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The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce

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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2016, 04:29
mikemcgarry wrote:
My friend, I will get to some of those other links as I have time. My Magoosh job doesn't allow me to spend all day on GC.

Does all this make sense?

Take very good care of yourself, my friend. :-)

Mike :-)


Hi mike,

I totally understand.
Although I am the student of Magoosh,
1/ I have no idea whether I can post GMATPrep question on Magoosh, and where to post if I can
2/ I know Magoosh tutors are busy, I am afraid my questions of OG and Magoosh are sunk through HELP bottom, or maybe my operation problem,
any hint to get quick reply on Magoosh ?

have a nice day
>_~
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New post 15 Nov 2016, 12:52
zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi mike,

I totally understand.
Although I am the student of Magoosh,
1/ I have no idea whether I can post GMATPrep question on Magoosh, and where to post if I can
2/ I know Magoosh tutors are busy, I am afraid my questions of OG and Magoosh are sunk through HELP bottom, or maybe my operation problem,
any hint to get quick reply on Magoosh ?

have a nice day
>_~

Dear zoezhuyan

My friend, I am happy to help. :-)

If you have paid for a Magoosh account, then you should be able to send a HELP ticket from any window in Magoosh, simply by clicking the "Help" tab. My understanding is that Magoosh will answer all Magoosh questions as well as all official questions, including GMAT Prep questions. It's also my understanding that the help tutors will respond to a ticket within a day or two. That's reasonably quick already.

Are you saying that you need replies faster than that? I am trying to understand what you are experiencing. Please be very specific in the description of your situation.

Have a good day,
Mike :-)
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2018, 01:52
souvik101990 GMATNinja

In option A, "that" is referring to "reaction". If thats the case, then "creating" will also refer to "reaction" and not "individual"

Can you let me know where I am going wrong?
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2018, 08:51
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Although I have retired from posting explanations on the verbal forums, but WTH!

pikolo2510 wrote:
souvik101990 GMATNinja

In option A, "that" is referring to "reaction". If thats the case, then "creating" will also refer to "reaction" and not "individual"

Can you let me know where I am going wrong?


Nah. Good point though. Think about these two sentence.

I bought the new iPhone from a retailer that has no headphone jack.

- it is pretty clear that in this sentence that the verb "has" is used for the noun iPhone and not the noun retailer. Most of the times GMAT will have sentences where modifiers set off by words such as which and that modify the closest proceeding noun, but in a few cases the noun has been separated by a small phrase as in this case from a retailer

However, if there are no modifiers at all the verb will invariable be acted by the noun proceeding it. For example,

I went to see her in the hospital feeling sorry. - WRONG

This might be okay in a conversational sense, but in formal writing, this does not work at all. The hospital is not really feeling anything (unless you are playing Resident Evil where hospitals are a living being that produce nurse-zombies, but we are not!)

I want to sit next to the girl wearing the dragon tattoo - The girl is the one wearing the fabled tattoo and not you.

General rule to remember - if there is an ING construction right after a noun (without a comma), the ING must refer to the noun, and for most of the cases on the GMAT it will be a wrong answer choice.
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2018, 17:50
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How come "that" modify a plural noun reactions? Isn't the use of "those" appropriate here?
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2018, 13:58
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Blackishmamba wrote:
How come "that" modify a plural noun reactions? Isn't the use of "those" appropriate here?

Sorry, I'm late to the party here!

As others have mentioned, when "that" is used as a modifier, it can refer to either singular or plural nouns. This same discussion came up on this thread.

I think the confusion comes from the fact that the word "that" can also behave as a (non-modifying) pronoun. If "that" simply operates as a pronoun, it is always singular; "those" would be the plural version. More on the GMAT's many uses of "that" in this article.

I hope this helps!
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New post 20 Feb 2019, 22:48
A thought on 'noun modifiers modifying slightly far away nouns':-

E.g. The book of Zeus, which is older than the bible, accounts for the rule of life under Greek gods. [May not be true, but we love creating general statements based on 'hypothetical' :P].

Observation: which here cannot refer to Zeus as the prepositional phrase 'of Zeus' is modifying the subject or noun 'The Book'. A case in which the noun modifier, which, can jump over another noun modifier and modify the noun The Book.

Now consider this case:-

The book of Zeus is older than the bible, which accounts for the rule of life under Greek gods.

The question raised here is whether the relative clause modifier, which can correctly refer back to the head of the clause or the main noun The Book. The phrase 'older than the bible' brings information to 'how old the book of Zeus' actually is. The book is older than the bible.

Now coming back to the OG:-

The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses..

Can I say, the prepositional phrase: in an individual, is modifying where lying is produced? i.e. can the phrase lead me to the location of the production of lying? If the intended meaning is this, then can that correctly refer to emotional reactions.

If the exam allowed us to write our answers in the best way possible, can the following be considered a better alternative:-

The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual, reactions that,in turn, create unconscious physiological responses. [ I have used a Noun + Noun Modifier to write the sentence without any highlight of confusion, if at all there was any to begin with].

PS: I am just sharing my thought on the sentence and how if an answer choice had been written in this form I would have been inclined to chose it over the others.

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New post 02 Mar 2019, 03:52
Here ' in an individual' is a vital noun modifier that should not be considered.So ' that' refers to emotional reactions.
Answer: A

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New post 03 Mar 2019, 02:47
flyinhair wrote:
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.


(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses

(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses

(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious

(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn


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We need "create" here.
only 2 options are there A and D.
"to" is used when there is intention to do action.
A is correct
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New post 04 Apr 2019, 13:01
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the correct choice quickly! To get started, here is the original question with the major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses
(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn
(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses
(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious
(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

After taking a quick glance over the options, there are a lot of differences we can focus on. Here are just a couple to start:

1. creates / create / creating (subject-verb agreement)
2. placement of the phrase "in turn" (idioms)


Let's start off with #1 on our list: subject-verb agreement. To find out whether we need a singular or plural verb here, we need to ask ourselves, "WHAT is creating unconscious physiological responses?" Next, we need to look to the original sentence for clues:

The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

Now that we know the verb is tied to the plural subject "reactions," we need to make sure the options use plural verbs to match:

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses
(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn
(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses (No verb issues, but let's save this one for later anyway)
(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious
(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

We can eliminate options B & E because they don't use proper subject-verb agreement. Now that we have it narrowed down to only 3 options, let's move on to another issue on our list.

Let's focus now on the placement of the phrase "in turn." In English, we use this phrase to indicate cause-effect among a series of actions:

X causes Y, and Y, in turn, causes Z

If we look at the original sentence, we can get some clues as to what X, Y, and Z are in our idiom:

The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

X = lying
Y = emotional reactions
Z = unconscious physiological responses

Now that we know what to plug into our equation, let's see which options handle this idiom correctly. To make it easier to spot, we've included the rest of the phrase for you:

(A) lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses

X (lying) causes Y (emotional reactions), and Y (emotional reactions), in turn, causes Z (physiological responses) = CORRECT!

(C) lying produces emotional reactions in an individual creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses

X (lying) causes Y (emotional reactions), and Y (emotional reactions) causing, in turn, Z (physiological responses) = WRONG!

(D) lying produces emotional reactions in an individual to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious

X (lying) causes Y (emotional reactions) and Y (emotional reactions) cause, in turn, Z (physiological responses) = WRONG!


There you have it - option A is the correct choice! It uses proper subject-verb agreement, and the idiom (X causes Y, and Y, in turn, causes Z) is written correctly!


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New post 17 May 2019, 01:34
What is that referring to in option A . Does not it refer to Individual.
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New post 19 May 2019, 09:06
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.


(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses ( correct & clear in meaning, 1st that introduces a relevant information about assumption, 2nd that refers to emotional reactions, correct sub verb agreement.)

(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn ( subject verb mismatch, placement of in turn at the end is awkward)

(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses ( meaning suggests as the individual is itself creating physiological reactions but intended meaning is different, responses are the result of emotional reactions rather than of individuals)

(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious ( again change in intended meaning,meaning suggests that lying purposely creates responses,incorrect meaning)

(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn( change in intended meaning, it is not the individuals who create the responses rather responses are the outcomes of emotional reactions)

Original choice is well drafted. no error.

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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2019, 18:42
LoneSurvivor wrote:
What is that referring to in option A . Does not it refer to Individual.
The that in option A refers to emotional reactions in an individual.

... emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses...

The GMAT is not very likely to use a that to refer to a person (we'd normally expect it to use a who), so that reduces some of the ambiguity in this case. Also, the verb create is plural, so that helps too (individual is singular).
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2019, 16:19
LoneSurvivor wrote:
What is that referring to in option A . Does not it refer to Individual.


Hello LoneSurvivor!

In option A, the word "that" does NOT refer directly to an individual. In this case, it's being used as the first word of a modifier.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce   [#permalink] 20 May 2019, 16:19

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