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Theorist: To be capable of planned locomotion, an organism must be

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Theorist: To be capable of planned locomotion, an organism must be  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2019, 05:14
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Theorist: To be capable of planned locomotion, an organism must be able both to form an internal representation of its environment and to send messages to its muscles to control movements. Such an organism must therefore have a central nervous system. Thus, an organism incapable of planned locomotion does not have a central nervous system.

The theorist's argument is flawed in that it

(A) confuses a necessary condition for an organism's possessing a capacity with a sufficient one

(B) takes for granted that organisms capable of sending messages from their central nervous systems to their muscles are also capable of locomotion

(C) presumes, without providing justification, that planned locomotion is the only biologically useful purpose for an organism's forming an internal representation of its environment

(D) takes for granted that adaptations that serve a biologically useful purpose originally came about for that purpose

(E) presumes, without providing justification, that an internal representation of its environment can be formed by an organism with even a rudimentary nervous system
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Re: Theorist: To be capable of planned locomotion, an organism must be  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2019, 01:51
Option A is correct as the author assumes that if organism is incapable of locomotion it is due to absence of a central nervous system. But as mentioned there are 2 requirements to be fulfilled in order for locomotion to work. So if internal representation of its environment does not happen, even then locomotion would not work.

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Re: Theorist: To be capable of planned locomotion, an organism must be  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2019, 22:45
akanshaxo wrote:
Theorist: To be capable of planned locomotion, an organism must be able both to form an internal representation of its environment and to send messages to its muscles to control movements. Such an organism must therefore have a central nervous system. Thus, an organism incapable of planned locomotion does not have a central nervous system.

The theorist's argument is flawed in that it

(A) confuses a necessary condition for an organism's possessing a capacity with a sufficient one

(B) takes for granted that organisms capable of sending messages from their central nervous systems to their muscles are also capable of locomotion

(C) presumes, without providing justification, that planned locomotion is the only biologically useful purpose for an organism's forming an internal representation of its environment

(D) takes for granted that adaptations that serve a biologically useful purpose originally came about for that purpose

(E) presumes, without providing justification, that an internal representation of its environment can be formed by an organism with even a rudimentary nervous system


IMO A.
This argument deals majorly with Conditional Reasoning. The Central Nervous System is a necessary condition for Planned Locomotion (which is the sufficient condition). This can be further visualised that PL can happen only in the presence of a CN system and that presence of CN system alone does not guarantee the happening of PL (probably because CN system might be one among the many necessary ingredients for a successful PL)

Now when the argument concludes that an organsim incapable of PL does not have a CN system, the argument has actually twisted the whole conditional Reasoning concept i.e confuses a necessary condition with a sufficient one.

Hope the explanation helps.
Thanks in advance for your kudo's. Feel free to reply in case further clarification is required :)

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Re: Theorist: To be capable of planned locomotion, an organism must be  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2019, 22:53
A.
“Such an organism must therefore have a central nervous system”
This statement ignores the fact that there can be other systems which might be controlling the same for other organisms


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Re: Theorist: To be capable of planned locomotion, an organism must be   [#permalink] 02 Mar 2019, 22:53
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Theorist: To be capable of planned locomotion, an organism must be

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