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# The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and

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Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and [#permalink]
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It is an far-fetched text with subtle nuances in the answers that mostly does not clearly distinquished from counterparts when they corelate with writting.
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Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and [#permalink]
Hello, I have the same problem as VidyaSV
I thought the question and given answer options cannot correspond to the passage....
in Q5,how can we infer from the end of the paragraph2

their concentration in the ice core in a given epoch depends on the condensation temperature prevailing at the time. This technique enables scientists to estimate the air temperature of condensation when the snow fell and establish variations in temperature over a series of multiple samples.

As for Q6, I cannot understand the logic to its answer totally ....

that the answer is B
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Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and [#permalink]
Expert Reply
gvij2017
Would you explain Q2?
Most of the time I face hard time with problems related to " author is most likely to agree with".
How to deal such problem?

Official Explanation

2. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about using ice cores as paleo-proxies?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

In this question, and as we have seen in other questions, the phrase "would be most likely to agree" sounds like mind-reading. In fact, we want to find a statement that is supported by the passage, and preferably a statement that must be true on the basis of the passage.

If the author would have to believe a given statement in order to be consistent with what's stated in the passage, that statement is objectively the best answer choice. Which answer choice must the author agree with?

Choices (B), (C), and (E) are all out, because they express opinions too strong to be drawn from the passage.

Meanwhile, (A) and (D) are mutually exclusive, hinting that one must be wrong and one must be right. Is using ice cores the only way to collect climate data? No; we have direct measurements going back 150 years (and maybe other methods).

The correct answer is (D).

Hope it helps
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Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and [#permalink]
Expert Reply
VidyaSV
Can someone explain the reasoning behind Q5 and Q6

mimishyu
Hello, I have the same problem as VidyaSV
I thought the question and given answer options cannot correspond to the passage....
in Q5,how can we infer from the end of the paragraph2

their concentration in the ice core in a given epoch depends on the condensation temperature prevailing at the time. This technique enables scientists to estimate the air temperature of condensation when the snow fell and establish variations in temperature over a series of multiple samples.

As for Q6, I cannot understand the logic to its answer totally ....

that the answer is B

Official Explanation

5. It can be inferred from the passage that the air temperature of condensation at a time in the past when snow fell

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

In this question, before heading to the answer choices, we can briefly refresh our memory about the "air temperature of condensation" by looking back at the passage. This phrase is referred to specifically only in lines: "This technique enables scientists to estimate the air temperature of condensation when the snow fell and establish variations in temperature over a series of multiple samples."

The clearest inference we can draw is a simple one, which is that, if you can establish the air temperature of condensation at a point in the past, you can establish the temperature then or the variations in temperature.

That, in fact, is exactly what answer choice (B) communicates. Answer choices (A) and (C) both confuse the conditions of measurement and the conditions we are trying to infer knowledge about in the past.

Choices (D) and (E) are out of the scope of the passage.

The correct answer is (B).

6. It can be inferred from the passage that snowfall at locations where ice cores are extracted

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

In this question, we are asked about snowfall. A glance at the answer choices reveals a theme: we care specifically about the amount or frequency of this snowfall. That means we are talking about the final paragraph, specifically in ending lines. There are two key points. One is that "periods bereft of snowfall" leave a gap in the record and can mess up assigning a date to the records.

The second key point is that the problem is "mitigated," or partly solved, by extracting samples from an area. We will look for one or both points, the drawback and the mitigation, in the answer choices.

Choices (A), (B) and (D) all fail to touch on either the drawback or the mitigation. Meanwhile, choice (C) is relevant to the drawback, and choice (E) to the mitigation. One of the two must have an objective error, while the other is likely to be necessarily true.

Choice (E) is necessarily true: if snowfall were not consistent enough within an area to reduce dating errors, then the mitigation described in the passage--taking multiple samples in an area--would not be a mitigation at all.

Choice (C) must have an objective error. It slightly distorts the drawback described in the passage, because we are not told that the dates in time are unknown, only "disrupted." Moreover, the fact that the disruption can be mitigated means that the dates are ultimately not entirely unknown.

The correct answer is (E).

Hope it helps
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Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and [#permalink]
6. It can be inferred from the passage that snowfall at locations where ice cores are extracted

A. is generally heavier than at other land locations covered with ice
B. is invariably more common during colder periods
C. fails to leave a record in the ice at entirely unknown dates in time(it should be “if these snowfall didn’t even appear”)
D. becomes less common as ice fields continue to retreat
E. is consistent enough within an area to reduce dating errors

Explanation

In this question, we are asked about snowfall. A glance at the answer choices reveals a theme: we care specifically about the amount or frequency of this snowfall. That means we are talking about the final paragraph, specifically in ending lines. There are two key points. One is that "periods bereft of snowfall" leave a gap in the record and can mess up assigning a date to the records.

The second key point is that the problem is "mitigated," or partly solved, by extracting samples from an area. We will look for one or both points, the drawback and the mitigation, in the answer choices.

Choices (A), (B) and (D) all fail to touch on either the drawback or the mitigation. Meanwhile, choice (C) is relevant to the drawback, and choice (E) to the mitigation. One of the two must have an objective error, while the other is likely to be necessarily true.

Choice (C) must have an objective error. It slightly distorts the drawback described in the passage, because we are not told that “the snowfall’s date in time” are unknown, only "disrupted." Moreover, the fact that the disruption can be mitigated means that the dates are ultimately not entirely unknown.
I can understand this explanation quite well….
The correct answer is (E).

Choice (E) is necessarily true: if snowfall were not consistent enough within an area to reduce dating errors, then the mitigation described in the passage--taking multiple samples in an area--would not be a mitigation at all.

Periods bereft of snowfall will fail to leave a record in the ice and can even disrupt the essential step of dating the samples. To mitigate this problem, multiple cores are typically extracted from nearby locations.
So “periods which had the occurrence of snowfall” can leave a record in the ice and can access the essential step of dating the sample.

How in anywhere of this passage has mentioned that if we want “to reduce dating errors”, then snowfall must be “consistent within an area”????
The passage only mention that if we want to ‘’date the sample”, there must be the “occurrence of snowfall”….???

To mitigate this problem, multiple cores are typically extracted from nearby locations.
How can we infer from this sentence that snowfall at location must be “consistent within an area”…???
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Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and [#permalink]
Could you share the explanation for the 4th question? Thanks!
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Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and [#permalink]
SajjadAhmad
gvij2017
Would you explain Q2?
Most of the time I face hard time with problems related to " author is most likely to agree with".
How to deal such problem?

Official Explanation

2. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about using ice cores as paleo-proxies?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

In this question, and as we have seen in other questions, the phrase "would be most likely to agree" sounds like mind-reading. In fact, we want to find a statement that is supported by the passage, and preferably a statement that must be true on the basis of the passage.

If the author would have to believe a given statement in order to be consistent with what's stated in the passage, that statement is objectively the best answer choice. Which answer choice must the author agree with?

Choices (B), (C), and (E) are all out, because they express opinions too strong to be drawn from the passage.

Meanwhile, (A) and (D) are mutually exclusive, hinting that one must be wrong and one must be right. Is using ice cores the only way to collect climate data? No; we have direct measurements going back 150 years (and maybe other methods).

The correct answer is (D).

Hope it helps

For question 1, why E is not the answer ?
Please explain
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The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and [#permalink]
Expert Reply
kunalc20

For question 1, why E is not the answer ?
Please explain

This is a must be true question and we have to find an answer which can be validated by the information in the passage, E is an extreme answer choice and we can not draw this information based on the text of the passage. So E is wrong here.
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Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and [#permalink]
SajjadAhmad
kunalc20

For question 1, why E is not the answer ?
Please explain

This is a must be true question and we have to find an answer which can be validated by the information in the passage, E is an extreme answer choice and we can not draw this information based on the text of the passage. So E is wrong here.

But author has mentioned both limitations as well as advantage of this method
Isn't it come under evaluation ??
Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and [#permalink]
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