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# V21-42

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Manager
Joined: 19 May 2015
Posts: 128

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16 Feb 2018, 13:40
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Difficulty:

65% (hard)

Question Stats:

17% (00:55) correct 83% (01:33) wrong based on 12 sessions

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Unripe lychee fruit contain a compound called hypoglycin, which is poisonous in large quantities. No amount of ripe lychee fruit, however, contains enough hypoglycin to harm human health. In response to recent deaths of consumers who ate unripe lychee fruit, scientists have recently developed an alternative type of lychee fruit, called lychee-B, that, ripe or unripe, contains no more hypoglycin than ripened, conventional lychees. Therefore, unripe lychee-B fruits are at least as safe to eat as ripened, conventional lychees of the same size. In order for the conclusion to be properly drawn, which of the following must be assumed?

A. Unripe lychee-B fruits do not contain more arsenic, oxalic acid, or other poisonous substances than do ripened, conventional lychees.
B. Lychee-B fruits are, on average, no bigger than conventional lychee fruits.
C. During the process of ripening, conventional lychee fruits lose a higher proportion of their hypoglycin than do lychee-B fruits.
D. Eating a large number of Lychee-B fruits is not harmful to human health.
E. Consumers who typically enjoy ripened, conventional lychee fruit would be willing to eat unripe lychee-B fruits.
Manager
Joined: 19 May 2015
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16 Feb 2018, 13:40
Official Solution:

Unripe lychee fruit contain a compound called hypoglycin, which is poisonous in large quantities. No amount of ripe lychee fruit, however, contains enough hypoglycin to harm human health. In response to recent deaths of consumers who ate unripe lychee fruit, scientists have recently developed an alternative type of lychee fruit, called lychee-B, that, ripe or unripe, contains no more hypoglycin than ripened, conventional lychees. Therefore, unripe lychee-B fruits are at least as safe to eat as ripened, conventional lychees of the same size. In order for the conclusion to be properly drawn, which of the following must be assumed?

A. Unripe lychee-B fruits do not contain more arsenic, oxalic acid, or other poisonous substances than do ripened, conventional lychees.
B. Lychee-B fruits are, on average, no bigger than conventional lychee fruits.
C. During the process of ripening, conventional lychee fruits lose a higher proportion of their hypoglycin than do lychee-B fruits.
D. Eating a large number of Lychee-B fruits is not harmful to human health.
E. Consumers who typically enjoy ripened, conventional lychee fruit would be willing to eat unripe lychee-B fruits.

The conclusion of this passage is that "unripe lychee-B fruits are at least as safe to eat as ripened, conventional lychees of the same size." Let's see how the author arrived at that conclusion

The first two sentences are pretty straightforward

Unripe lychee fruit contain a compound called hypoglycin

Hypoglycin is poisonous in large quantities. In fact, eating unripe lychee fruit can apparently lead to death

No amount of ripe lychee fruit contains enough hypoglycin to harm human health

So far we can gather that eating unripe lychee fruit might harm your health (or even kill you) if you eat enough of it, though we can't say exactly how much would be unsafe. On the other hand, you can eat as much RIPE lychee fruit as you want and not be harmed by the hypoglycin. Note that this does not necessarily mean that you can eat as much lychee fruit as you want without suffering other negative consequences. All we know for sure is that doing so would not expose you to harm from the hypoglycin

In response to recent deaths of consumers who ate unripe lychee fruit, scientists developed lychee-B, which, ripe or unripe, contains no more hypoglycin than ripened, conventional lychees. Since lychee-B contains no more hypoglycin than ripened, conventional lychees, we can conclude that you could eat as much ripe OR unripe lychee-B as you want without being harmed by the hypoglycin. As with ripened, conventional lychees, that doesn't mean that you won't suffer OTHER negative consequences from eating lychee-B all day long, but you certainly won't be harmed by the hypoglycin

Based on this information, the author of the passage concludes that: "unripe lychee-B fruits are at least as safe to eat as ripened, conventional lychees of the same size." In order for that conclusion to be properly drawn, which of the following must be assumed

A) Unripe lychee-B fruits do not contain more arsenic, oxalic acid, or other poisonous substances than do ripened, conventional lychees

Without this assumption, it is possible that unripe lychee-B fruits contain more arsenic, oxalic acid, or other poisonous substances than do ripened, conventional lychees. The information in the passage tells us that if we only consider hypoglycin, lychee-B fruits are at least as safe to eat as ripened, conventional lychees of the same size. But if lychee-B contains higher quantities of OTHER poisonous substances besides hypoglycin, then lychee-B might be less safe overall than conventional, ripened lychees. Thus, choice (A) looks like a required assumption, so hang on to it

B) Lychee-B fruits are, on average, no bigger than conventional lychee fruits

The conclusion specifically tells us that we are comparing lychee-B fruits to conventional lychees OF THE SAME SIZE. So even if lychee-B fruits are bigger on average, this would not impact the conclusion. Choice (B) can be eliminated

C) During the process of ripening, conventional lychee fruits lose a higher proportion of their hypoglycin than do lychee-B fruits

The conclusion compares UNRIPE lychee-B to RIPENED conventional fruits. It makes no difference how much hypoglycin was in the ripened conventional fruit prior to ripening OR how much hypoglycin is lost by a lychee-B during the ripening process. Since we are told that lychee-B, ripe or unripe, contains no more hypoglycin than ripened, conventional lychees, the conclusion is possible, with or without this assumption. Eliminate (C)

D) Eating a large number of Lychee-B fruits is not harmful to human health

As stated above, it is possible that eating a large number of conventional lychee fruits OR a large number of lychee-B fruits is harmful to human health. Choice (D) does not tell us WHICH type is more harmful or how much of each would have to be eaten to cause harmful effects. Thus, it is still possible that unripe lychee-B fruits are at least as safe to eat as ripened, conventional lychees of the same size. Eliminate (D)

E) Consumers who typically enjoy ripened, conventional lychee fruit would be willing to eat unripe lychee-B fruits

The conclusion of the passage has nothing to do with whether consumers would actually be willing to eat unripe lychee-B fruits. The conclusion simply states that unripe lychee-B fruits are at least as safe to eat as ripened, conventional lychees of the same size. Even if lychee-B fruits were completely tasteless and nobody wants to eat them, the conclusion of the passage would not be impacted. Eliminate (E)

Choice (A) is the best answer.

SVP
Joined: 26 Mar 2013
Posts: 1910

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16 Feb 2018, 21:23
1
Hi JeffN

Thanks for posting the solution but it is unreadable at all. The text is so condense that it is inferior to read. I think this solution is by GMATninja is more organized and readable:

https://gmatclub.com/forum/qotd-unripe- ... 51797.html
Manager
Joined: 19 May 2015
Posts: 128

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17 Feb 2018, 12:18
Thanks Mo2men for bringing this to my attention, the formatting has been fixed.
Intern
Joined: 02 Jan 2017
Posts: 44

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20 Feb 2018, 00:36
I chose A but took 6 mins to analyse it. My head aches because of this question. Thx for the solution.

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Re: V21-42 &nbs [#permalink] 20 Feb 2018, 00:36
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# V21-42

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