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The total national expense on higher education rose significantly

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The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 08:00
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The total national expense on higher education rose significantly during the past two years. This increase occurred contrary to previous assessments made by the Board of Education, and in spite of the fact that tuition costs in universities and colleges did not change during the same period of time.

All of the following statements, if true, help to explain the Board of Education’s erroneous assessments, EXCEPT:

A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education.
B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending.
C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent.
D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations.
E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition.


 

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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 08:10
we need to find answer choice which is irrelevant to Board of Education’s erroneous assessments, EXCEPT:

A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education. ; can be relevant in assessments made by the Board of Education ;
B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending; can be relevant in assessments made by the Board of Education ;
C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent. ; can be relevant in assessments made by the Board of Education ;
D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations. not relevant
E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition ; can be relevant in assessments made by the Board of Education ;

IMO D


The total national expense on higher education rose significantly during the past two years. This increase occurred contrary to previous assessments made by the Board of Education, and in spite of the fact that tuition costs in universities and colleges did not change during the same period of time.

All of the following statements, if true, help to explain the Board of Education’s erroneous assessments, EXCEPT:

A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education.
B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending.
C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent.
D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations.
E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition.
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 08:27
We are looking for reason which DID NOT led to increase in total expense of higher education

A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education. - Yes, increasing no of students
B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending. - Yes, other factors leading to increase in fees
C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent. - Yes, costly student loans
D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations. - Yes, more people going for higher education
E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition. - No, as this reason only says students preferred state univ instead of colleges but either ways fees would be paid and we have already taken into account fees of these universities/colleges (tuition costs in universities and colleges did not change during the same period of time)

Hence E
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 08:30
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The total national expense on higher education rose significantly during the past two years. This increase occurred contrary to previous assessments made by the Board of Education, and in spite of the fact that tuition costs in universities and colleges did not change during the same period of time.

All of the following statements, if true, help to explain the Board of Education’s erroneous assessments, EXCEPT:

A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education. - Incorrect. The statement helps in explaining the discrepancy in Board's argument. Since savings are available, student can spend more.
B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending. -Incorrect. The statement helps in explaining the discrepancy in Board's argument. If Dormitories and other services are costly, overall expenditure will increase.
C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent. - Incorrect. The statement helps in explaining the discrepancy in Board's argument. if interest rate increases the expenditure will increase.
D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations. - Correct. The statement does not relate anyhow to why the expenditure will increase.
E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition. - Incorrect. The statement helps in explaining the discrepancy in Board's argument. Since more number of students will enroll in state universities with higher tuition fees, it will increase overall expenditure.
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 08:32
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The total national expense on higher education rose significantly during the past two years. This increase occurred contrary to previous assessments made by the Board of Education, and in spite of the fact that tuition costs in universities and colleges did not change during the same period of time.


Fairly simple question, jump straight to the answer choices.

All of the following statements, if true, help to explain the Board of Education’s erroneous assessments, EXCEPT:

A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education.
This is true, it does not engage with the argument.

B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending.
This could be a reason.

C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent.
This could be a reason.

D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations.
This could be a reason.

E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition.
This could be a reason.


Hence Answer is A.
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The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Jul 2019, 09:02
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A it is.

The total national expense on higher education rose significantly during the past two years. This increase occurred contrary to previous assessments made by the Board of Education, and in spite of the fact that tuition costs in universities and colleges did not change during the same period of time.

All of the following statements, if true, help to explain the Board of Education’s erroneous assessments, EXCEPT:
This question is DO NOT STRENGTHEN type and we are looking for statement that doesn't explain why spendings increased. Since tuition did not change, the increase could be result of higher number of enrolling students or increase in costs, related to education, such as students loans interest rate, transportation or living expenses

A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education. - this is actually a good fit, because the option doesn't tell anything about increase in spendings per student, or increase of students; the option concerns SHARE of student that finance their education expenses with parents' support.
B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending - this option provides one reason why expenses increased. Students now have to pay more, therefore higher expenses.
C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent - this option provides another reason why expenses increased.
D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations. - from this we may infer that increased demand for Master led to higher number of people becoming students => total (lets say, countrywide) expenses rose accordingly,
E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition - as students shifted from colleges to universities, which have higher tuition costs, the students' expenses rose accordingly, therefore answer strengthens the statement.

Since all, expect A, strengthened the statement, we are left with A.

Originally posted by berdibekov on 15 Jul 2019, 08:32.
Last edited by berdibekov on 15 Jul 2019, 09:02, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 08:39
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A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education. - cannot explain the reason for higher expense
B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending. - can be the explanation
C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent. - can be the expalantion
D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations. - More master's degree more expense, can be the explanation
E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition. - can be the explanation

Answer should be A.
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The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Jul 2019, 22:56
National expense rose significantly although tuition costs did not change during the same period.

All of the following statements, if true, help to explain the Board of Education’s erroneous assessments, EXCEPT:

A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education.
Correct. This does not have any effect on the argument. Whether the student uses his money or parents', is not going to change the national spend.

B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending.
Although tuition fee did not change but other costs increased. Explains the assessment

C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent.
Increase in interest rate leads to increase in spend.

D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations.
More people going for master's degrees, more spend

E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition.
similar to D, more people apply to universities with higher tuition.

Option A

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Originally posted by prashanths on 15 Jul 2019, 08:48.
Last edited by prashanths on 15 Jul 2019, 22:56, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 08:49
IMO Answer is A:

In answer choice A, the statement tells on how the students pay for the tuition fees. This does not explain why the boards assessment is erroneous.
all other choices, explain why there is an error in the assessment. we can easily boil down to A ndd D and in D as demand increases, more students join,thereby increasing expense.



The total national expense on higher education rose significantly during the past two years. This increase occurred contrary to previous assessments made by the Board of Education, and in spite of the fact that tuition costs in universities and colleges did not change during the same period of time.

All of the following statements, if true, help to explain the Board of Education’s erroneous assessments, EXCEPT:

A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education.
B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending.
C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent.
D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations.
E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition.
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 08:52
The first statement says that more number of students use their parents money but even though they used their parents money it still went for tuition. So that doesn't tell us exactly why the expense on higher education increased. All the other justify the argument and proves in ways why the expense increased

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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 08:53
A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education.
This does not explain why the cost should rise. Just that the source of expense has changed

B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending.
This gives a reason for the increase in expense

C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent.
This gives a reason for the increase in expense

D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations.
This says that more students have pursued a Master's degree so the cost could have risen due to this

E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition.
Students are ready to spend more on tuition so this could be the reason the expense increased

Answer is (A)
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 08:57
A IMO.

Basically, it doesn't matter which way students are paying their fee- bank loans, parents savings etc, the total spend should have been same.


B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending.
Total spend will go up.

C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent.
Total spend will go up since students paid more amount on interest now.

D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations.
This was little difficult to eliminate as the effect of prevalence of master's degree is not clear on no of enrollments, but this still looked more convincing than option A.

E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition.
Total spend will go up. Student paid more fee to be in universities instead of college.
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 08:57
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Stem Summarized: Expense rose significantly in past 2 years. In Previous assessments expenses fell and tuition costs in universities and colleges did not change during the 2 years.

A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education. Correct, Irrelevant answer providing no support
B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending. - Expenses other than tuition cost rose resulting in the increase - Provides support
C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent. - Expenses other than tuition cost rose resulting in the increase - Provides support
D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations. - Could have made more number of students to pursue higher education- Provides support
E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition. Mix between the two changes leading to an increase in total expenses - Provides support

IMO A
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The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Jul 2019, 22:40
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The way I see it, there is a paradox going on here. There are two contradicting parts:

First: It was assessed that total national expense on higher education would not increase. Tuition costs didn’t change.

Second: Contrary to assessments, total national expense on higher education rose significantly during the past two years.

EXCEPT is the key word. We NEED to find the answer choice that DOESN’T explain this paradox. We already know that increased tuition costs can’t explain this rose. We also know that any change explaining this rose must have happened during previous two years. With this in mind let’s analyze answer choices.

B. Even if tuition costs didn’t increase, other costs such as increased prices of dormitories and students’ services may indeed contribute to the total national expense on higher education. So out.

C. If interest rates increased last year (in the same timeframe), then this may indeed contribute to the part of expenditure paid by student loans. So out.

D. If more and more people began to take Master studies rather than restrict to Bachelor studies, then this may increase total expenditure. So out.

E. If many students began to pay higher tuition costs because they preferred universities to colleges, then this may increase total expenditure. So out.

A. If a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education, will total national expense increase? Not always.

While other answer choices talk about numbers, A talks about percentages. A simply means that if before two years 30% of students used their parents’ savings, now this percentage may have increased, let’s say, to 45%. This change in percentages doesn’t necessarily mean that the number of students or cost of any service increased. These numbers may fall even if those percentages increase. Thus A hardly explains why total national expense increased.

Hence A
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Originally posted by JonShukhrat on 15 Jul 2019, 09:06.
Last edited by JonShukhrat on 15 Jul 2019, 22:40, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 09:07
Pre think
=======
In these types of questions check and make a distinction between acutal increase vs percentage.

Here the Total expense rose ==> Fee is fixed.
>>we have to look for variables apart from fee that can increase the total expense.

Hint: can be other expenses apart from fee.

Lets scroll through the options.

A- hold
B - point toward other expense
C- interest rate increase--> another expense added
D - demand for master degree ==> studying more ==> expense more.
E - applying to higher fee institutions.

Hence, A is the winner.
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 09:15
This question tests us on Pradox EXCEPT.
Scenario is that national expense on the HIGHER education increased despite no such estimation or without increasing the tuition fee. So how can this be possible?
Many reasons could be there, for example:
i) MORE number than EVER before students are opting to study in the higher education.
ii) They are expending a lot on competitive exams to enter such instuitions ( Ever consider GMAT + Tuition expenses to enter such universities ? Such type of scenarios)

iii) OTHER expenses such as the food cost in hostels or the cost of books/stationaries in these higher education increased ( Well, the argument says nothing about logistics, it ONLY gives a paradox on the basis of tuition fee and earleir estimation)

So any answer which does not play on these lines should be our answer.

A. This option says GROWING number. GROWING means compared to past, MORE students are coming in compared to past. And these students use their parent's savings. So it's a strong indication that a GROWING amount of money earlier saved is coming in and adding to the expense. ELIMINATE this. (This option matches our point 1)

B. This option matches point 3 mentined earlier. So, this option says that the other expenses increased. SO this is wrong. This helps us explain. ELIMINATE

C. This option says that from LAST YEAR the average interest rate of student loans have increased on average by 5%. So two point directly jumps off when we read this option. 1) The loans have a time period to be repaid. Even if they increased now, the payment may/may not be done now. So, increase of interest rate of loans can't decide strongly the impact of national expense on education now. 2) This rate of increase of LAST ONE YEAR but our expenses have increased from PAST TWO YEARS. Even when the expense increased due to loan, it can only explain us the increase in expense only of the LAST YEAR. So, still we do not know from this option what happened in LAST TO LAST year.
So based on these two SOLID POINTS, we can't say it helps us to resolve the paradox. CORRECT

D. Master's is usually a higher degree ( based on common knowledge, which is loosely allowed on the GMAT). So, if demand of master's is increasing, there is a SOLID indication that more people are LIKELY to go for higher education, raising the total expense. ELIMINATE

E. This option clearly resolves the paradox because it says despite high fees, people are preferring state universities.

So, Correct answer as per me should be choice (C).

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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 09:19
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A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education.
We are not concerned about the source of higher education funding. We are concerned about why the total expense rose on higher education, while tuition fees stay the same

B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending.
other than tuition fees rose and this explains why national expenses rose as a whole, while tuition costs did not change

C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent.
Another way for the expense to rise, the loans for high education became expensive and now students have to pay more

D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations.
This may indicate that more students are applying for the master's degree, therefore increasing total national expence
Honestly, a very tempting option, might be a correct answer : )

E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition.
many students switched from low-cost college to high-cost university. Such a situation may increase total national expense

IMO
Ans: A
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 09:21
A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education. This helps to explain the paradox in the statement as students are paying more.

B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending. This also helps to explain the contradiction as students have to spend more now.

C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent. When interest rates are high, spending will increase.

D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations. The statement is not able to resolve that paradox.

E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition.Students are now applying where tuition fees is higher.

D is correct.
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 09:23
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The answer is A.

First, you need to understand the situation at hand --> despite frozen tuition costs and assessment by the board, the overall national expense on higher education went up.

Four answers from the list will explain why the costs went up and one answer will fail to answer this question. We need to pick the answer that fails to clear this paradox.

A --> This is the correct answer since we don't care where the money comes from. The source of the funds doesn't explain why overall expenses went up. One could assume that students didn't care about being wasteful about the money but that will be an extra assumption that someone has to make and we shouldn't do that.

B --> Of course, if dorm and book prices go up, students will pay more for their education

C --> If interest goes up, students will have to pay more for their loans. This is not the best answer because of it timing (e.g. you don't have to pay back right away) but it's definitely better than A.

D --> If demand goes up, then there are more students who will pursue Master's. Thus, overall expense will go up

E --> If more people apply to more expensive schools, of course the overall expense will go up.
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Re: The total national expense on higher education rose significantly  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2019, 09:24
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IMO A.

Premise: National expense on higher education has risen during the last two years but tuition costs in universities and colleges did not change during the same period of time.

We need to find an argument that would NOT justify the author's claims.

A. a growing number of students use their parent’s savings to pay for their higher education. [This should lead to a decrease in expenses as the number of students taking a loan would decrease and hence the national expenditure. Correct. ]
B. many colleges raised the prices of dormitories and students’ services such as private tutors or book lending. [This could lead to an overall increase in higher education as a whole. Incorrect. ]
C. the average interest rate of students loans rose last year by five percent. [This means the students who take the loans will have to pay a higher amount while repaying the amount back and hence increasing the expenditure. Incorrect. ]
D. the demand for a Master’s degree has become more prevalent in many occupations. [If it has become more prevelant, it means more people are applying to college. Could be a valid reason for an increase. Incorrect. ]
E. many students preferred to apply to state universities instead of colleges, in spite of the higher tuition. [This means the overall average expenditure for a student would have increased. Incorrect.]
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