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The overarching implications of discursive constructivism are realized

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The overarching implications of discursive constructivism are realized  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 05 Aug 2019, 01:00
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 248, Date : 04-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The overarching implications of discursive constructivism are realized in every aspect of reality in which language is involved, since language manifests our conceptual framework. Because something is the way it is because we bestow our perceptions onto it via language, examining the philosophy of language proves itself especially important in feminist discourse. Some feminists have advanced the notion of formulating a new reality more congenial to women by which women will liberate themselves from oppressive patriarchal discourses and thrive with their newfound expressive capabilities.

The inherent maleness of language, in light of discursive constructivism, traps women in a hierarchy of patriarchal social relations in which they are delegated to the lower rungs. Language often represents maleness as the norm, obscures the existence and importance of women, and imbeds a male-centric worldview, creating a picture of the world more suited to men than women. The English language, among many others, engages in what Frye calls the absurd practice of sex-marking, in which language assigns a critical importance to gender in situations in which it is, in reality, irrelevant, thereby perpetuating the narrative that men and women are somehow irrevocably and fundamentally dissimilar.

The patriarchal nature of language cannot be denied as a general force, yet feminists are not entirely correct to say that the entirety of a language enforces a discriminatory narrative. Although a plethora of specific terms and usages which stifle women's equality exist, certain neutral words are undeniably present which have escaped the male bias which afflicts so much of our semantic reality. It is important to note that the patriarchal structure of society does not grant men complete control over language, despite their immense influence in the creation of dictionaries, grammatical rules and usage guides.


1. The function of the second paragraph is to

(A) explain an assertion presented in the first paragraph
(B) present an argument which the third paragraph reinforces
(C) introduce the author's interpretation of a concept developed in the first paragraph
(D) provide support for the approach of discursive constructivism presented in the first paragraph
(E) introduce a point of view in a debate begun in the first paragraph and resolved in the third paragraph

Spoiler: :: OA
A: The first paragraph asserts that examining the philosophy of language proves itself especially important in feminist discourse. The second paragraph, which explains that language is inherently male and therefore is harmful to women, shows why language plays such an important role for feminists.



2. If the author's opinion about the patriarchal nature of language is correct, what may be inferred about our perceptions of gender?

(A) Women have been successful in changing our perceptions of gender in certain instances, although overall, we still perceive men as superior to women.
(B) Although we do not always hold patriarchal assumptions, gender is the underlying force in our conception of reality.
(C) We do not think that gender is important in every instance, although in those instances in which it is important, we see men as superior to women.
(D) Even though, overall, we perceive women as inferior to men, there are certain instances in which the reverse is true.
(E) Although men perceive women as inferior most of the time, there are certain instances in which they recognize women's equality.

Spoiler: :: OA
C: For this Inference question, we must first identify the author's opinion about the patriarchal nature of language. The first sentence of the third paragraph tells us that the author thinks that overall, language is patriarchal (and therefore discriminatory), yet in certain instances it is not.Remember that language is, to the author, that which reveals how we think about reality.



3. In light of discursive constructivism, it may be inferred that

(A) the thinking of women is as male-centric as the thinking of men
(B) the use of specific linguistic forms shapes the worldviews of both men and women
(C) men seek control of language in an effort to relegate women to an inferior social position
(D) the function of language is to describe an objective reality, a task that has been obscured by our male-centric worldview
(E) feminist theorists are the only scholars interested in the philosophy of language because others cannot see the male-centric structure of language

Spoiler: :: OA
A: If language is inherently male, and language is a reflection of what we think and since women use language in the same way as men, it necessarily follows that women's thinking is male-centric.



4. Which of the following best summarizes the contents of the passage?

(A) Since many linguistic constructs display no gender bias, the feminist argument that language creates the male-centric structure of our society that traps women in the lower rungs of a patriarchal hierarchy has no merit.
(B) Feminists consider language, which, they argue, has a male bias and therefore devalues women, to be of great importance because of language's effect on how we perceive reality, even though this critique, although correct in principle, is unfounded in some cases.
(C) The feminist argument that language reflects the patriarchal order of society and therefore relegates women to a lower status has many merits but it is not entirely correct.
(D) Discursive constructivism, the concept that language is an active agent in the creation of what we perceive as reality, is of great concern to feminists, but their concerns, while founded, are exaggerated.
(E) Language imposes a patriarchal discourse biased against women and constitutes a grave concern to feminists, who, although aware of language as a force which shapes reality, believe it is only male-centric in certain aspects.

Spoiler: :: OA
B: This answer choice makes the distinction between the feminists' point of view advanced in the first and second paragraphs (that language, which has a male bias, is important because it creates reality) and the author's opinion expressed in the third paragraph (that there are instances in which language has no male bias).


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Originally posted by mattce on 22 Jun 2013, 22:00.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 05 Aug 2019, 01:00, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: The overarching implications of discursive constructivism are realized  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2019, 01:24
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Re: The overarching implications of discursive constructivism are realized  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2019, 07:32
Are the OA correct for sure?

For 3rd question I marked D. And I still cant understand why it is A.
Got 3 correct in 6:35 min including reading.

700 difficulty passage for sure.
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The overarching implications of discursive constructivism are realized  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2019, 02:19
1
Hi everyone,
Very wordy passage. Took 10:30 minutes and got 3/4 correct. Took 3 minutes read, write down paragraphs summaries and main point.

P1:DC and feminist's view
P2: Maleness of language
P3: patriarchal language applies most of the times (and sometimes not)

MP: to discuss DC in light of how it affects women

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. The function of the second paragraph is to

Pre-thinking:
The second paragraphs continues talking about the patriarchal language discussed in the last lines of P1

(A) explain an assertion presented in the first paragraph
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(B) present an argument which the third paragraph reinforces
The third paragraph does the opposite. Hence incorrect

(C) introduce the author's interpretation of a concept developed in the first paragraph
The author interpretation is not given. Hence incorrect

(D) provide support for the approach of discursive constructivism presented in the first paragraph
I assume this answer choice talks about the feminist approach aiming to create an equal reality. If so this answer choice states the opposite. Hence incorrect

(E) introduce a point of view in a debate begun in the first paragraph and resolved in the third paragraph
There is no debate. Hence incorrect
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



2. If the author's opinion about the patriarchal nature of language is correct, what may be inferred about our perceptions of gender?

Pre-thinking:
We can infer the our language majorly benefits men over women and that there are some instances in which there is equality. Plus the passage states that it is the language that guides us into thinking like this when actually many tasks/jobs/actions that according to the language should be better accomlished by men could actually be accomplished in an equal way by men and women

(A) Women have been successful in changing our perceptions of gender in certain instances, although overall, we still perceive men as superior to women.
The passage states that some words escaped from the inequality that affects most of the language but we cannot infer that this was because of women. Hence incorrect

(B) Although we do not always hold patriarchal assumptions, gender is the underlying force in our conception of reality.
The patriarchal language is considered in 3 as a general force. Underlying hence is incorrect.

(C) We do not think that gender is important in every instance, although in those instances in which it is important, we see men as superior to women.
Cannot be inferred from any information in the passage. Hence incorrect

(D) Even though, overall, we perceive women as inferior to men, there are certain instances in which the reverse is true.
The passage (P3) states that in some instances there is no inequality but it is a stretch to say that in those instances women are superior tom men. Hence incorrect

(E) Although men perceive women as inferior most of the time, there are certain instances in which they recognize women's equality.
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


3. In light of discursive constructivism, it may be inferred that

Pre-thinking:
DC is mainly discussed in P1 and in the beginning of P2 (note that in the beginning of P2 there is the exact same wording of this question) so we should focus our attention there.

(A) the thinking of women is as male-centric as the thinking of men
For completely understanding why this is the correct choice we need to focus on the entities discussed in the passage.
Starting from paragraph 1:
#1Feminists: these are the women who though about creating another reality with better language so that there would not be discriminations anymore.
Now focus on a modifier of this word-> some. Some feminists want to implement this plan.
#2Women: women are the entity present in our question stem. Can we say that all women are feminists? Likely not.
So the feminist's view is not the same view as all women. Since we are not given any other information about the women's vie on the topic we can safely assume that women speak the common language that is male-based and hence they think in a male-based way as the DC theory states.
Hence correct


(B) the use of specific linguistic forms shapes the worldviews of both men and women
No information in the passage gives us grounds to infer this. Hence incorrect

(C) men seek control of language in an effort to relegate women to an inferior social position
According to the passage men do not actively seek control. Hence incorrect

(D) the function of language is to describe an objective reality, a task that has been obscured by our male-centric worldview
The passage does not say that the function of the language is to describe an objective reality but it states that the reality is the result of the language used. Hence incorrect

(E) feminist theorists are the only scholars interested in the philosophy of language because others cannot see the male-centric structure of language
Only makes the answer too extreme. Hence incorrect

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


4. Which of the following best summarizes the contents of the passage?

Pre-thinking:
DC is presented-> some feminists' view is discussed->maleness of language-> patriarchal language applies to most cases but in certain instances not

(A) Since many linguistic constructs display no gender bias, the feminist argument that language creates the male-centric structure of our society that traps women in the lower rungs of a patriarchal hierarchy has no merit.
This choice establish a cause- effect relation that is not true. Plus the passage talks about some instances and not many; plus content is missing. Hence incorrect

(B) Feminists consider language, which, they argue, has a male bias and therefore devalues women, to be of great importance because of language's effect on how we perceive reality, even though this critique, although correct in principle, is unfounded in some cases.
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

(C) The feminist argument that language reflects the patriarchal order of society and therefore relegates women to a lower status has many merits but it is not entirely correct.
I is correct but there are some instances in which there is no inequality. Hence incorrect

(D) Discursive constructivism, the concept that language is an active agent in the creation of what we perceive as reality, is of great concern to feminists, but their concerns, while founded, are exaggerated.
We cannot say that feminists concern are exaggerated. Hence incorrect

(E) Language imposes a patriarchal discourse biased against women and constitutes a grave concern to feminists, who, although aware of language as a force which shapes reality, believe it is only male-centric in certain aspects.
We are not given information to infer that feminists believe that in some cases there is no discrimination . Hence incorrect


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The overarching implications of discursive constructivism are realized   [#permalink] 17 Aug 2019, 02:19
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