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Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from

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Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2019, 03:07
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Question Stats:

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Project SC Butler: Day 193: Sentence Correction (SC2)


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Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.


A) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence

B) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, were quite different

C) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, was quite different

D) Jefferson the muted public speaker was quite different from Thomas Jefferson the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence

E) Jefferson the muted public speaker and firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence was quite different

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Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2019, 03:08
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 193: Sentence Correction (SC2)




Quote:
Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.


A) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence

B) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, were quite different

C) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, was quite different

D) Jefferson the muted public speaker was quite different from Thomas Jefferson the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence

E) Jefferson the muted public speaker and firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence was quite different


This question turns almost entirely on appositive phrases.
An appositive is usually a noun modifier that renames a noun or describes the noun in another way.
Essential or "vital" phrases should not be set off by commas because commas indicate that the words are not essential to the meaning of the sentence.

Thomas Jefferson is renamed as "the muted public speaker" and "the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence."

This construction may seem weird, but it is correct and forceful:
Muhammad Ali the boxer was very different from Muhammad Ali the imprisoned conscientious objector to the Vietnam War.
The construction means that Muhammad Ali behaved one way in the boxing ring and in another way in the "outside world."
We use the construction in the italicized sentence because that construction packs rhetorical punch (it is rhetorically forceful).

• Split #1: do not use commas with essential appositive phrases

If appositive phrases are required to understand the meaning of the sentence, we cannot set them off with commas.
Let's see what happens when we remove appositive phrases set off by commas in options A, B, and C.

A) Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.
→ → Jefferson was quite different from Thomas Jefferson. :(

B) Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, were quite different.
→ →Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Jefferson were quite different. :(

C) Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, was quite different
→ → Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Jefferson was quite different. :(

When we remove the appositive phrases, the sentences do not make sense, so the phrases should not be surrounded by commas.

Eliminate A, B, and C

• Split #2 - Meaning

I am going to avoid the verb issue in option E because it's controversial.

Option E impermissibly uses "different" without a comparative word (different from whom or from what?).

Option E uses "different" in an informal way.
The sentence in (E) means that Thomas Jefferson was weird.
(I think that he was weird, but we cannot say so with this construction on the GMAT.)

E) Thomas Jefferson [appositive 1 and appositive 2] was different.
On the GMAT, be sure that "different" is coupled with either a stated or obvious comparative object.

Eliminate option E.

The best answer is D.

Not all modifiers set off by commas are removable in the strict sense.

Take a look at this official question.
Some people might argue with me, but I think that the sentence would lose its core meaning if we were to remove the material set off by commas.
Although the official sentence breaks the rules and sets off essential material with both "which" and commas, the sentence is acceptable because there's really no other way to write that very effective sentence in quite the same way.

I tried to rewrite option D in a way that maintained the rhetorical "flourish."
I did not think my rewrites were as effective as D.

This question also tests strategy.
We can guess from options A, B, and D that essential appositives are being tested.

We have no way to choose between A and B.
They are very similar—too similar.
Option D is nearly identical to option A. The words are identical but the commas have been removed.

Option E is a train wreck.
Option C uses the wrong verb.
Time to get strategic.

We can try the "odd man out" strategy:
We can't choose between A and B.
Choose D.

Alternatively, we might try to figure out what is different (D contains the same modifiers as options A, B, and C, but option D lacks commas)—and that difference might spark thoughts about essential modifiers.
You may not be certain that apposition can be written this way, but "almost certain" is good enough.

COMMENTS

These answers range from well-reasoned but not quite right to very well-reasoned and spot on.
If I were an aspirant, I would read this thread.
The best answers all use different language to explain the concepts; read about the issue in as many ways as you can.

Smiley faces go to well-reasoned but incorrect answers and kudos go to well-reasoned and correct answers.
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Re: Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 21 Nov 2019, 03:25
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Imo. A

Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.

Seems that one person have two different characteristics. Appositive construction preferred by GMAC. Original sentence has no error, so hold it.

A) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence - Hold it

B) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, were quite different - TS and TS were quite different. Seems to present two different persons. So, incorrect.

C) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, was quite different - TS and TS was, SVA error.

D) Jefferson the muted public speaker was quite different from Thomas Jefferson the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence - Comma is required before noun modifier clause (appositive construction)

E) Jefferson the muted public speaker and firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence was quite different - SVA error, misplaced modifier error, punctuation construction error.

Originally posted by Raxit85 on 21 Nov 2019, 03:22.
Last edited by Raxit85 on 21 Nov 2019, 03:25, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2019, 03:23
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Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.

We need essential modifiers (the ones not separated from the rest of the sentence with commas) instead of non-essential ones.
If we cross non-essential ones Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, we'll result with the sentence without meaning.

No other errors, different from is correct idiom.

Quote:
B) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, were quite different
- incorrect for the same reason as A

Quote:
C) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, wasquite different
- incorrect for the same reason as A.
In addition, "and" makes from two T.J. a compound subject, which is plural, so "was" does not work, we need "were"

Quote:
D) Jefferson the muted public speaker was quite different from Thomas Jefferson the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence
- correct choice

Quote:
E) Jefferson the muted public speaker and firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence was quite different
- the error from A is corrected, but Subject-Verb agreement error from C is introduced
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Re: Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2019, 05:31
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Quote:
Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.


Hi,
IMO A.

Quote:
A) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence
Keep.

Quote:
B) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, were quite different
looks like an incomplete thought. Different from what?Incorrect

Quote:
C) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, was quite different
Additive, needs plural verb. SV error. Incorrect

Quote:
D) Jefferson the muted public speaker was quite different from Thomas Jefferson the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence
Introducing an essential modifier requires a pronoun: who,whose etc. This choice just misses them. Incorrect

Quote:
E) Jefferson the muted public speaker and firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence was quite different
Introducing an essential modifier requires a pronoun: who,whose etc. This choice just misses them. Plus, SV error. Incorrect

Choose A.
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Re: Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2019, 07:58
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generis wrote:
Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.

A) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence
B) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, were quite different
C) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, was quite different
D) Jefferson the muted public speaker was quite different from Thomas Jefferson the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence
E) Jefferson the muted public speaker and firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence was quite different


An appositive modifier is used to describe the preceding noun;
If the modifier is without comma, it is an essential modifier, which is vital for the sentence to make sense;
If it is between commas, then it is a non-essential modifier; so removing it won't change the meaning;
Here the only way we can tell T apart is if we use an essential modifier.

A) "T was quite different from T" unintended;
B) "T…and T…were quite different" unintended;
C) "T…and T [plural]…was [sing]" sva;
E) "T the speaker…and the author…was different" unintended

Ans (D) "T the speaker was different from T the author".
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Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2019, 09:23
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Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.
I think this comes down to a showdown of meaning.I am very sure we want to say Jefferson as one character was different from jefferson as another character.That is, one man who had a different disposition based on his role. We need to communicate this. .I believe this can be seen in the adjectives used for Jefferson: when speaking publicly, he was almost stilted but he wrote passionately(a firebrand)in the declaration showing that while they may seem to be different men,they are in fact one man. when the appositive is used it carries the meaning that there are 2 different men called Thomas Jefferson and that to differentiate them we will describe them in terms of their individual roles,meaning one is a muted public speaker and the other authored the declaration of Independence At least this is what I think.


A) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence
Grammatically this sentence is fine. Its meaning doesn't quite capture what we want to say,which is that the same man was a different character as a muted public speaker and as the author of the declaration. A case for essential modifiers can be made
here as well
We need the modifiers to carry through the meaning .Placing the modifiers in commas means they are not integral to the meaning of the sentence.


B) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, were quite different
This is nothing else than another way to restate A. Grammatically correct
but changing the meaning,at least I think.


C) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, was quite different
Butchers subject verb agreement by using was rather than were and misconstrues the meaning as well

D) Jefferson the muted public speaker was quite different from Thomas Jefferson the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence
One man, 2 different hats. This one carries the author's intended meaning.Modifiers are essential here, a construction we prefer

E) Jefferson the muted public speaker and firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence was quite different Grammatically correct but does not carry through the meaning properly

Answer is D.
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Re: Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2019, 13:52
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Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.

Meaning: Thomas Jefferson the muted public speaker was quite different from Thomas Jefferson the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.


The main issue is how the modifiers are structured. Some answer choices erroneously present essential noun modifiers (appositives) as non-essential modifiers, thereby creating meaning errors.

If we remove the non-essential modifiers the sentence reduces to: Thomas Jefferson was quite different from Thomas Jefferson?? This is illogical. There is a loss in meaning because modifiers which are supposed to be essential are presented as non-essential. To correct this error, we have to change the non-essential modifiers to essential modifiers.
Based on this, we can eliminate options A, B, and C.

Option E combines the essential modifiers into the muted public speaker and firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence and by so doing changes the meaning. We are comparing two shades of Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson the muted public speaker and Thomas Jefferson the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence. Only option D is structured appropriately to reflect the intended meaning.

The answer is, therefore, option D.

A) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.

B) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, were quite different

C) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, was quite different

D) Jefferson the muted public speaker was quite different from Thomas Jefferson the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.

E) Jefferson the muted public speaker and firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence was quite different.
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Re: Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2019, 19:53
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Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence.


A) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence

B) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, were quite different

C) Jefferson, the muted public speaker, and Thomas Jefferson, the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence, was quite different

D) Jefferson the muted public speaker was quite different from Thomas Jefferson the firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence

E) Jefferson the muted public speaker and firebrand author of the Declaration of Independence was quite different

The comparison is between two persons, but the choices containing 'and' just describe the persons, which distorts the intended meaning'. C and E incorrectly use 'and' & 'was'. A is the correct answer IMHO.
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Re: Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2019, 22:55
The official explanation is here.
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Re: Thomas Jefferson, the muted public speaker, was quite different from   [#permalink] 22 Nov 2019, 22:55
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