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The principle of selection solved the riddle as to how what was purpos

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The principle of selection solved the riddle as to how what was purpos  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 11 Sep 2019, 07:41
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 21, Date : 11-FEB-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The principle of selection solved the riddle as to how what was purposive could conceivably be brought about without the intervention of a directing power, the riddle which animate nature presents to our intelligence at every turn, and in face of which the mind of a Kant could find no way out, for he regarded a solution of it as not to be hoped for. For, even if we were to assume an evolutionary force that is continually transforming the most primitive and the simplest forms of life into ever higher forms, and the homogeneity of primitive times into the infinite variety of the present, we should still be unable to infer from this alone how each of the numberless forms adapted to particular conditions of life should have appeared precisely at the right moment in the history of the earth to which their adaptations were appropriate, and precisely at the proper place in which all the conditions of life to which they were adapted occurred: the humming-birds at the same time as the flowers; the trichina at the same time as the pig; the bark-coloured moth at the same time as the oak, and the wasp-like moth at the same time as the wasp which protects it. Without processes of selection we should be obliged to assume a "pre-established harmony" after the famous Leibnizian model, by means of which the clock of the evolution of organisms is so regulated as to strike in exact synchronism with that of the history of the earth!

All forms of life are strictly adapted to the conditions of their life, and can persist under these conditions alone. There must therefore be an intrinsic connection between the conditions and the structural adaptations of the organism, and, since the conditions of life cannot be determined by the animal itself, the adaptations must be called forth by the conditions. The selection theory teaches us how this is conceivable, since it enables us to understand that there is a continual production of what is non-purposive as well as of what is purposive, but the purposive alone survives, while the non-purposive perishes in the very act of arising. This is the old wisdom taught long ago by Empedocles.

1. It can be inferred that the author believes that the Leibnitzian model (Highlighted) is

A. ingenious and worthy of serious consideration
B. untenable by all rational people
C. an acceptable solution to Kants dilemma
D. unworthy of further consideration
E. an alternative that might still be valid


2. The authors primary purpose in this extract is to

A. suggest that a particular theory explains otherwise puzzling phenomena
B. describe the details of the selection theory for a lay audience
C. justify a particularly controversial model of the origins of life
D. persuade the reader that Empedocles was right
E. prove that selection is the only possible way of looking at evolutionary biology


3. The examples in lines 15 - 17 (Highlighted) are intended to

A. reinforce the authors point that is difficult to explain adaptation
B. show that adaptations must take place only at specific times and in specific places
C. give specific illustration of organisms that are particularly well-adapted to their conditions
D. show organisms that have evolved synchronously in a predestined manner
E. demonstrate that intelligent design is needed for purposive evolution



Adapted from an essay by A Weismann (1889)

Source: Www.MajorTests.Com
Difficulty Level: 700

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 06 Feb 2017, 02:18.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 11 Sep 2019, 07:41, edited 8 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (520).
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Re: The principle of selection solved the riddle as to how what was purpos  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2019, 07:44
1
Official Explanation


1. It can be inferred that the author believes that the Leibnitzian model (Highlighted) is

Explanation

The exclamation mark at the end of the sentence shows that the author thinks acceptance of the idea would be silly. The choice is then between B and D. The word all in B is the best reason for rejecting this answer.

Answer: D


2. The authors primary purpose in this extract is to

Explanation

The author intends to persuade us that selection theory is the answer to the riddle he mentions in the first sentence (suggesting immediately that A is correct). He does not actually go into details (eliminate B), or prove that anything is correct (eliminate E). The word particularly makes C incorrect and D is not even worth considering.

Answer: A


3. The examples in lines 15 - 17 (Highlighted) are intended to

Explanation

The author mentions specific examples to make his point clear that some forms of life have arisen with adaptations that fit them very well for one way of life. We can eliminate D and E because they refer to predestination and intelligent design, ideas that the wishes to counter. A is incorrect because he thinks selection theory explains adaptation. The words must and only in B make that wrong. C is suitably general.

Answer: C


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Re: The principle of selection solved the riddle as to how what was purpos  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2018, 09:04
Can anyone share OE for ques 3 ?
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New post 21 May 2018, 05:25
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narayandutta wrote:
Can anyone share OE for ques 3 ?


Q.#3

Correct Answer: C


Explanation:

The author mentions specific examples to make his point clear that some forms of life have arisen with adaptations that fit them very well for one way of life. We can eliminate D and E because they refer to predestination and intelligent design, ideas that the wishes to counter. A is incorrect because he thinks selection theory explains adaptation. The words must and only in B make that wrong. C is suitably general.

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Re: The principle of selection solved the riddle as to how what was purpos  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2019, 00:00
sajjad Thanks for the effort (RC butler is amazing, Hope you will continue it)

W.r.t. to Question 2, Was confused between A and E and went with E for the following reason. Could you help to clarify what is wrong with A from my reasoning

A. suggest that a particular theory explains otherwise puzzling phenomena - First line of the first para "The principle of selection solved the riddle" and last sentence of the first para "Without processes of selection we should be obliged to assume" proves that the author doesn't suggest but concludes.
E. prove that selection is the only possible way of looking at evolutionary biology - While Prove is not synonyms with conclude it seems the better of the two.
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Re: The principle of selection solved the riddle as to how what was purpos  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2019, 00:02
In my second third attempt I understood option 3 !

To me option B (show that adaptations must take place only at specific times and in specific places ) looked most suitable.
But on digging deep in last para you will find that first line (All forms of life are strictly adapted to the conditions of their life, and can persist under these conditions alone.) seems to justify usage of must but if you go further in para it tells us that both are possible (he selection theory teaches us how this is conceivable, since it enables us to understand that there is a continual production of what is non-purposive as well as of what is purposive,)

I figured this out only when I saw right answer. In my opinion very difficult to find right answer in first go!! so Beware of such questions.
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Re: The principle of selection solved the riddle as to how what was purpos   [#permalink] 29 Jun 2019, 00:02
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