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V02-32

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Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of fibromyalgia, a disorder that causes body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. One leading theory holds that conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep." This theory is concerned with the function of neuropeptide substance P, which is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during deep sleep. If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control. Therefore deep sleep plays a vital role in preventing fibromyalgia.

The theory above on the cause of fibromyalgia rests on which of the following assumptions?


A. The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
B. Fibromyalgia is a completely preventable disorder, if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop.
C. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
D. The functions of neuropeptides released by the spinal cord must be better understood before a cure for fibromyalgia can be found.
E. Because the causes of fibromyalgia are linked to depression, the disorder should be treated by mental health professionals.

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Re V02-32 [#permalink]

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Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of fibromyalgia, a disorder that causes body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. One leading theory holds that conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep." This theory is concerned with the function of neuropeptide substance P, which is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during deep sleep. If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control. Therefore deep sleep plays a vital role in preventing fibromyalgia.

The theory above on the cause of fibromyalgia rests on which of the following assumptions?


A. The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
B. Fibromyalgia is a completely preventable disorder, if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop.
C. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
D. The functions of neuropeptides released by the spinal cord must be better understood before a cure for fibromyalgia can be found.
E. Because the causes of fibromyalgia are linked to depression, the disorder should be treated by mental health professionals.


Situation: Doctors theorize that fibromyalgia is the result of a disruption of healthy sleep patterns.

Reasoning: Which assumption must be true in order to argue that fibromyalgia is caused by a disruption of sleep patterns? The passage describes a mechanism in the nervous system that, when disrupted, may aggravate or cause fibromyalgia. Other conditions depression, anxiety, etc. are mentioned as factors that may interfere with the root cause of fibromyalgia: the disruption of pain receptors normally reset during deep sleep. The key is to recognize that this reset is necessary because the body does not have unlimited control over the substance P.
  1. If the body had unlimited control on substance P, then deep sleep would not be required to reset the mechanism of releasing P, and thus the argument would be invalid.
  2. Outside the scope. The passage does not argue whether or not fibromyalgia is preventable.
  3. If deep sleep is not achieved, the mechanism of the initiating nerves can not reset, and fibromyalgia may result. Therefore deep sleep is required for healthy functioning of nervous system. This statement could be a conclusion of the passage, but not a necessary assumption.
  4. Outside the scope. The passage is concerned with the causes of fibromyalgia, not its cures.
  5. The passage lists several conditions that can aggravate or cause fibromyalgia, but does not prioritize depression as the condition most linked to its onset.

Answer: A
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Re: V02-32 [#permalink]

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I believe the answer should be A.

Our conclusion is that if the pain becomes body-wide and mechanism is not able to reset then the process will run out of control.

C is already stated in the argument. A deep sleep will reset the procedure. So a deep sleep is necessary for health. It doesn't affect the conclusion.

A states that The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
If we do the negation we can find that Body has full control over the substance P. So the process will not run out of control and break the conclusion.

so answer has to be A.

Bunuel wrote:
Official Solution:


Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of fibromyalgia, a disorder that causes body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. One leading theory holds that conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep." This theory is concerned with the function of neuropeptide substance P, which is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during deep sleep. If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control.

The theory above on the cause of fibromyalgia rests on which of the following assumptions?


A. The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
B. Fibromyalgia is a completely preventable disorder, if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop.
C. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
D. The functions of neuropeptides released by the spinal cord must be better understood before a cure for fibromyalgia can be found.
E. Because the causes of fibromyalgia are linked to depression, the disorder should be treated by mental health professionals.


Situation: Doctors theorize that fibromyalgia is the result of a disruption of healthy sleep patterns.

Reasoning: Which assumption must be true in order to argue that fibromyalgia is caused by a disruption of sleep patterns? The passage describes a mechanism in the nervous system that, when disrupted, may aggravate or cause fibromyalgia. Other conditions depression, anxiety, etc. are mentioned as factors that may interfere with the root cause of fibromyalgia: the disruption of pain receptors normally reset during deep sleep.
  1. A limited focus on neuropeptide substance P does not address the concerns of the passage as a whole.
  2. Outside the scope. The passage does not argue whether or not fibromyalgia is preventable.
  3. If deep sleep is not achieved, the substance P process can not reset, and fibromyalgia may result.
  4. Outside the scope. The passage is concerned with the causes of fibromyalgia, not its cures.
  5. The passage lists several conditions that can aggravate or cause fibromyalgia, but does not prioritize depression as the condition most linked to its onset.

Answer: C
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Re: V02-32 [#permalink]

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I too find A to be better candidate than C. Based on negation,

A. The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
The negation of this will be 'body has unlimited amount of control over P'. Which means, it will be able to reset the mechanism of release without deep sleep and there wont be fibromyalgia. So the link is broken and theory is proven false. So when this assumption is negated, the theory breaks and hence is a required assumption.

C. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
Negation of this will be 'deep sleep is not necessary for healthy functioning.....'. Which means nervous system will be healthy without deep sleep. But this doesnt affect the mechanism of the theory - the release of substance P causing pain and fibromyalgia.

Any expert opinions?
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Re: V02-32 [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2016, 07:52
Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of fibromyalgia, a disorder that causes body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. One leading theory holds that conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep." This theory is concerned with the function of neuropeptide substance P, which is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during deep sleep. If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control.

The theory above on the cause of fibromyalgia rests on which of the following assumptions?


A. The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
B. Fibromyalgia is a completely preventable disorder, if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop.
C. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
D. The functions of neuropeptides released by the spinal cord must be better understood before a cure for fibromyalgia can be found.
E. Because the causes of fibromyalgia are linked to depression, the disorder should be treated by mental health professionals.

Can someone please clarify the OA ? I too marked A as the ans for the same reasons mentioned by the others.
The explanation for A not being the answer does not seem satisfactory.

Thanks in advance
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V02-32 [#permalink]

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aniketm.87@gmail.com wrote:
Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of fibromyalgia, a disorder that causes body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. One leading theory holds that conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep." This theory is concerned with the function of neuropeptide substance P, which is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during deep sleep. If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control.

The theory above on the cause of fibromyalgia rests on which of the following assumptions?


A. The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
B. Fibromyalgia is a completely preventable disorder, if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop.
C. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
D. The functions of neuropeptides released by the spinal cord must be better understood before a cure for fibromyalgia can be found.
E. Because the causes of fibromyalgia are linked to depression, the disorder should be treated by mental health professionals.

Can someone please clarify the OA ? I too marked A as the ans for the same reasons mentioned by the others.
The explanation for A not being the answer does not seem satisfactory.

Thanks in advance


Thank you for pointing out. The question and some of the options have been overhauled. Take a look.
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Re: V02-32 [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2017, 04:16
This is a high quality question.
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Re V02-32 [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2017, 02:06
I think this is a poor-quality question and I don't agree with the explanation. The last line of the question stem says "Therefore deep sleep plays a vital role in preventing fibromyalgia." So the assumption is that fibromyalgia is preventable.
Option 2 re-states the aforementioned assumption.

Am I missing something here?
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Re: V02-32 [#permalink]

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If it is already stated in the passage, then it cannot be an assumption. Besides it uses extreme words "completely preventable" which makes me suspicious. Also it adds "if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop". Seems out of scope to me.


I chose A as the correct answer.
Re: V02-32   [#permalink] 20 Oct 2017, 15:09
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