GMAT Question of the Day: Daily via email | Daily via Instagram New to GMAT Club? Watch this Video

It is currently 18 Feb 2020, 01:01

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Senior RC Moderator
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 5038
GPA: 3.39
The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Sep 2019, 22:53
1
2
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 101 sessions

58% (03:06) correct 42% (03:21) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 105 sessions

40% (01:28) correct 60% (01:49) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 97 sessions

58% (01:39) correct 42% (01:38) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 92 sessions

64% (01:31) correct 36% (02:04) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 92 sessions

37% (01:43) correct 63% (01:20) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 6
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 86 sessions

34% (01:24) correct 66% (01:09) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 327, Date : 13-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and rising global temperatures from a number of data sources. Establishing the influence of mankind upon these effects has been more difficult, because the climate is subject to oscillations that are much longer in duration than our record of direct temperature measurements, which extends back only about 150 years.

By drilling and conducting chemical and physical studies of ice cores on six of the seven continents, scientists have developed a method of estimating climatic information that had previously been thought inaccessible. Ice cores removed from the earth's crust and studied in order to draw such inferences are termed paleo-proxies. The values of various climatic variables at a particular time and place can be inferred through some form of proxy analysis in a given ice core sample. For example, deuterium excess indicates humidity levels, electrical conductivity indicates volcanic activity, beryllium levels indicate solar activity, and particle size and concentration indicate wind speeds. Temperature, in particular, can be inferred from the ratios of water molecules composed of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, namely 1H2H16O and 1H218O. Because molecules consisting of these isotopes have slightly different weights than their more common counterparts, their concentration in the ice core in a given epoch depends on the condensation temperature prevailing at the time. This technique enables scientists to estimate the air temperature of condensation when the snow fell and establish variations in temperature over a series of multiple samples.

One advantage of using ice cores as a paleo-proxy is that ice core samples can be extracted from across the world using different drilling techniques, for analysis either on-site or in a laboratory, with results that can be compared to each other and stitched into a coherent global picture. The primary sources of ice cores are the ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland, whose thickness allows scientists to extract long cores representing time spans of up to 100,000 or even 400,000 years. Nevertheless, samples representing spans of multiple centuries have been extracted more recently at low latitudes--for example, at Mt. Kilimanjaro, in the Andes Mountains, and on the Himalayan plateau. Depending on the objectives of the project and the nature of the ice core, scientists use a variety of types of drill ranging from hand-powered auger drill to electro-mechanical drills. A limitation of using ice cores is that they represent data for conditions during snowfall only. Periods bereft of snowfall will fail to leave a record in the ice and can even disrupt the essential step of dating the samples. To mitigate this problem, multiple cores are typically extracted from nearby locations. A more critical limitation of the ice core method, one indicative of the larger problem at hand, is that as ice fields continue to retreat, the ability to measure in some locations will disappear entirely.


1. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in

A. describing the data that supports a scientific theory
B. illustrating how a research method has generated results that challenge an accepted theory
C. arguing that data obtained from a particular research method are as useful as data obtained directly
D. describing a scientific challenge and a research technique to address that challenge
E. providing an overall evaluation of a research technique



2. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about using ice cores as paleo-proxies?

A. It is the only feasible method to collect climate data.
B. It yields data that are insufficient to determine the influence of mankind on retreating glaciers.
C. It should not be widely adopted, since it will be impossible in the near future.
D. It is one of multiple valid sources of data on the climate.
E. It yields unreliable data about global temperature but has advanced the state of our scientific knowledge.



3. It can be inferred from the passage that the technique of using ice cores to determine historical temperatures would be less advantageous if which of the following were true?

A. It indicated different temperatures at different times for a particular location, according to different isotope concentrations in the sample.
B. It indicated different results at the same location, according to differing extraction methods of the samples.
C. It yielded information dating back only 80,000 years in most locations.
D. It indicated that the ratios of oxygen isotopes in the air in a given location varied over time.
E. It indicated that ice sheets were not retreating.



4. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the ice cores extracted at low latitudes?

A. They indicate that sediments found during an ice age contain more calcium carbonate than sediments formed at other times.
B. They are less reliable than the evidence from rocks on land in determining the volume of land ice.
C. They can be used to deduce the relative volume of land ice that was present when the sediment was laid down.
D. They are more unpredictable during an ice age than in other climatic conditions.
E. They can be used to determine atmospheric conditions at various times in the past.



5. It can be inferred from the passage that the air temperature of condensation at a time in the past when snow fell

A. can be determined from the ratio of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in the air
B. correlates with the average air temperature in that area at that time
C. correlates with the average air temperature in that area at the time of measurement
D. creates land ice of a higher density at higher temperatures
E. rises during periods in which glaciers are retreating



6. It can be inferred from the passage that snowfall at locations where ice cores are extracted

A. is generally heavier than at other land locations covered with ice
B. is invariably more common during colder periods
C. fails to leave a record in the ice at entirely unknown dates in time
D. becomes less common as ice fields continue to retreat
E. is consistent enough within an area to reduce dating errors



Source: GMAT Free (14)
Difficulty Level: 700

_________________
Director
Director
User avatar
P
Joined: 08 Aug 2017
Posts: 692
Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 25 Dec 2019, 15:31
Would you explain Q2?
Most of the time I face hard time with problems related to " author is most likely to agree with".
How to deal such problem?
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 01 Dec 2019
Posts: 4
Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Dec 2019, 10:31
Can someone explain the reasoning behind Q5 and Q6
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 03 Jan 2019
Posts: 1
Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Dec 2019, 12:42
It is an far-fetched text with subtle nuances in the answers that mostly does not clearly distinquished from counterparts when they corelate with writting.
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 16 Aug 2019
Posts: 62
Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Dec 2019, 04:15
Hello, I have the same problem as VidyaSV
I thought the question and given answer options cannot correspond to the passage....
in Q5,how can we infer from the end of the paragraph2

their concentration in the ice core in a given epoch depends on the condensation temperature prevailing at the time. This technique enables scientists to estimate the air temperature of condensation when the snow fell and establish variations in temperature over a series of multiple samples.

As for Q6, I cannot understand the logic to its answer totally ....

that the answer is B
Senior RC Moderator
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 5038
GPA: 3.39
Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Dec 2019, 10:31
gvij2017 wrote:
Would you explain Q2?
Most of the time I face hard time with problems related to " author is most likely to agree with".
How to deal such problem?


Official Explanation


2. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about using ice cores as paleo-proxies?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

In this question, and as we have seen in other questions, the phrase "would be most likely to agree" sounds like mind-reading. In fact, we want to find a statement that is supported by the passage, and preferably a statement that must be true on the basis of the passage.

If the author would have to believe a given statement in order to be consistent with what's stated in the passage, that statement is objectively the best answer choice. Which answer choice must the author agree with?

Choices (B), (C), and (E) are all out, because they express opinions too strong to be drawn from the passage.

Meanwhile, (A) and (D) are mutually exclusive, hinting that one must be wrong and one must be right. Is using ice cores the only way to collect climate data? No; we have direct measurements going back 150 years (and maybe other methods).

The correct answer is (D).


Hope it helps
_________________
Senior RC Moderator
User avatar
V
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 5038
GPA: 3.39
Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Dec 2019, 10:41
VidyaSV wrote:
Can someone explain the reasoning behind Q5 and Q6


mimishyu wrote:
Hello, I have the same problem as VidyaSV
I thought the question and given answer options cannot correspond to the passage....
in Q5,how can we infer from the end of the paragraph2

their concentration in the ice core in a given epoch depends on the condensation temperature prevailing at the time. This technique enables scientists to estimate the air temperature of condensation when the snow fell and establish variations in temperature over a series of multiple samples.

As for Q6, I cannot understand the logic to its answer totally ....

that the answer is B


Official Explanation


5. It can be inferred from the passage that the air temperature of condensation at a time in the past when snow fell

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

In this question, before heading to the answer choices, we can briefly refresh our memory about the "air temperature of condensation" by looking back at the passage. This phrase is referred to specifically only in lines: "This technique enables scientists to estimate the air temperature of condensation when the snow fell and establish variations in temperature over a series of multiple samples."

The clearest inference we can draw is a simple one, which is that, if you can establish the air temperature of condensation at a point in the past, you can establish the temperature then or the variations in temperature.

That, in fact, is exactly what answer choice (B) communicates. Answer choices (A) and (C) both confuse the conditions of measurement and the conditions we are trying to infer knowledge about in the past.

Choices (D) and (E) are out of the scope of the passage.

The correct answer is (B).


6. It can be inferred from the passage that snowfall at locations where ice cores are extracted

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

In this question, we are asked about snowfall. A glance at the answer choices reveals a theme: we care specifically about the amount or frequency of this snowfall. That means we are talking about the final paragraph, specifically in ending lines. There are two key points. One is that "periods bereft of snowfall" leave a gap in the record and can mess up assigning a date to the records.

The second key point is that the problem is "mitigated," or partly solved, by extracting samples from an area. We will look for one or both points, the drawback and the mitigation, in the answer choices.

Choices (A), (B) and (D) all fail to touch on either the drawback or the mitigation. Meanwhile, choice (C) is relevant to the drawback, and choice (E) to the mitigation. One of the two must have an objective error, while the other is likely to be necessarily true.

Choice (E) is necessarily true: if snowfall were not consistent enough within an area to reduce dating errors, then the mitigation described in the passage--taking multiple samples in an area--would not be a mitigation at all.

Choice (C) must have an objective error. It slightly distorts the drawback described in the passage, because we are not told that the dates in time are unknown, only "disrupted." Moreover, the fact that the disruption can be mitigated means that the dates are ultimately not entirely unknown.

The correct answer is (E).


Hope it helps
_________________
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 16 Aug 2019
Posts: 62
Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Dec 2019, 03:35
6. It can be inferred from the passage that snowfall at locations where ice cores are extracted

A. is generally heavier than at other land locations covered with ice
B. is invariably more common during colder periods
C. fails to leave a record in the ice at entirely unknown dates in time(it should be “if these snowfall didn’t even appear”)
D. becomes less common as ice fields continue to retreat
E. is consistent enough within an area to reduce dating errors


Explanation

In this question, we are asked about snowfall. A glance at the answer choices reveals a theme: we care specifically about the amount or frequency of this snowfall. That means we are talking about the final paragraph, specifically in ending lines. There are two key points. One is that "periods bereft of snowfall" leave a gap in the record and can mess up assigning a date to the records.

The second key point is that the problem is "mitigated," or partly solved, by extracting samples from an area. We will look for one or both points, the drawback and the mitigation, in the answer choices.

Choices (A), (B) and (D) all fail to touch on either the drawback or the mitigation. Meanwhile, choice (C) is relevant to the drawback, and choice (E) to the mitigation. One of the two must have an objective error, while the other is likely to be necessarily true.


Choice (C) must have an objective error. It slightly distorts the drawback described in the passage, because we are not told that “the snowfall’s date in time” are unknown, only "disrupted." Moreover, the fact that the disruption can be mitigated means that the dates are ultimately not entirely unknown.
I can understand this explanation quite well….
The correct answer is (E).


Choice (E) is necessarily true: if snowfall were not consistent enough within an area to reduce dating errors, then the mitigation described in the passage--taking multiple samples in an area--would not be a mitigation at all.

Periods bereft of snowfall will fail to leave a record in the ice and can even disrupt the essential step of dating the samples. To mitigate this problem, multiple cores are typically extracted from nearby locations.
So “periods which had the occurrence of snowfall” can leave a record in the ice and can access the essential step of dating the sample.

How in anywhere of this passage has mentioned that if we want “to reduce dating errors”, then snowfall must be “consistent within an area”????
The passage only mention that if we want to ‘’date the sample”, there must be the “occurrence of snowfall”….???

To mitigate this problem, multiple cores are typically extracted from nearby locations.
How can we infer from this sentence that snowfall at location must be “consistent within an area”…???
GMAT Club Bot
Re: The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and   [#permalink] 30 Dec 2019, 03:35
Display posts from previous: Sort by

The study of climate change has established retreating glaciers and

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne