, the verb "show" (like the verbs "think", "tell", "know", "believe" and a host of other "cognitive" verbs) must take a "that"-clause.
show that P does Q
The word "that" is omitted in colloquial, informal English, but it's absolutely needed on the GMAT. The only choice that does this correctly is (A).
We can't use the infinitive structure
show P to do Q
This is the mistake of (B).
The other choices have a variety of idiomatically incorrect options --- participles, "P as Q", etc. The verb "show" demands a "that"-clause.

Does this make sense?

Mike :-)


How are "show" and "tell" ;) cognitive verbs?
Expert Post
2 KUDOS received
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4667
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 May 2014, 12:45
2
TooLong150 wrote:
How are "show" and "tell" ;) cognitive verbs?

Dear TooLong150
As I am using the term, a "cognitive" verb does not necessarily imply incredible intelligence. It simply means that the direct object of the verb is a "that"-clause containing some factual information.

Think about the factual piece of data: Henry VIII was King of England for 37 years.
I can know that Henry VIII was King of England for 37 years.
I can show the class that Henry VIII was King of England for 37 years.
I can tell you that Henry VIII was King of England for 37 years.

Because all these verbs can take factual data as their direct object, I classify them all as cognitive.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Image

Image

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Director
Director
User avatar
Status: Verbal Forum Moderator
Joined: 17 Apr 2013
Posts: 540
Location: India
GMAT 1: 710 Q50 V36
GMAT 2: 750 Q51 V41
GMAT 3: 790 Q51 V49
GPA: 3.3
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 28 Aug 2014, 03:46
mikemcgarry wrote:
mun23 wrote:
The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970's,when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
(B) the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals
(C) the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals
(D) the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals
(E) the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals


Dear mun23,

Idiomatically, the verb "show" (like the verbs "think", "tell", "know", "believe" and a host of other "cognitive" verbs) must take a "that"-clause.
show that P does Q
The word "that" is omitted in colloquial, informal English, but it's absolutely needed on the GMAT. The only choice that does this correctly is (A).
We can't use the infinitive structure
show P to do Q
This is the mistake of (B).
The other choices have a variety of idiomatically incorrect options --- participles, "P as Q", etc. The verb "show" demands a "that"-clause.

Does this make sense?

Mike :-)



Is there a way to classify and identify cognitive verb.
_________________

Like my post Send me a Kudos :) It is a Good manner.
My Debrief: http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-score-750-and-750-i-moved-from-710-to-189016.html

Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4667
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 28 Aug 2014, 11:41
1
honchos wrote:
Is there a way to classify and identify cognitive verb.

Dear honchos,
I'm happy to respond. :-) I would say, that's not the best question to ask. I would say that it's better just to study the GMAT idioms, and learn the idioms that go with each individual verb. Here's a set of GMAT idiom flashcards:
https://gmat.magoosh.com/flashcards/idioms
I hope this helps.
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Image

Image

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 28 Oct 2014
Posts: 5
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 16 Nov 2014, 00:16
Can someone explain the verb tense in A, please?
I thought the compounds would continue enter the food chain after the studies show the results.
This sentence doesn't have some markers to indicate we should use past perfect verb tense.
Director
Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 967
Location: Bangalore, India
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 17 Nov 2014, 17:59
liu1993918 wrote:
Can someone explain the verb tense in A, please?
I thought the compounds would continue enter the food chain after the studies show the results.
This sentence doesn't have some markers to indicate we should use past perfect verb tense.

Two things happened in the past:

i) In the 1970's, studied showed something
ii) Compounds entered the food chain (at some unspecified time between 1929 and 1970`s)

When two events happen in the past, and we need to depict the chronological sequence of the two events, we use past perfect to depict the event that happened earlier, in this case: Compounds entered the food chain.

This is in fact the most classical usage of past perfect.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses past perfect tense, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail you the corresponding section.
_________________

Thanks,
Ashish
EducationAisle, Bangalore

Sentence Correction Nirvana available on Amazon.in and Flipkart

Now! Preview the entire Grammar Section of Sentence Correction Nirvana at pothi.com


Originally posted by EducationAisle on 16 Nov 2014, 23:26.
Last edited by EducationAisle on 17 Nov 2014, 17:59, edited 1 time in total.
Expert Post
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4667
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Nov 2014, 12:44
liu1993918 wrote:
Can someone explain the verb tense in A, please?
I thought the compounds would continue enter the food chain after the studies show the results.
This sentence doesn't have some markers to indicate we should use past perfect verb tense.

Dear liu1993918,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

With all due respect to EducationAisle, I would frame this a bit differently. This is indirect speech. The verb "showed" is a communication verb (like "say", "tell", "express", etc.) We are not given a direct quote from the studies: instead, we are simply told what they showed. This is indirect speech. In indirect speech, the verb tenses follow a set of rules know as sequence of tenses. See this article:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/sequence-o ... orrection/

If the speaker (in this case, the "studies") is speaking or communicating in our past, and it speaks about something in the speaker's past, we communicate that with the past perfect tense.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Image

Image

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Expert Post
MBA Section Director
User avatar
V
Joined: 19 Mar 2012
Posts: 5126
Location: India
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Marketing (Non-Profit and Government)
The industrial pollutants known as PCBs were first manufactured  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Dec 2014, 09:52
The industrial pollutants known as PCBs were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970`s,when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

(B)the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals

(C)the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals

(D)the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals

(E)the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals
_________________

Have an MBA application Question? ASK ME ANYTHING!

My Stuff: Four Years to 760 | MBA Trends for Indian Applicants

My GMAT Resources
V30-V40: How to do it! | GMATPrep SC | GMATPrep CR | GMATPrep RC | Critical Reasoning Megathread | CR: Numbers and Statistics | CR: Weaken | CR: Strengthen | CR: Assumption | SC: Modifier | SC: Meaning | SC: SV Agreement | RC: Primary Purpose | PS/DS: Numbers and Inequalities | PS/DS: Combinatorics and Coordinates

My MBA Resources
Everything about the MBA Application | Over-Represented MBA woes | Fit Vs Rankings | Low GPA: What you can do | Letter of Recommendation: The Guide | Indian B Schools accepting GMAT score | Why MBA?

My Reviews
Veritas Prep Live Online

Intern
Intern
User avatar
Joined: 23 Dec 2011
Posts: 31
Location: United States
Concentration: Technology, General Management
GPA: 3.83
WE: Programming (Computer Software)
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCBs were first manufactured  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Dec 2014, 07:57
IMO - A

The industrial pollutants known as PCBs were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America until the 1970`s,when studies showed that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
>> correct idiom : show that X is Y. Only option A has this correct idiomatic structure. Lets analyse the options further.
(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
>> correct idiom. Corrent tense transition (use of double past. entering happened first and then became harmful)
(B) the compounds to have entered the food chain and be harmful to some animals
>> to have entered the food chain...awkward
(C) the entry of the compounds into the food chain as harmful to some animals
>> studies showed the entry of the comp....again awkward
(D) the entry of the compounds into the food chain and its harmfulness to animals
>> same as C
(E) the compounds entering into the food and harming some animals
>> meaning as if comp. was entering just to harm some animal. Is this motto of the compound? nonsensical.
Current Student
avatar
Joined: 29 Apr 2014
Posts: 122
Location: Viet Nam
Concentration: Finance, Technology
GMAT 1: 640 Q50 V26
GMAT 2: 660 Q51 V27
GMAT 3: 680 Q50 V31
GMAT 4: 710 Q50 V35
GMAT 5: 760 Q50 V42
Reviews Badge
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Nov 2015, 16:06
mikemcgarry wrote:
liu1993918 wrote:
Can someone explain the verb tense in A, please?
I thought the compounds would continue enter the food chain after the studies show the results.
This sentence doesn't have some markers to indicate we should use past perfect verb tense.

Dear liu1993918,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

With all due respect to EducationAisle, I would frame this a bit differently. This is indirect speech. The verb "showed" is a communication verb (like "say", "tell", "express", etc.) We are not given a direct quote from the studies: instead, we are simply told what they showed. This is indirect speech. In indirect speech, the verb tenses follow a set of rules know as sequence of tenses. See this article:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/sequence-o ... orrection/

If the speaker (in this case, the "studies") is speaking or communicating in our past, and it speaks about something in the speaker's past, we communicate that with the past perfect tense.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Hi Mik,

Please help me to clarify choice A. Although I understand its meaning, I did not choose it because, for the purpose of parallelism and unambiguity, I thought there must be a second "that" before "were harmful...", as ".... and that they were harmful...". Without it, I think this sentence is ambiguous since "were harmful..." could refer to "studies".

About choice D, I don't think the absence of "that" after "showed" is a problem. "entry" and "harmfulness" are nouns, not facts. So "the studies showed the entry and the harmfulness" is ok, just as "The deep analysis of GMAT score shows his weakness in SC part". Also, the pronoun "it" refers to "entry", and I don't think pronoun ambiguity is a reason to eliminate a choice in GMAT SC.

I agree that the meaning in choice A is better, but I still think D is ok. So please help me with this. Thank you so much!
Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4667
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Nov 2015, 21:49
1
tronghieu1987 wrote:
Hi Mik,

Please help me to clarify choice A. Although I understand its meaning, I did not choose it because, for the purpose of parallelism and unambiguity, I thought there must be a second "that" before "were harmful...", as ".... and that they were harmful...". Without it, I think this sentence is ambiguous since "were harmful..." could refer to "studies".

About choice D, I don't think the absence of "that" after "showed" is a problem. "entry" and "harmfulness" are nouns, not facts. So "the studies showed the entry and the harmfulness" is ok, just as "The deep analysis of GMAT score shows his weakness in SC part". Also, the pronoun "it" refers to "entry", and I don't think pronoun ambiguity is a reason to eliminate a choice in GMAT SC.

I agree that the meaning in choice A is better, but I still think D is ok. So please help me with this. Thank you so much!

Dear tronghieu1987,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

The parallelism in choice (A) is between two verbs for the same subject. There is absolutely no ambiguity about this.
(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
In other words:
...that the compounds
//had entered the food chain
and
//were harmful to some animals.

In this construction, it's very clear that the two verbs are parallel. We do NOT need to insert "that they" to change this from parallel verbs to parallel clauses, because that would be wordier and awkward.

The basic structure of (D) is grammatically correct. You are right: when the verb "to show" is followed by a simple noun direct object, not a clause, there is absolutely no need of the word "that."
Here are the problems with (D).
1) It's not so much a mistake in the pronoun; rather, the pronoun changes the meaning. Exactly what causes harm to the animals? According to the prompt, it would be the compounds themselves. According to (D), it's the entry of the compounds, not the compounds, that causes harm. Hmmm. That's subtle, but it is a change in meaning, which is not allowed.
2) Even if there were no pronoun problem, think about it. Choice (A) had full clauses with full verbs: it was packed with active language. Choice (D) is stuff full of nouns. This may be grammatically correct, but it's a rhetorical disaster. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/active-verbs-on-the-gmat/
The phrasing in (A) is direct, powerful, and rippling with action. The phrasing in (D) clumsy and congealed into inaction. Think about the scientist who would speak this sentence. He is telling us about how dangerous these chemicals are. He would want to be persuasive about this important point. Active & direct language, containing full verbs inside full clauses, is very persuasive. Indirect awkward language that freezes all the action inside nouns is not very exciting at all. That's really the problem with (D). So what if it is grammatically correct---it's a rhetorical trainwreck!

Remember, the GMAT SC is not simply about grammar. It's about how a sentence works at the levels of grammar, logic, and rhetoric. All three are important, and if you focus on one and ignore the other two, the GMAT will frustrate you.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Image

Image

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Director
Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 967
Location: Bangalore, India
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Nov 2015, 23:05
mikemcgarry wrote:
With all due respect to EducationAisle, I would frame this a bit differently. This is indirect speech. The verb "showed" is a communication verb (like "say", "tell", "express", etc.)

Hi Mike, even without the usage of showed, past perfect is the right tense here.

So, for example, following sentence (which removes showed and hence, has been slightly altered).

The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America, but by 1970's, the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
_________________

Thanks,
Ashish
EducationAisle, Bangalore

Sentence Correction Nirvana available on Amazon.in and Flipkart

Now! Preview the entire Grammar Section of Sentence Correction Nirvana at pothi.com

Current Student
avatar
Joined: 29 Apr 2014
Posts: 122
Location: Viet Nam
Concentration: Finance, Technology
GMAT 1: 640 Q50 V26
GMAT 2: 660 Q51 V27
GMAT 3: 680 Q50 V31
GMAT 4: 710 Q50 V35
GMAT 5: 760 Q50 V42
Reviews Badge
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Nov 2015, 23:06
mikemcgarry wrote:
tronghieu1987 wrote:
Hi Mik,

Please help me to clarify choice A. Although I understand its meaning, I did not choose it because, for the purpose of parallelism and unambiguity, I thought there must be a second "that" before "were harmful...", as ".... and that they were harmful...". Without it, I think this sentence is ambiguous since "were harmful..." could refer to "studies".

About choice D, I don't think the absence of "that" after "showed" is a problem. "entry" and "harmfulness" are nouns, not facts. So "the studies showed the entry and the harmfulness" is ok, just as "The deep analysis of GMAT score shows his weakness in SC part". Also, the pronoun "it" refers to "entry", and I don't think pronoun ambiguity is a reason to eliminate a choice in GMAT SC.

I agree that the meaning in choice A is better, but I still think D is ok. So please help me with this. Thank you so much!

Dear tronghieu1987,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

The parallelism in choice (A) is between two verbs for the same subject. There is absolutely no ambiguity about this.
(A) that the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.
In other words:
...that the compounds
//had entered the food chain
and
//were harmful to some animals.

In this construction, it's very clear that the two verbs are parallel. We do NOT need to insert "that they" to change this from parallel verbs to parallel clauses, because that would be wordier and awkward.

The basic structure of (D) is grammatically correct. You are right: when the verb "to show" is followed by a simple noun direct object, not a clause, there is absolutely no need of the word "that."
Here are the problems with (D).
1) It's not so much a mistake in the pronoun; rather, the pronoun changes the meaning. Exactly what causes harm to the animals? According to the prompt, it would be the compounds themselves. According to (D), it's the entry of the compounds, not the compounds, that causes harm. Hmmm. That's subtle, but it is a change in meaning, which is not allowed.
2) Even if there were no pronoun problem, think about it. Choice (A) had full clauses with full verbs: it was packed with active language. Choice (D) is stuff full of nouns. This may be grammatically correct, but it's a rhetorical disaster. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/active-verbs-on-the-gmat/
The phrasing in (A) is direct, powerful, and rippling with action. The phrasing in (D) clumsy and congealed into inaction. Think about the scientist who would speak this sentence. He is telling us about how dangerous these chemicals are. He would want to be persuasive about this important point. Active & direct language, containing full verbs inside full clauses, is very persuasive. Indirect awkward language that freezes all the action inside nouns is not very exciting at all. That's really the problem with (D). So what if it is grammatically correct---it's a rhetorical trainwreck!

Remember, the GMAT SC is not simply about grammar. It's about how a sentence works at the levels of grammar, logic, and rhetoric. All three are important, and if you focus on one and ignore the other two, the GMAT will frustrate you.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Super great explanation, Mike! Thank you so much! I just wonder how people could figure these things out within 2 minutes :)
Director
Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 967
Location: Bangalore, India
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Nov 2015, 23:09
tronghieu1987 wrote:
I thought there must be a second "that" before "were harmful...", as ".... and that they were harmful..."

Hi tronghieu1987, I had discussed this issue about repetition of that in detail in this post:

gmatprep-challengeq-the-bones-of-majungatholus-atopus-176167.html#p1394601
_________________

Thanks,
Ashish
EducationAisle, Bangalore

Sentence Correction Nirvana available on Amazon.in and Flipkart

Now! Preview the entire Grammar Section of Sentence Correction Nirvana at pothi.com

Expert Post
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4667
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 25 Nov 2015, 16:55
EducationAisle wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
With all due respect to EducationAisle, I would frame this a bit differently. This is indirect speech. The verb "showed" is a communication verb (like "say", "tell", "express", etc.)

Hi Mike, even without the usage of showed, past perfect is the right tense here.

So, for example, following sentence (which removes showed and hence, has been slightly altered).

The industrial pollutants known as PCB's were first manufactured in 1929 and were used as coolants for electrical equipment in Europe and North America, but by 1970's, the compounds had entered the food chain and were harmful to some animals.

Dear EducationAisle,
My friend, the example sentence you provided would never appear as such on the GMAT. You have used the simple past, "manufactured" and "used," for the earlier events, and then the past perfect for a considerably later event. The GMAT would scrupulous avoid this confusing scenario. It's true that if the latter half stood as a sentence on its own, then the past perfect would be justified. It's harder to appreciate the GMAT's perspective on the sentence as a whole.
Mike
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Image

Image

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Director
Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 967
Location: Bangalore, India
Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 25 Nov 2015, 19:38
mikemcgarry wrote:
Dear EducationAisle,
My friend, the example sentence you provided would never appear as such on the GMAT. You have used the simple past, "manufactured" and "used," for the earlier events, and then the past perfect for a considerably later event. The GMAT would scrupulous avoid this confusing scenario.

Hi Mike, thanks for your post.

So, are you suggesting that the usage of Past Perfect on GMAT would always be accompanied by indirect speech?

Also, curious to know why you say it's a confusing scenario.
_________________

Thanks,
Ashish
EducationAisle, Bangalore

Sentence Correction Nirvana available on Amazon.in and Flipkart

Now! Preview the entire Grammar Section of Sentence Correction Nirvana at pothi.com

Re: The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first &nbs [#permalink] 25 Nov 2015, 19:38

Go to page    1   2    Next  [ 32 posts ] 

Display posts from previous: Sort by

The industrial pollutants known as PCB`s were first

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  

Events & Promotions

PREV
NEXT


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.