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To determine the return on investment, it is critical to ascertain cos

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To determine the return on investment, it is critical to ascertain cos  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 411, Date: 25-Oct-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


To determine the return on investment, it is critical to ascertain costs associated with the basic research and development that gave rise to a particular technology. However, the path that research takes is determined by the results of series of experiments, and the best science can veer dramatically from the plan. Therefore, the factors that make scientifically curious minds appropriately alter research plans also make determining a starting point for assigning costs to a particular technology difficult.

An inventive technology is most likely one piece of a very large research project; and, it may be tangential to the main focus as well. For example, technical obstacles are common impediments in biomedical research; they frustrate, but they also inspire. Overcoming the obstacle may lead an investigator to develop an alternative technology, which may or may not be a distinct piece of research. Rather, it may be a necessary sidestep within the larger project, and the costs of development are, for the most part, very difficult to isolate.

In addition, biomedical laboratories generally conduct their research with multiple complementary goals. Within an overarching research mission, a laboratory is typically divided into separate units, each of which is responsible for conducting research on a particular piece of a broad hypothesis, and each of which receives a variable piece of the laboratory budget as progress warrants. Some projects are designed to develop fundamental data or techniques that are necessary for a particular line of investigation; these techniques can be, and often are, useful for a number of unrelated studies.

Attempting to determine the costs of biomedical discovery is also complicated by the fact that new research almost always builds upon the work of predecessor scientists. Determining what part of a preceding budget or what part of a multi-purpose technique contributes to an inventive technology is, at best, extremely difficult, if not impossible.


1. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an obstacle to calculating the return on investment of a particular technology?

(A) it is difficult to project the possible revenue potential of a new technological development
(B) accounting of laboratory budgets is difficult due to the infrequency of the grant bestowment cycle
(C) new biomedical technologies offer many benefits to humanity that can not be quantified monetarily
(D) a technology may be developed as a means to an end, not as the result of a specific path of research
(E) variable costs may be imposed upon research and development that builds upon existing patentable technology



2. Why does the author mention "scientifically curious minds" in the last sentence of the first paragraph?

(A) to describe a desired component of research and development that also obstructs the calculation of return on investment
(B) because research and development projects are generally dominated by scientists
(C) to demonstrate one of the negative personality traits commonly found in biomedical researcher laboratories
(D) to introduce them as a result of several factors related to the costs of biomedical discovery
(E) as evidence of the success of previous efforts to assign costs to newly developed technologies



3. The author views the attempt to quantify the costs and benefits of a newly developed technology as

(A) a necessary compromise
(B) a repetitive task
(C) an arduous undertaking
(D) an unqualified disaster
(E) a short-term phenomenon



Spoiler: :: OE
QUESTION-1 Paragraph two explains that new technologies are often developed as solutions for specific obstacles along a larger research path. Technologies developed in this manner are not distinct pieces of research. Instead, they are a means of achieving the goals of a larger project. Choice D is thus the most appropriate choice.

QUESTION-2 The fact that "scientifically curious minds" appropriately alter research plans demonstrates that these minds are beneficial to research. However, alteration of the plans makes calculating the return on investment of that research difficult. Thus, a desired component of the research, scientifically curious minds, hinders the calculation of return on investment. Choice A is the best choice.

QUESTION-3 The last sentence of the last paragraph indicates that the author believes determining the return on investment of a specific technology is often a very difficult task. Choice C best summarizes this viewpoint.

Originally posted by shridhar786 on 24 Oct 2019, 07:05.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 25 Oct 2019, 08:15, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (1126).
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Re: To determine the return on investment, it is critical to ascertain cos  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2019, 23:08
Easy passage, took 7 mins to answer all the questions, Got 2 correct and 1 incorrect.

I didn't knew meaning of arduous in the option C of 3rd question hence marked A.

Otherwise 3rd could have been correct as well.
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Re: To determine the return on investment, it is critical to ascertain cos  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2020, 23:23
Why it can't be E for Question 1 ?
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Re: To determine the return on investment, it is critical to ascertain cos  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2020, 03:00
Official Explanation


1. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an obstacle to calculating the return on investment of a particular technology?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Paragraph two explains that new technologies are often developed as solutions for specific obstacles along a larger research path. Technologies developed in this manner are not distinct pieces of research. Instead, they are a means of achieving the goals of a larger project. Choice D is thus the most appropriate choice.

Answer: D

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Re: To determine the return on investment, it is critical to ascertain cos  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2020, 03:49
JayPatadiya wrote:
Easy passage, took 7 mins to answer all the questions, Got 2 correct and 1 incorrect.

I didn't knew meaning of arduous in the option C of 3rd question hence marked A.

Otherwise 3rd could have been correct as well.


Dictionary meaning of "arduous" is "involving or requiring strenuous effort; difficult and tiring."
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Re: To determine the return on investment, it is critical to ascertain cos   [#permalink] 09 Feb 2020, 03:49

To determine the return on investment, it is critical to ascertain cos

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