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The trend toward online shopping is credited

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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:00
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The trend toward online shopping is credited with being a positive impactor on overall environmental emissions, as it eliminates the need for large, energy-consuming, retail stores. However, recent carbon emission estimates show that as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns. Shipping emissions, the energy consumed warehousing goods, and packaging have all been cited as contributors. So, those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping, as the net carbon impact of their purchase decisions will be lower than would be expected of online shopping.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion
(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion
(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors
(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion
(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion

 

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New post 09 Jul 2019, 08:55
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Official Explanation: The first boldface portion cites a piece of evidence, a factual piece of information, used to support the author's conclusion that "those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping," and the second is that author's conclusion. As the first is evidence and the second is conclusion, the two boldface portions align with one another, and they align with what the author has to say, answer choice (B) is the only viable answer choice by process of elimination, and accurately depicts the function of each role in boldface. Answer choice (A) can be eliminated on the basis that the first cannot be considered a "concession" - and actually aligns with the argument, and the second certainly isn't evidence. (E) also misidentifies fact vs. opinion, and cites the first boldface portion as a "claim." (C) and (D) both incorrectly cite the first boldface portion as "in conflict" with the author's perspective, (C) going so far as to state conflicting language between the first and second boldface portions that doesn't exist in the argument, and (D) implying that the second boldface conflicts with the authors perspective, despite the fact that the boldface portion is the author's conclusion. Thus, (B) is our only fitting answer choice.

 

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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:13
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Easy (B). Once you identify the conclusion of the argument, you're not really left with much choices to choose from. Between (B) and (E), becomes very clearly evident that the first boldface portion is an evidence in favour of the second boldface portion.

Hence, IMO, (B) is the correct answer choice.
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The trend toward online shopping is credited  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 08 Jul 2019, 23:29
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In BF questions, it is important to identify conclusion and role of each BF towards it. Here, we have conclusion after transition word "so" "those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping". In other words, the author finishes his line of reasoning after providing evidence that shows that online shopping does more harm to environment than traditional shopping, thus we should opt for traditional shopping. So, first BF is our evidence that helps author to arrive to conclusion, while second BF is the conclusion itself. Having identified role of each BF, we can now move on to the options.


(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion - first is not concession but evidence, second is not evidence but conclusion itself. A is out
(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion - both seem good and match our analysis
(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors - argument does not challenge anything
(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion - no challenge observed
(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion - first is not claim, it is evidence as statistics is cited


IMO, answer is B

Originally posted by mira93 on 08 Jul 2019, 08:19.
Last edited by mira93 on 08 Jul 2019, 23:29, edited 2 times in total.
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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:26
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IMO B

(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion - The first is evidence in support of the conclusion and the second is not evidence, it is the conclusion
(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion - Correct
(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors - The first is not challenging, in fact it is provided to support the author's conclusion
(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion - The first is not challenging, in fact it is provided to support the author's conclusion, the second is correct (as second statement is the conclusion)
(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion - Close, but the first is not a claim, it's an evidence based on recent Carbon estimation
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New post Updated on: 10 Jul 2019, 03:53
The trend toward online shopping is credited with being a positive impactor on overall environmental emissions, as it eliminates the need for large, energy-consuming, retail stores. However, recent carbon emission estimates show that as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns. Shipping emissions, the energy consumed warehousing goods, and packaging have all been cited as contributors. So, those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping, as the net carbon impact of their purchase decisions will be lower than would be expected of online shopping.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion
The second is the main conclusion of the argument and also the opinion of the argument.while the first is an estimate that challenges the common belief.
(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion
Correct option
The first is an evidence that the argument uses against the general belief but the conclusion is based on this claim, the first is only an estimate and second is the conclusion.
(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors
The first boldface is challengin the fist information provided by the argument which the argument seeks to challenge,second is the conclusion.
(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion
The first is not an example but a concert support of he argument that he author uses to build the conclusion around, Second is that conclusion.
(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion
The argument is based on a common belief and the argument opposes that belief by providing information,First boldface is that information and the second boldface is the conclusion of the argument. Wrong choice.

Originally posted by abhishekdadarwal2009 on 08 Jul 2019, 08:27.
Last edited by abhishekdadarwal2009 on 10 Jul 2019, 03:53, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The trend toward online shopping is credited  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:29
(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion - incorrect second is not an evidence. it is a conclusion
(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion - incorrect. first is not a evidence but a claim.
(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors - incorrect first is not an evidence supporting an explanation that argument challenges.
(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion - incorrect first is not an example.
(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion - correct
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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:31
E.

The entire argument is unidirectional and author doesn't disagree with study's finidings.
BF#1 is the claim by the study that is used by author to drive his conclusion.
BF#2 is the author's main conclusion.
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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:35
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The trend toward online shopping is credited with being a positive impactor on overall environmental emissions, as it eliminates the need for large, energy-consuming, retail stores. However, recent carbon emission estimates show that as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns. Shipping emissions, the energy consumed warehousing goods, and packaging have all been cited as contributors. So, those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping, as the net carbon impact of their purchase decisions will be lower than would be expected of online shopping.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
Analysis:
BF2: argument main conclusion
BF1: a fact/data/evidence supports the conclusion, but opposed the first sentence.


(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion --> BF2 is not an evidence, it's the conclusion
(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion --> correct: matches w/ the analysis
(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors --> BF1 support the conclusion that is not challenged by the argument
(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion --> BF1 support the conclusion that is not challenged by the argument
(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion --> BF1 is a fact/evidence, not a claim
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New post Updated on: 09 Jul 2019, 07:14
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The trend toward online shopping is credited with being a positive impactor on overall environmental emissions, as it eliminates the need for large, energy-consuming, retail stores. However, recent carbon emission estimates show that as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns. Shipping emissions, the energy consumed warehousing goods, and packaging have all been cited as contributors. So, those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping, as the net carbon impact of their purchase decisions will be lower than would be expected of online shopping.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

Conclusion: Those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping
Premise supporting conclusion: as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns.

(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion
First is a premise supporting the conclusion and second is that conclusion. Second is not an evidence. Incorrect
(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion
First is a premise supporting the conclusion and second is that conclusion. Correct
(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors
First is a premise supporting the conclusion and second is that conclusion. First is supporting conclusion of the argument and not challenging it. Incorrect
(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion
First is a premise supporting the conclusion and second is that conclusion. First is not challenging the conclusion. Incorrect
(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion
First is a premise supporting the conclusion and second is that conclusion. First is a premise or a fact and not a claim. Incorrect
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Originally posted by Kinshook on 08 Jul 2019, 08:36.
Last edited by Kinshook on 09 Jul 2019, 07:14, edited 2 times in total.
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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:37
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In this question, the first bold part established that carbon emission estimates has increased despite online shopping that was previously credited with positive impact on environmental emissions. The second bold part concluded that the people should not bother doing online shopping since figures are rising, therefore they should return to retail shopping. Thus the first bold part is an evidence supporting the conclusion reached by the author in the second bold part. Answer choice B.

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New post Updated on: 09 Jul 2019, 02:11
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The trend toward online shopping is credited with being a positive impactor on overall environmental emissions, as it eliminates the need for large, energy-consuming, retail stores. However, recent carbon emission estimates show that as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns. Shipping emissions, the energy consumed warehousing goods, and packaging have all been cited as contributors. So, those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping, as the net carbon impact of their purchase decisions will be lower than would be expected of online shopping.

Boldface1: as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns - Counterpremise to the initial assertion, but the initial assertion is challenged, so this is evidence for the argument's conclusion
Boldface2: those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping - Argument's main Conclusion


(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion
First part support the conclusion so incorrect.

(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion
Correct

(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors
First part does not support the claim that argument challenges, it in fact favors the main conclusion.

(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion
Same as C.

(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion
First is not a claim but is evidence.

Answer should be option B.

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Originally posted by prashanths on 08 Jul 2019, 08:39.
Last edited by prashanths on 09 Jul 2019, 02:11, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The trend toward online shopping is credited  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:41
IMO C;
The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors

The trend toward online shopping is credited with being a positive impactor on overall environmental emissions, as it eliminates the need for large, energy-consuming, retail stores. However, recent carbon emission estimates show that as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns. Shipping emissions, the energy consumed warehousing goods, and packaging have all been cited as contributors. So, those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping, as the net carbon impact of their purchase decisions will be lower than would be expected of online shopping.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion
(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion
(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors
(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion
(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion
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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:43
The trend toward online shopping is credited with being a positive impactor on overall environmental emissions, as it eliminates the need for large, energy-consuming, retail stores. However, recent carbon emission estimates show that as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns. Shipping emissions, the energy consumed warehousing goods, and packaging have all been cited as contributors. So, those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping, as the net carbon impact of their purchase decisions will be lower than would be expected of online shopping.

The first is authors claim which author uses to put forward his statement and second is a authors conclusion (look at authors words so).
Nothing in the bold is against the authors argument


In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion. No concession

(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion I am still not sure if its authors argument or general arument
(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favorsthey both point to same argument first evidence favors second colnclusion
(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusionSame as C
(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusionThis support the authors conclusion and definitely second is authors conclusion
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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:49
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The argument is that online shopping will do no better with emissions than retail stores.

The first is the result of an estimate based on past events indicated by the word 'have risen'. So we can consider this an evidence. This evidence points to the fact that online shopping has in fact increases emissions. So the first boldface is in line with the argument

The second boldface gives a conclusion based on the above facts that local retail shopping should be adopted rather than online shopping. This is again in line with the argument

(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion

The author merely points out the result of an estimate and says nothing about accepting or rejecting it

(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion

Looks like the right option

(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors

This says that the first boldface is against the author's argument while in fact it supports the author's argument

(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion

Same as (C)

(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion

An estimate is not a claim

IMO, Answer is (B)
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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:51
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Our mission is to identify what is the purpose of the highlighted text in the question. Let us have a look at the answer choices and identify which one fits the best:

The trend toward online shopping is credited with being a positive impactor on overall environmental emissions, as it eliminates the need for large, energy-consuming, retail stores. However, recent carbon emission estimates show that as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns. Shipping emissions, the energy consumed warehousing goods, and packaging have all been cited as contributors. So, those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping, as the net carbon impact of their purchase decisions will be lower than would be expected of online shopping.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion The first boldface text is not a concession, it is rather an evidence that online shopping is not environmentally friendly due to additional carbon emissions. The second boldface sentence is not an evidence, but the conclusion itself. Author states that those who want to contribute to better environment should defer to local retail shops. This sentence does not state any fact, it is rather an author's perception of the situation with the online shopping, i.e. his conclusion.
(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion This answer is correct: the first sentence is an evidence that supports the conclusion of the argument. The evidence states that emissions have risen, and then conclusion states that people need to defer to retail shops in order to reduce an environmental impact.
(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors The first sentence is actually given to disagree with an explanation the argument challenges. The second sentence is the conclusion.
(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion It is correctly identified that the second sentence is a conclusion, but the first sentence is not an example, it clearly states an evidence that the carbon emissions increased by 5%.
(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion Even though the role of the second statement is correctly identified in this option, the first sentence is not a claim, it states a fact which clearly plays a role of an evidence.

Correct answer: B
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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:53
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The trend toward online shopping is credited with being a positive impactor on overall environmental emissions, as it eliminates the need for large, energy-consuming, retail stores. However, recent carbon emission estimates show that as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns. Shipping emissions, the energy consumed warehousing goods, and packaging have all been cited as contributors. So, those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping, as the net carbon impact of their purchase decisions will be lower than would be expected of online shopping.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion - The second one is the conclusion, ruled this one out
(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion - Evidence is an interesting word used here, alright as the author is presenting some stats for the conclusion to hold true, we can consider the 1st statement as Evidence; 2nd one is the conclusion; This one is correct
(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors - "that the argument challenges....", argument is not challenging any explanation;"he second is a competing claim the argument favors ".. it is not a claim but the main conclusion of the passage.
(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion - 1st is same as Option B
(
E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion - 1st is not a claim, its an evidence.
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New post Updated on: 09 Jul 2019, 07:17
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Conclusion: So, those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping. (So signals a cocnlusion)

Reasoning: as the net carbon impact of their purchase decisions will be lower than would be expected of online shopping. (As signals a line of reasoning)

Evidence in support of conclusion: carbon emission estimates show that as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns. (estimate signals evidence)

The argument talks about two types of shopping – online shopping and retail shopping. Both trends have pluses and minuses. The author says that the online shopping can be good because it eliminates some factors for carbon emission. But it can also lead to carbon emission because of delivery from a long distance. Therefore, we better do shopping in nearby retail shops. Thus net carbon emission may decrease. As we see the first boldface is the evidence, and the second one is the conclusion supported by the evidence.

A. First one is not a concession; the second one is a conclusion.
B. The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion. Correct because the first boldface talks about a estimates thus it is evidence.
C. Also incorrect because author is not challenging anything.
D. Also incorrect because author is not challenging anything. The author is not challenging this conclusion but making it.
E. the first one is not a claim because when the argument talks about estimation it brings evidence. Evidence and a claim are not the same things.

Hence B
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Originally posted by JonShukhrat on 08 Jul 2019, 08:53.
Last edited by JonShukhrat on 09 Jul 2019, 07:17, edited 4 times in total.
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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:55
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Pre-analysis:

First, identify the conclusion and the premises.

Conclusion:
So, those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping,
as the net carbon impact of their purchase decisions will be lower than would be expected of online shopping.


Premise 1:
The trend toward online shopping is credited with being a positive impactor on overall environmental emissions, as it eliminates the need for large, energy-consuming, retail stores.
>This is the claim which the conclusion is not in favour of
Definition of claim: state or assert that something is the case, typically without providing evidence or proof.

Premise 2:
However, recent carbon emission estimates show that as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns.
>This is an evidence which the conclusion is in favour of. It aligns with the direction of the conclusion.

Definition of evidence:
the available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid
/signs or indications of something.


Next, find fault with each of the answer choices.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion
definition of concession: a thing that is granted, especially in response to demands; compromise
The first is a claim, clearly it is not a compromise. -OUT-
The second is a conclusion not an evidence. -OUT-

(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion
Ok. Based on pre-analysis.

(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors
The first is not a challenge. Defintion of challenge: a call to prove or justify something. Did the argument challenge\proof\justify an explanation? Nope. -OUT-
The second is not a claim but a conclusion. -OUT-

(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion
The first is evidence not an example. Facts and stats has been provided. -OUT-
The second is the conclusion.

(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion
The first is evidence not a claim. A claim means that it is purely an assertion without evidence/facts provided. -OUT-
The second is the conclusion.

B wins.
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Re: The trend toward online shopping is credited  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2019, 08:59
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The trend toward online shopping is credited with being a positive impactor on overall environmental emissions, as it eliminates the need for large, energy-consuming, retail stores. However, recent carbon emission estimates show that as a result of this trend, per capita levels of purchase-related emissions have risen by over 5%, after adjustments to account for spending patterns. Shipping emissions, the energy consumed warehousing goods, and packaging have all been cited as contributors. So, those looking to reduce their contribution to carbon emissions should defer to local retail shopping, as the net carbon impact of their purchase decisions will be lower than would be expected of online shopping.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first cites a concession to the argument made by the author, the second is evidence in favor of the author's conclusion
(B) The first is evidence in favor of the argument's conclusion, the second is that conclusion
(C) The first is evidence supporting an explanation that the argument challenges, the second is a competing claim the argument favors
(D) The first is an example in favor of a conclusion the argument challenges, the second is that conclusion
(E) The first is a claim in support of the author's conclusion, the second is that conclusion


[prem] trend online shop + for env bc - large energy consuming stores;
[1 bold: xprem] but, this trend has shown that per cap emis has risen <= [xprem] bc of shipping, storage and packing;
[2 bold: con] to +env shop at stores <= bc impact is less than online;

(A) 1 is not favor to author; 2 is the con;
(C) 1 suport the args con; 2 is a claim;
(D) 1 prem author challenges; 2 is not that con;
(E) 1 does not sup author; 2 is con;

Answer (B): 1 is a fact or premise in favor of arg's con and 2 is the arg con.
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Re: The trend toward online shopping is credited   [#permalink] 08 Jul 2019, 08:59

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