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# Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence,

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Updated on: 29 Jul 2018, 08:41
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Difficulty:

25% (medium)

Question Stats:

73% (01:06) correct 27% (01:27) wrong based on 1237 sessions

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Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering in igloos, the ice-block domes that are peculiar to north-central Canada, and in structures made of stones, bones, driftwood, and skins.

A. Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering
B. During recent times, the Inuit people lead a nomadic existence, sheltering
C. In the times that are recent, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltered
D. Up until recently, the Inuit people, leading a nomadic existence, have sheltered
E. Until recent times, leading a nomadic existence, the Inuit people were sheltered

Originally posted by prasannar on 29 Apr 2008, 09:54.
Last edited by GMATNinja on 29 Jul 2018, 08:41, edited 2 times in total.
formatted
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09 Sep 2010, 20:32
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Hey All,

I got asked to take this one on by PM.

Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering in igloos, the ice-block domes that are peculiar to north-central Canada, and in structures made of stones, bones, driftwood, and skins.

A. Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering
ANSWER: The list starts after "sheltering". "In igloos" is parallel to "in structures".

B. During recent times, the Inuit people lead a nomadic existence, sheltering
PROBLEM: You can't say "during recent times." During has to be an isolated time frame (During the next five years, during the war, etc.). Also, it would set up present perfect tense, not the present tense.

C. In the times that are recent, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltered
PROBLEM: "In the times that are recent" is ridiculous, and the past tense wouldn't make sense (but little here does).

D. Up until recently, the Inuit people, leading a nomadic existence, have sheltered
PROBLEM: The "up" is unnecessary. The present perfect tense starts in the past and continues into the present. But the use of "until recently" implies that this has stopped, so the present perfect doesn't work.

E. Until recent time, leading a nomadic existence, the Inuit people were sheltered
PROBLEM: "Until recent time" is gibberish. "leading a nomadic existence" isn't modifying the Inuits anymore.

Hope that helps!

-t
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Updated on: 08 Jun 2017, 17:56
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6
Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering in
igloos, the ice-block domes that are peculiar to north-central Canada,
and in structures made of stones, bones, driftwood, and skins.
A. Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering
sheltering.
C. In the times that are recent, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence,
sheltered.
have sheltered.
were sheltered.

Originally posted by ritjn2003 on 06 Jul 2009, 21:47.
Last edited by Vyshak on 08 Jun 2017, 17:56, edited 1 time in total.
Underlined
##### General Discussion
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29 Apr 2008, 16:17
Wow ... this is a toughie. +1
I go for A.

B can be rejected straight away with the "lead" and C can be rejected because of awkward "In the times that were recent". D has incorrect present perfect - have sheltered.

So now we're left with A and E. Both use a present participle - A uses "sheltering" and E uses "leading" . I just feel that E's "leading" is more wrong than A's "sheltering". "leading" is incorrect since it changes the meaning and implies that they are still leading a nomadic life, whereas A clearly says they they "led" the nomadic life, and dont do so anymore.

prasannar wrote:
Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering in igloos, the ice-block domes that are peculiar to north-central Canada, and in structures made of stones, bones, driftwood, and skins.

A. Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering
B. During recent times, the Inuit people lead a nomadic existence, sheltering.
C. In the times that are recent, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltered.
D. Up until recently, the Inuit people, leading a nomadic existence, have sheltered.
E. Until recent times, leading a nomadic existence, the Inuit people were sheltered.
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29 Apr 2008, 17:51
2
prasannar wrote:
Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering in
igloos, the ice-block domes that are peculiar to north-central Canada,
and in structures made of stones, bones, driftwood, and skins.

A. Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering
sheltering.
C. In the times that are recent, the Inuit people led a nomadic exis-
tence, sheltered.
tence, have sheltered.
were sheltered.

I go for A.
For D, if we take out the modifying clause, it means intuit people have sheltered in igloos until recently. I don't think that's the intended meaning.
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30 Apr 2008, 02:21
One more for A, nothing wrong with the original statement maintaining the correct tense and clarity. All the other answer options are wordy and awkward.
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01 May 2008, 11:23
1
I would also go for A but for little different reasons-
B-during recent times is wordy and awkward
C- In the times that are recent, wordy and awkward
D-Up until recently, wordy and awkward
E-Until recent times, wordy and awkward
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09 May 2008, 18:08
D should be OA

until recently...have sheltered,

not until recently...led..
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07 Jul 2009, 01:08
A. Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering------ correct
B. During recent times, the Inuit people lead a nomadic existence, sheltering.
C. In the times that are recent, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltered.
D. Up until recently, the Inuit people, leading a nomadic existence, have sheltered.
E. Until recent time, leading a nomadic existence, the Inuit people were sheltered.
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10 Jun 2010, 23:42
1
I think the OA is D, as per the doc I have and as per the sentence.

Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering in igloos, the ice-block domes that are peculiar to north-central Canada,
and in structures made of stones, bones, driftwood, and skins.

Recently - shows that we need to refer a present tense based choice, which is D:
Up until recently, the Inuit people, leading a nomadic existence, have sheltered.

Remove the middleman,
Up until recently, the Inuit people have sheltered in... and in...

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10 Sep 2010, 03:56
Thanks tommy!

After reading your post, I looked up "until" in some decent online dictionaries, and really can't find any sample sentences that uses present perfect tence with "until" .

Also, per cambridge online dictonary, "up until"="up to" and both are preposition, which I think can just be used in front of noun.

until & up until:
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/diction ... up-to_2__3
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/diction ... sh/until_1
http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/until
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10 Sep 2010, 15:57
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Hey Kaja,

General grammar rules are not necessarily the rule on the GMAT, so be careful where you're looking.

Either way, however, I don't think you read my post correctly. "Until" CANNOT have the present perfect tense, as I say in answer choice D. That's because the word "until" implies that something has stopped ("I came here until..." implies I don't come here anymore), but the present perfect tense is used for something that CONTINUES in the present.

Also, I didn't say the "up" was wrong, only that it was unnecessary. Shorter is always better, when all else fails.

-t
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11 Sep 2010, 18:38
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey Kaja,

General grammar rules are not necessarily the rule on the GMAT, so be careful where you're looking.

Either way, however, I don't think you read my post correctly. "Until" CANNOT have the present perfect tense, as I say in answer choice D. That's because the word "until" implies that something has stopped ("I came here until..." implies I don't come here anymore), but the present perfect tense is used for something that CONTINUES in the present.

Also, I didn't say the "up" was wrong, only that it was unnecessary. Shorter is always better, when all else fails.

-t

yea~thank you tommy, got what you meant. You are eleborating on "why" ,which I totally agree. And I just checked "general grammar",hoping to find some consistency and deepen my understanding of this word.

Since you said it is not nessesary, i will pay attention to this. Thank you !
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16 Nov 2017, 03:39
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Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering in igloos, the ice-block domes that are peculiar to north-central Canada, and in structures made of stones, bones, driftwood, and skins.

A. Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltering - Correct
B. During recent times, the Inuit people lead a nomadic existence, sheltering. - "Recent times" are in the past but "Lead" (≠ "led") is the present tense. That's nonsense with a past timeframe.
C. In the times that are recent, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, sheltered. - wordy -"In the times that are recent"
D. Up until recently, the Inuit people, leading a nomadic existence, have sheltered. - "Up" is redundant, since "until" already carries this meaning. The sentence implies that the Inuit are no longer nomads. "recently", albeit not too long ago, is still a time in the past. So, you need the past tense. In that choice, you'd want "sheltered". Not "have sheltered"
E. Until recent times, leading a nomadic existence, the Inuit people were sheltered. - changes the meaning -they led a nomadic existence should be the main sentence and they slept in certain types of housing should be modifier

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29 Jul 2018, 03:32
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daagh GMATNinja egmat
TommyWallach

I was confused between A and C and chose the wrong one..

why is D wrong?
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29 Jul 2018, 08:42
saurabh9gupta wrote:
daagh GMATNinja egmat
TommyWallach

I was confused between A and C and chose the wrong one..

why is D wrong?

There's an explanation of each answer choice here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/until-recent ... ml#p778762. Let us know if that doesn't clear up your doubts?
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07 Aug 2018, 04:02
the main point here is preposition of time. some preposition of time will decide the tense of the verb. until recently should be used with past simple.

the question offers present perfect to trick us.

the choice between simple past and present perfect is the main thing here. recently trick us, making us like present perfect. but in fact , until recently needs past simple
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07 Aug 2018, 06:21
there are only two ways of using have done

first. it is used to show an action begining in the past and continues until present. only preposition of time "since" is used in this case. there is no ending point. "until recently" is an ending point so, it can not be used with "have done".

since last year, I have learned gmat.

second. it is used to show an action which finished in the past. in this case, no point of time in the past is used. if a point of time in the past is shown, simple past is used
compare
I learned gmat yesterday
I have learned gmat.

in short, until recently must go with a past simple.
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07 Aug 2018, 20:14
the good explanation of present perfect is here. this is good for this question.
https://www.perfect-english-grammar.com ... t-use.html

Re: Until recently, the Inuit people led a nomadic existence, &nbs [#permalink] 07 Aug 2018, 20:14
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