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The variety of fish reproduction techniques provides an example of the

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The variety of fish reproduction techniques provides an example of the  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2018, 04:59
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The variety of fish reproduction techniques provides an example of the adaptive complexity that ecologists have found. Most spawning is synchronized with phases of the moon, and eggs are fertilized in the water column. However, some species lay eggs on the sea bottom or in a protected area. Damselfishes will guard their nests quite aggressively, while jawfish and cardinalfish incubate eggs in the mouth. Seahorse and pipefish carry their eggs in a pouch.

Most hermaphroditic species follow the protogynous pattern of the fairy basselet. If the male disappears, the dominant female in his harem will change sex within days and take over his role within hours. However, a few species are protandrous, where the fish are male first and then become female. Much remains to be learned about fish reproduction, and evolutionary biologists find that the coral environment provides them with many opportunities to observe a variety of species and specialized behaviours.

The reef itself is alive with many billions of coral colonies plus other limestone-depositing organisms, growing among the skeletons of their predecessors. Reefs grow on the continental shelf edge, on the shelf itself, along islands and atolls, and from the continental mainland. While strict requirements concerning the amount of available light, and the ocean‘s clarity, temperature, and movement have restricted the geographic locations of the Earth‘s reefs, these requirements have not limited the ecological complexity of reef communities.

Species representing more phyla than those found in a tropical rainforest live on coral reefs. Scientists counted 1,441 worms on one coral head alone, and these worms belonged to over a hundred different families. Six of the Earth‘s seven species of marine turtles inhabit the Great Barrier Reef. Four thousand species of fishes, more than a third of all marine fish species, make coral ecosystems their home. Perhaps more notably, representatives from all fish families and most genera are reef inhabitants.

Scientists study reef fishes not only because of the diverse sampling of species but also because of the range of behaviours and relationships between species and other animals that is available for analysis. Intense competition and predation have caused fishes to carve out special niches. Mimicry and camouflage offer just two ways for species to blend in with their surroundings. Symbiotic relationships between fish and other organisms also occur with frequency on coral reefs. The anemonefish share their habitat with sea anemones in a symbiotic relationship that scientists have yet to unravel completely. The defensive nematocysts of the anemone are used to stun prey, but the anemonefish are resistant to these stinging cells. Researchers believe that the fish secrets a mucous coating that mimics that of the anemone allowing for chemical signals to prohibit the firing of the cells. One theory holds that the fish obtain these chemicals by rubbing against the sea anemone‘s tentacles. The benefits, if any, to the anemone for having these fish live with them is not clear.

1. Based on the information set down in the passage by the author, with which of the following statements would the author most likely agree?

A. More effort should be made to protect Australia‘s Great Barrier Reef.
B. The absence of diverse phyla in terrestrial ecosystems makes them irrelevant for Earth‘s biodiversity.
C. The richness of coral reef diversity should be recognized and studied.
D. Ecologists should focus research efforts on environments other than coral reefs
E. Coral reefs are not as important as they are made out to be


2. The author discusses the number of species found on a coral head in the fourth paragraph in order to:

A. provide an example of an abnormal phenomenon.
B. emphasize how much greater the diversity of worms on a reef than fish.
C. highlight the importance of coral reef preservation.
D. illustrate the diversity found in coral reefs.
E. contradict a widely accepted theory


3. It can be inferred from the passage that changes in an ocean‘s water clarity and temperature would concern researchers studying coral reefs because:

A. water clarity and temperature directly limit ecological biodiversity.
B. symbiotic relationships between organisms are complex and interesting.
C. water clarity and temperature affect the growth of coral communities.
D. scientists studying reefs also study climate change.
E. fishes cannot survive in very cold temperature


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Re: The variety of fish reproduction techniques provides an example of the  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2018, 19:57
C
D
B
I got 1 wrong and it takes me 8 min to finish all 3 questions.
The passage is quite long, and it has 6 paragraphs, and it also contains too many details
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Re: The variety of fish reproduction techniques provides an example of the  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2018, 11:52
chesstitans wrote:
C
D
B
I got 1 wrong and it takes me 8 min to finish all 3 questions.
The passage is quite long, and it has 6 paragraphs, and it also contains too many details


chesstitans. could you please explain why the answer to Q 1 is C?
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The variety of fish reproduction techniques provides an example of the  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2018, 13:01
prateek176 wrote:
chesstitans wrote:
C
D
B
I got 1 wrong and it takes me 8 min to finish all 3 questions.
The passage is quite long, and it has 6 paragraphs, and it also contains too many details


chesstitans. could you please explain why the answer to Q 1 is C?


Unreally long passage.

All correct in 8:20.

Explanation for 1.

A --> Out of Scope.

B--> Extreme. All you know is "Species representing more phyla than those found in a tropical rainforest live on coral reefs".

D --> Incorrect. Check the entire 4th paragraph. Coral reef is heaven for someone interested in Bio diversity.

E. --> "Scientists study reef fishes not only because of the diverse sampling of species but also because of the range of behaviours and relationships between species and other animals that is available for analysis." --> means reefs are important.

Hence option C.
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Re: The variety of fish reproduction techniques provides an example of the  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2018, 04:03
OE
1..
Strategy Point:

Get through examples-heavy passages quickly (in no more than two or three minutes at most, usually). Specific examples cited by a question can always be found in the passage, and most examples won’t be mentioned at all in any given question set.



1) An inference question without any clues to help narrow it down, so chances are it will have to do with the author‘s main points. What does the author generally believe? Predict: The coral reefs harbour unusually rich ecosystems. (C) echoes this and adds the point at the end of the passage that ―much remains to be learned.‖

(A): Out of Scope. The author doesn‘t discuss conservation efforts in the passage, and so while the author may agree with this, it can‘t be inferred from the passage.

(B): Distortion. Saying that the biodiversity in coral reefs is exceptional doesn‘t equate with saying that the biodiversity on land is irrelevant. Watch out for choices that suggest false contrasts!

(C): The correct answer

(D): Out of Scope. The author doesn‘t discuss what should be done in terms of studying non-reef ecosystems.

(E): The passage never states this


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New post 01 Sep 2018, 04:05

2) An evaluation question; predict an answer by looking at what comes before and after. Immediately before, the author notes that there are more phyla in coral reefs than tropical rainforests, and immediately afterwards the author notes that coral reefs have a large diversity of marine turtles. The purpose of the whole paragraph is to demonstrate the diversity of the coral reefs. Predict the purpose of this specific example: to give a further example of the diversity in coral reefs. (D) says the same.

(A): Distortion. While the author suggests that coral reef diversity is unique, there‘s no indication that it‘s abnormal.

(B): Distortion. The author doesn‘t want to suggest that worms represent greater diversity, but rather simply give another example supporting the overall diversity of the coral reefs. This choice suggests a false contrast that the author doesn‘t make.

(C): Out of Scope. The author emphasizes diversity, but says nothing about preservation.

(D): The correct answer

(E): ‗Contradict‘ is the wrong verb as no such contradiction is made in the passage


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New post 01 Sep 2018, 04:06

3) Where does the author discuss water clarity and temperature? Go back to ¶3, where the author says that ―the ocean‘s clarity, temperature, and movement have restricted the geographic locations of the Earth‘s reefs.‖ What can be inferred about water clarity and temperature from this information? Predict: they‘re important to forming coral reefs. (C) repeats this.

(A): Opposite. Though the two factors limit the location for coral reefs, this doesn‘t mean that they limit diversity. In fact, the author argues immediately after discussing clarity and temperature, ―these requirements have not limited the ecological complexity of reef communities.‖

(B): Out of Scope. While this may be true, it doesn‘t necessarily follow from a discussion of water clarity and temperature, which are completely irrelevant to whether or not a phenomenon is interesting.

(C): The correct answer

(D): Distortion. Though climate change might be something that scientists studying reefs are interested in, this conclusion can't be drawn from the information in the passage.

(E): Out of scope. The passage doesn‘t support this

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Re: The variety of fish reproduction techniques provides an example of the &nbs [#permalink] 01 Sep 2018, 04:06
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