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# The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that

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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2014, 07:03
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sugand wrote:
isn't it true that "THAT" can have only singular antecedents and take only singular verbs...when u want to refer to plural antecedents "THOSE" replace "THAT"...

so how is "THAT" here referring to "emotional reactions "....

that is one of the most versatile words in English grammar. It has 3 most prominent avatars:

i) As a relative pronoun, that relates to another noun preceding it in the sentence. Example: The car that is parked in the basement is mine.

ii) As a demonstrative pronoun, that stands for a person, place or thing that must be pointed to. Example: Peter's brother is taller than that of Jack.

iii) As a conjunction, that connects two clauses. Example: He said that he would work hard.

Based on which of the avatars the word that is used as, there are some key differences. One of the differences is: When used as a relative pronoun, that can refer to both singular and plural nouns. So, both the following are correct:

The car that is parked in the basement is mine.
– Relative pronoun that refers to singular noun car.

The cars that are parked in the basement are mine.
– Relative pronoun that refers to plural noun cars.

However, when used as a demonstrative pronoun, that can only refer to singular nouns. So, while the following are correct:

Peter's brother is taller than that of Jack.

Following is not correct (assuming Jack has multiple businesses):

Peter's businesses are doing better than that of Jack.
- Demonsrative pronoun that cannot refer to plural noun businesses

The correct sentence would be:

Peter's businesses are doing better than those of Jack.
- Demonsrative pronoun those will refer to plural noun businesses

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana details the various avatars of that, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2014, 21:24
EducationAisle wrote:
sugand wrote:
isn't it true that "THAT" can have only singular antecedents and take only singular verbs...when u want to refer to plural antecedents "THOSE" replace "THAT"...

so how is "THAT" here referring to "emotional reactions "....

that is one of the most versatile words in English grammar. It has 3 most prominent avatars:

i) As a relative pronoun, that relates to another noun preceding it in the sentence. Example: The car that is parked in the basement is mine.

ii) As a demonstrative pronoun, that stands for a person, place or thing that must be pointed to. Example: Peter's brother is taller than that of Jack.

iii) As a conjunction, that connects two clauses. Example: He said that he would work hard.

Based on which of the avatars the word that is used as, there are some key differences. One of the differences is: When used as a relative pronoun, that can refer to both singular and plural nouns. So, both the following are correct:

The car that is parked in the basement is mine.
– Relative pronoun that refers to singular noun car.

The cars that are parked in the basement are mine.
– Relative pronoun that refers to plural noun cars.

However, when used as a demonstrative pronoun, that can only refer to singular nouns. So, while the following are correct:

Peter's brother is taller than that of Jack.

Following is not correct (assuming Jack has multiple businesses):

Peter's businesses are doing better than that of Jack.
- Demonsrative pronoun that cannot refer to plural noun businesses

The correct sentence would be:

Peter's businesses are doing better than those of Jack.
- Demonsrative pronoun those will refer to plural noun businesses

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana details the various avatars of that, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.

In this question the noun modifier "that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses" touches the noun individual. However it is modifying emotional reactions . I am aware that an "of prepositional phrase" is an exception to the touch rule of noun modifiers.
So as per this question ,can i deduce that in general a "the touch rule of noun modifiers" have all prepositional phrases ( as in this question "in an individual ") an exception ?
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2014, 04:04
dream21 wrote:
In this question the noun modifier "that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses" touches the noun individual. However it is modifying emotional reactions . I am aware that an "of prepositional phrase" is an exception to the touch rule of noun modifiers.
So as per this question ,can i deduce that in general a "the touch rule of noun modifiers" have all prepositional phrases ( as in this question "in an individual ") an exception ?

Hi! there would never be an instance when that, when used as a relative pronoun (as is the case here) refers to people (such as individual).

So, this cannot be considered an exception.
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2014, 06:35
But I don't understand why "that" is referring to a plural precedent "emotional reactions"?

Since it is a correct answer from official guide, what am I missing in understanding?
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2015, 06:39
Hi all, I have some problems with choice E. Nobody in this thread could actually say, why E is wrong, so as not an Expert in this area, one must not know wether the reactions caused responses or an individual. I don't see any error in this sentence (E). In this cas who correctly modifies an individual....
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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12 May 2015, 17:48
BrainLab wrote:
Hi all, I have some problems with choice E. Nobody in this thread could actually say, why E is wrong, so as not an Expert in this area, one must not know wether the reactions caused responses or an individual. I don't see any error in this sentence (E). In this cas who correctly modifies an individual....

E is worng because it changes the meaning of the sentence.

The original meaning is that the lying produces emotional reactions that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses ("The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.")

However, in E, although it is a grammatically correct sentence, the meaning has changed:

E. The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn.

In E, the physiological responses are produced by the individual and not by emotional reactions. E is wrong because it changes the original meaning (although option E reflects a logical meaning)
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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12 May 2015, 17:50
However, I can´t understand yet why C. is worng.
Is it wrong only because of the missed comma?
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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14 May 2015, 19:16
I chose A. I am clear with the SVA reasoning but I am still unsure about the placement of 'in turn'. Can some explain this to me?
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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16 May 2015, 06:41
Yogita25 wrote:
I chose A. I am clear with the SVA reasoning but I am still unsure about the placement of 'in turn'. Can some explain this to me?

hi,
the placement of 'in turn' changes the meaning.
A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.
it means that something creates emotional reactions and these reactions on their part produce physiological responses
B) that create unconscious physiological responses in turn.
here it changes the meaning to that the emotional changes create physiological responses one after another

in simple terms say .. in turn, modifies two different things in the sentences in first emotional reaction and in second physiological responses
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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16 May 2015, 06:48
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Maxirosario2012 wrote:
However, I can´t understand yet why C. is worng.
Is it wrong only because of the missed comma?

hi
C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses
it changes the meaning..
the original sentence says
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological response. here it is emotional rections that is producing physiological responses

The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses here the act of emotional reactions produced by lying is producing physiological responses
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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16 May 2015, 07:15
chetan2u wrote:
Yogita25 wrote:
I chose A. I am clear with the SVA reasoning but I am still unsure about the placement of 'in turn'. Can some explain this to me?

hi,
the placement of 'in turn' changes the meaning.
A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.
it means that something creates emotional reactions and these reactions on their part produce physiological responses
B) that create unconscious physiological responses in turn.
here it changes the meaning to that the emotional changes create physiological responses one after another

in simple terms say .. in turn, modifies two different things in the sentences in first emotional reaction and in second physiological responses

Thanks a lot. Now I am clear with it.
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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16 May 2015, 07:34
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological response.

The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption----main Sentence

lying produces emotional reactions-------sub sentence

in an individual that------ ' That ' is pronoun refer preceding Noun 'INDIVIDUAL ' but before individual is preposition hence it refers to Emotional Reactions

A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

Emotional Reactions ---Plural ------Create ---( Plural ) ----correct

B) that creats unconscious physiological responses in turn.

Emotional Reactions ---Plural ------Creats ---( singular ) ---S V Mismatch

C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses.

Creating --is gerund and modify preceding noun ---Individual ---but before individual there is Preposition hence it should modify emotional reactions .

emotional reactions ---(plural ) -----creating ( gerund / present participle / singular )

D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious.

To create -----infinity verb ---shows intent but how do emotional reactions can have intent

E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn.

That refers emotional reactions not Individual .

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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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16 May 2015, 07:49
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological response.

The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption----main Sentence

lying produces emotional reactions-------sub sentence

in an individual that------ ' That ' is pronoun refer preceding Noun 'INDIVIDUAL ' but before individual is preposition hence it refers to Emotional Reactions

A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

Emotional Reactions ---Plural ------Create ---( Plural ) ----correct

B) that creats unconscious physiological responses in turn.

Emotional Reactions ---Plural ------Creats ---( singular ) ---S V Mismatch

C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses.

Creating --is gerund and modify preceding noun ---Individual ---but before individual there is Preposition hence it should modify emotional reactions .

emotional reactions ---(plural ) -----creating ( gerund / present participle / singular )

D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious.

To create -----infinity verb ---shows intent but how do emotional reactions can have intent

E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn.

That refers emotional reactions not Individual .

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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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20 May 2015, 00:58
1st POE:- A or B since that is required for parallelism.

A is more concise and correctly placed modifier.. So A is the answer.

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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2015, 03:05
scheol79 wrote:
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses

(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses

(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious

(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

Could someone explain why the comma in A after "that" is correct? There is a rule, i belive before or after "that" there will never be a comma. Therefore it must be before "that" i guess. I trapped into it and chose B.
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2015, 03:29
reto wrote:
Could someone explain why the comma in A after "that" is correct? There is a rule, i belive before or after "that" there will never be a comma. Therefore it must be before "that" i guess. I trapped into it and chose B.

Believe it or not, the comma is not after that; the comma is before the phrase in turn. Basically the phrase in turn is just delimited by commas. in turn just acts as a non-essential here.

In such circumstances, you can expect to encounter a comma before that as well. An example that comes to my mind is this: http://gmatclub.com/forum/uninformed-about-students-experience-in-urban-classrooms-118464.html.

While this is not an official example, it illustrates the point because all five options have a comma before that. Again, in this sentence, such as standardized test scores is delimited by commas. So, the comma is actually not before that; the comma is after the non-essential phrase: such as standardized test scores.
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2015, 12:09
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The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses

(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses

(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious

(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

My analysis:

Meaning:
Lying produces reactions that create responses.

A) That is used as a connector or as a subject.Here it acts as a subject(emotional reactions in an individual) which has an apt verb (plural) create.

B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

usage of that is absolutely correct..That acts as the subject(emotional reactions in an individual) of the clause .

Should have a plural verb create.

C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses

Creating is an Ing modifier which has two roles only when the structure is clause+comma+Ing

1) Answers how or what resulted
2) Makes logical sense with the subject of the previous clause

In this case we have a normal structure of creating ----so it should refer to the nearest noun.---individual---

Does it make sense that individual creating the response?-------No

D)to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious

In turn modifies to create which doesnot make sense and moreover the structure of the sentence is awkward.

You can analyse this option in the following way as well

to create--shows intention---intention of what--of the reactions

does the meaning of the sentence imply that the intention of the reactions was to create responses that are unconsious or to create unconcious reponses?----Meaning error.

(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

WOW!!

Who is used to refer to an individual---and rightly said it refers to "individual"---which doesnot make sense.

The individual is not creating the responses.

Hope this helps!
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2015, 15:31
scheol79 wrote:
OA is A.

I answered E, thinking that an individual not an emotion make unconscious responses. I thought emotion couldn't be conscious or unconscious.

Am I over-thinking here?

Substitute Emotions into the pronoun "That". Emotional reactions creates UPR in turn? weird sentence. B is out of the question. Taking "that" out is a bad idea because then you have to include the rest of the sentence into the whole predicate. It is tough to justify "creating" and "to create" as adverb headers, typically you want to use a preposition. Maybe if it said "through which UPRs are created" but then you are simply substituting "which" for "that". Best to use a pronoun here. Who must refer to a human and this is talking about the emotional reactions.
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2016, 14:03
HumptyDumpty wrote:
Remember that on the GMAT "that" can never modify people. It can according to other authorities.

I think you're on to something! I also think all other explanations of "exceptions" are pure BS tbh
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2016, 23:19
chetan2u ,
Please explain the concept behind this question.It is confusing to me when the touch rule for "that" doesn't apply.
Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that   [#permalink] 19 Mar 2016, 23:19

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