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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of [#permalink]
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Hello Everyone!

There have already been some great discussions about modifiers, transitions, and wordiness on this question. Let's tackle this question from a different angle and narrow it down to the right answer! Before we dive in, let's take a closer look at the original question and highlight any major differences in orange:

The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month
(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival

After a quick glance over the options, a few things stand out that we can focus on:

1. transition after "world": in that / proclaiming / when they / for / by proclamation of
2. the festival's month / the festival month / the month of the festival
3. during vs. for


Let's start with #3 on our list: during vs. for. Since this is an "x or y" situation, we know it will likely eliminate 2-3 options quickly, so it's a great place to start. It may seem like these two words can be used interchangeably, but when it comes to discussing time and events, they mean different things:

during = discussing something that happens within a time period (We went skiing during our 2-month long school break.)
for = discussing the duration of time an event happens (We studied for our final exams for 12 hours straight.)

Since we are talking about something that happens within a certain time period (a truce being proclaimed during the games), we need to keep options that use "during" and toss any options that use "for":

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month
(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival

We can eliminate options C & E because they use "for" instead of "during" to indicate that the truce occurs within the time frame that the games take place.

Next, let's focus on #2 on our list: the festival's month / the festival month / the month of the festival. This is another issue of idiom structure that focuses on how we discuss events which take place during a certain time:

the festival's month = the month belongs to the festival (...which doesn't really sound right, does it?)
the month of the festival = the festival takes place during a specific month (...which makes more sense, don't you think?)

My daughter's birthday takes place during the spring break's week. --> BAD
My daughter's birthday takes place during the week of her spring break. --> GOOD

In English, it makes more sense to say an event takes places during "the month of" rather than saying the month is owned by an event.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month
(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival

We can eliminate options A & B because the use the incorrect idiom structure "during the festival's month" to discuss an event that happens within a certain time frame.

There you go - option D is the correct choice! It's the only one that uses proper idiomatic structures to discuss events and timing!


Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.
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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
dj wrote:
The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.


(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month

(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month

(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month

(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival

(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival



Meaning is crucial to solving this problem:
Understanding the intended meaning is key to solving this question; the intended meaning of this sentence is that the Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world because a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival.

Concepts tested here: Meaning + Idioms + Awkwardness/Redundancy

A: This answer choice incorrectly uses "in that" to refer to the cause-effect relationship between the Olympic Games helping to keep peace among the Greek states and a sacred truce being proclaimed during the month of the festival; please remember, “in that” is used to reflect an intrinsic property and “because” is used to indicate a cause-effect relationship. Further, Option A uses the needlessly wordy phrase "in that", leading to awkwardness and redundancy.

B: Trap. This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "proclaiming a sacred truce"; the construction of this phrase illogically implies that the Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the Greek states because the games proclaimed a sacred truce during the month of the festival; the intended meaning is that the Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the Greek states because a sacred truce was proclaimed by an unspecified entity during the month of the festival.

C: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "when they proclaimed a sacred truce"; the use of "when" illogically implies that the Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the Greek states at the time when the states proclaimed a sacred truce during the month of the festival; the intended meaning is that the Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the Greek states because a sacred truce was proclaimed by an unspecified entity during the month of the festival.

D: Correct. This answer choice uses "for a sacred truce was proclaimed", conveying the intended meaning - that the Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the Greek states because a sacred truce was proclaimed by an unspecified entity during the month of the festival. Further, Option C correctly uses "for", a synonym of "because" in this context, to refer to the cause-effect relationship between the Olympic Games helping to keep peace among the Greek states and a sacred truce being proclaimed during the month of the festival. Besides, Option D is free of any awkwardness or redundancy.

E: This answer choice uses the needlessly wordy constructions "by proclamation of" and "that was for", leading to awkwardness and redundancy.

Hence, D is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of "Because" vs "In that" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~2 minutes):



All the best!
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The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.
A QUESTION TYPE WHERE MERELY GRAMMAR DOESNOT SUFFICE,UNDERSTANDING THE
INTENTION OF THE QUESTION BECOMES NECESSARY..AND ITS THE MOST DANGEROUS FORM OF SC QUESTION.THE SENTENCE IS TRYING TO STATE THAT THE PPROOF THAT OLYMPIC GAMES HELPED TO KEEP PEACE WAS THE FACT THAT A PEACE TREATY WAS SIGNED.NO CAUSE EFFECT IS MEANT HERE.
(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month
FESTIVALS'S MONTH sounds unidimatic.MONTH OF FESTIVAL is a better usage
(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
OLYMPIC GAMES CANNOT PROCLAIM ANYTHING
(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
FOR HE FESTIVAL MONTH is unidiomatic expression
should be DURING THE MONTH OF THE FESTIVAL
(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
CORRECT
(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival
TOO WORDY
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The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month. - Incorrect Unidiomatic
(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month. Incorrect Unidiomatic, The sentence means that the olympic games are proclaiming.
(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month. Incorrect - Pronoun Ambiguity.
(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival. Correct - For = Beacuse
(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival.Incorrect - The sentence means that the olympic games are proclaiming.
Hope this helped, please share Kudos +1 :)
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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of [#permalink]
The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month
- It has not spesific error but few red lights
- 1) The use of festival’s month - implies possesivness by the festival of the month. " The month of the festival is preffered.
- Let's hold it for now.

- The use of "in that" is a bit strage. "beucase" might feel more natural.
(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
- the V-ing modifier does not makes sense with the subject of the preceding clause (since gmaes cannot proclaim somthing).
- B is out.

(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
- the original statment describes a general behaviour. the use here of when implies a spesific event.
- This is a clear meaning change, hence C is out.

(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
- the use of "for" is ok here (part of FANBOYS to connect to independant clauses)
- we have "month of the festival" which is prefered to the "festival's month"
- This option is better than A.
- A is out.
- We keep D.

(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival
- again the use of "by proclaiming" gives the meaning that the games performed an action - this does not makes sense.

D is correct.
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Hi Expert,

I think there is a gap in my understanding. Please help !

The crow differs from eagle in that eagle has the sharp vision-- correct

As per my understanding "in that" clause is used to present "how"-- how crow differs from eagle

In the same way

The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world

how? in that (how Olympic games helped?)

a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of festival.

Acc to this reasoning, choice A seems to be correct
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AR15J wrote:
Hi Expert,

I think there is a gap in my understanding. Please help !

The crow differs from eagle in that eagle has the sharp vision-- correct

As per my understanding "in that" clause is used to present "how"-- how crow differs from eagle

In the same way

The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world

how? in that (how Olympic games helped?)

a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of festival.

Acc to this reasoning, choice A seems to be correct


Words such as "differ" should be there in the sentence if you would like to use "in that" to depict "how". Consider your own sentence:

The crow differs from eagle in that eagle has the sharp vision-- correct

You would not be able to construct this sentence only using "in that" (without "differ").

I scored high in that I studied hard... you may well understand that this sentence does not make sense (though how I scored high is depicted by I studied hard.)
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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of [#permalink]
My 2 cents:
NOTE: Phrases “during the month of the festival” and “for the month of the festival” mean separate things.
“during the month of the festival” – something was done during the month of festival. HERE WE DON’T KNOW WHEN THAT something WILL END!!!

“for the month of the festival” – something was solely done for the duration of festival month. HERE WE DO KNOW WHEN THAT something WILL END!!!

So in options C and E change the meaning of the sentence.
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manishtank1988 wrote:
My 2 cents:
NOTE: Phrases “during the month of the festival” and “for the month of the festival” mean separate things.
“during the month of the festival” – something was done during the month of festival. HERE WE DON’T KNOW WHEN THAT something WILL END!!!

“for the month of the festival” – something was solely done for the duration of festival month. HERE WE DO KNOW WHEN THAT something WILL END!!!

So in options C and E change the meaning of the sentence.


Not necessarily - "I have enough stock for this month.". This sentence does not imply that the stock will end at the end of this month.
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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of [#permalink]
Answer is D .
B seems to be trap answer .
In B proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month implies that Olympic games proclaimed the truce which is nonsensical.
Am i correct?
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arvind910619 wrote:
Answer is D .
B seems to be trap answer .
In B proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month implies that Olympic games proclaimed the truce which is nonsensical.
Am i correct?



Hello arvind910619,

Yes, you are correct in your analysis of Choice B.

Also the phrase festival's month is incorrect because this phrase seems to suggest that the month belonged to the festival. This is again nonsensical. The correct phrase the month of the festival conveys the logical meaning.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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arvind910619 wrote:
B seems to be trap answer .
In B proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month implies that Olympic games proclaimed the truce which is nonsensical.
Am i correct?

Hi arvind910619, yeah indeed and this is so subtle. Very good catch!

In fact, our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses an example that is based on this very question, to illustrate this subtle meaning issue. Have attached the corresponding section of the book, for your reference.
Attachments

Olympic Games.pdf [11.46 KiB]
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The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month ==> Festivals month is incorrect usage as festival is inanimate object and hence we should avoid possessive.

(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month ==> "Proclaiming" incorrectly modifying the previous clause which changes the meaning of the sentence, and the same error as the incorrect usage of festival's month.

(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month ==> "They" refers to whom here? “the pugnacious states” or “the Olympic Games”? - Usage is ambiguous.

(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival = CORRECT

(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival ==> Changes the meaning of the sentence

Hence, D
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The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month
As per OG explanation, “in that” is overly formal and stilted, and therefore, ‘for’ should be preferred over the same.
Also, “festival’s month” is an informal way of saying the idea “the month of the festival”. On GMAT, we should prefer the latter way.

(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
“proclaiming” is a verb-ing modifier following a clause and preceded by a comma. Therefore, it acts as a clause modifier. However, it doesn’t make sense with the subject of the preceding clause. The Games cannot proclaim anything!

Also, “month of the festival” is preferred over “festival’s month”.

(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
There is no antecedent of “they”. “they” cannot logically refer to ‘Olympic Games’. Also, “month of the festival” is preferred over “festival month”.

(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
CORRECT. For is used as BECAUSE over here. Other Examples include,

I was tired, for I had played cricket throughout the day..
I was very happy with her, for she supported me in all situations..
I gave few examples on usage of 'for', for smartyguy wanted clarity on the usage..

(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival
Like option B, this option also indicates that the Olympic Games did the proclamation! (Here "By proclamation" refers to the subject of the sentence -- The Olympic Games similar to the VERB-ING modifier in option B)

Also, this option distorts the meaning of the sentence. This option means that the sacred truce was always for the month of the festival which is NON-SENSICAL (as this information is presented by using a ‘that’ clause modifying ‘sacred truce’). Per the intended meaning it was "during the month of the festival."
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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of [#permalink]
mikemcgarry wrote:
skamal7 wrote:
The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month.

I'm happy to help with this. :-)
This is GMAT SC #60 in the OG13.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month
The OG feels that the phrase "in that" is somewhat stilted and over-formal. It does use two words where one would suffice. This one is not black & white wrong, but more a shade of gray. If all the other answers were clearly wrong, this probably could pass as a correct anwer.

(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
Misplaced modifier. The world isn't "proclaiming", so who is? The games? the states? The GMAT doesn't like ambiguity. Also, this sentence has two distinct actions, so it would be best phrased as two full [noun] + [verb] clauses, and this option casts the second half of the sentence as a participial phrase rather than as a clause. This is wrong.

(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
A pronoun with unclear antecedent --- does "they" mean the states? the games? the people of Greece (not mentioned explicitly --- another no-no for antecedents on the GMAT!). The antecedent of the pronoun "they" is ambiguity. On GMAT SC, ambiguity = death. This is wrong.

(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
Very clear. We have two full clauses, joined by the conjunction "for" (which means "because"), thus making clear the causal link between the two actions. This is sleek, efficient, and direct ---- a very strong answer.

(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival
A winner of the flabby awkward Olympics! This changes the verb "proclaimed" to a noun "proclamation", and almost invariably, this is the GMAT's strategy for changing a correct answer into a wrong answer. Whenever a verb is re-written as a noun, that almost always makes the sentence more awkward, less direct, and more wordy --- that's exactly what we have here. This version is an unholy abomination that should be taken out back and shot. This is incorrect.

Again, if everything else failed, we might go with (A) in a pinch, but here, (D) is a much stronger answer --- clearly (D) is the best possible answer here.

Mike :-)




HI,

In the option A, it indicates that the truce was proclaimed during in the games. However in the option D it doesnt say so. So can this choice be right ?
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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of [#permalink]
coolnaren wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
skamal7 wrote:
The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month.

I'm happy to help with this. :-)
This is GMAT SC #60 in the OG13.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month
The OG feels that the phrase "in that" is somewhat stilted and over-formal. It does use two words where one would suffice. This one is not black & white wrong, but more a shade of gray. If all the other answers were clearly wrong, this probably could pass as a correct anwer.

(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
Misplaced modifier. The world isn't "proclaiming", so who is? The games? the states? The GMAT doesn't like ambiguity. Also, this sentence has two distinct actions, so it would be best phrased as two full [noun] + [verb] clauses, and this option casts the second half of the sentence as a participial phrase rather than as a clause. This is wrong.

(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
A pronoun with unclear antecedent --- does "they" mean the states? the games? the people of Greece (not mentioned explicitly --- another no-no for antecedents on the GMAT!). The antecedent of the pronoun "they" is ambiguity. On GMAT SC, ambiguity = death. This is wrong.

(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
Very clear. We have two full clauses, joined by the conjunction "for" (which means "because"), thus making clear the causal link between the two actions. This is sleek, efficient, and direct ---- a very strong answer.

(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival
A winner of the flabby awkward Olympics! This changes the verb "proclaimed" to a noun "proclamation", and almost invariably, this is the GMAT's strategy for changing a correct answer into a wrong answer. Whenever a verb is re-written as a noun, that almost always makes the sentence more awkward, less direct, and more wordy --- that's exactly what we have here. This version is an unholy abomination that should be taken out back and shot. This is incorrect.

Again, if everything else failed, we might go with (A) in a pinch, but here, (D) is a much stronger answer --- clearly (D) is the best possible answer here.

Mike :-)




HI,

In the option A, it indicates that the truce was proclaimed during in the games. However in the option D it doesnt say so. So can this choice be right ?


Hi coolnaren

Choice A says that there was peace during the month in which the games were held. (This is the same meaning that Choice D gives us, albeit in a slightly better construction.) However, you have shared that that choice A conveys that peace or truce was proclaimed during the games themselves. So, there seems to be a gap in the understanding here. Could you please take a look at choice A again and check whether you misread any of the portions?

Cheers! :)

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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of [#permalink]
???festival???s month??? is not idiomatic as mentioned by egmat
whereas mikemcgarry mentioned in that is less preferred so option A is rejected

I would like to know is festival's month is unidiomatic or idiomatic?
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