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V30-15

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V30-15  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2018, 02:09
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A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  45% (medium)

Question Stats:

67% (00:45) correct 33% (01:18) wrong based on 9 sessions

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Frequency-dependent foraging refers to the tendency of an individual to selectively forage on a certain species based on the relative frequency of that foraged species in the wild. Generally, the more populous a species, the more likely that species is to be selected as the primary foraged species. Surprisingly, several unrelated university sponsored laboratory experiments on bumblebees, tested with an identical foraged species, yielded dramatically different results. In some experiments, the bumblebees thrived, while in others they perished. Given that each of the experiments had comparable funding, the varying results must have been attributable to the quality of the way the experiments were maintained by the researchers conducting them.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the conclusion drawn above?

A. In the wild, frequency-dependent foraging among bumblebees typically occurs when any one of a small number of foraged species is present.
B. The same basic experiment design guidelines were used for each of the experiments.
C. The number of academic calendar years of experience among those who conducted the laboratory experiments varied from four years to five years.
D. The species of bumblebee used in the laboratory experiments varied from experiment to experiment.
E. A team at the same university that conducted one of the frequency-dependent foraging experiments has been accused of exaggerating the findings of an experiment conducted just two years prior.

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Re V30-15  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2018, 02:09
Official Solution:

Frequency-dependent foraging refers to the tendency of an individual to selectively forage on a certain species based on the relative frequency of that foraged species in the wild. Generally, the more populous a species, the more likely that species is to be selected as the primary foraged species. Surprisingly, several unrelated university sponsored laboratory experiments on bumblebees, tested with an identical foraged species, yielded dramatically different results. In some experiments, the bumblebees thrived, while in others they perished. Given that each of the experiments had comparable funding, the varying results must have been attributable to the quality of the way the experiments were maintained by the researchers conducting them.

Which one of the following, if true, casts the most doubt on the conclusion drawn above?


A. In the wild, frequency-dependent foraging among bumblebees typically occurs when any one of a small number of foraged species is present.
B. The same basic experiment design guidelines were used for each of the experiments.
C. The number of academic calendar years of experience among those who conducted the laboratory experiments varied from four years to five years.
D. The species of bumblebee used in the laboratory experiments varied from experiment to experiment.
E. A team at the same university that conducted one of the frequency-dependent foraging experiments has been accused of exaggerating the findings of an experiment conducted just two years prior.



Question Type: Weaken

Boil It Down (Simplified & Abbreviated Summary of the Prompt): Cost didn't cause different outcomes, experiment maintenance did.

Missing Information (assumption): There were no other factors that could have caused the different outcomes in the bumblebee experiements.

Goal: Find the option that presents a factor other than the maintenance of the experiments that could have caused the dramatically different outcomes.

Let's see which option best achieves the goal:

Ⓐ This option is irrelevant since the experiments used the same foraged species and the experiments are thereby standardized in terms of foraged a species.

Ⓑ If anything, this option that the design guidelines were the same would strengthen the argument that it was the manner in which the experiment was carried out that is to blame because this option dismisses another possibility. This option is an example of a 180 choice-the opposite of what we're looking for.

Ⓒ The number of average academic calendar years of experience is a variable that either has no clear impact on the argument, or one that might even reinforce the notion that it was THE MANNER in which the experiments were carried out were to blame.

Ⓓ Yes! This option gives another possible factor for the differing bumblebee results OTHER THAN the manner in which the experiments were carried out. It was the difference in bumblebee species that's to blame for the different results, and not the manner in which the experiments were conducted. With this option, maybe the manner in which the experiments were carried out was exactly the same, it's just that different species of bumblebee responded to the experiment in different ways (unfortunately, some perished).

Ⓔ This option fails in a couple of ways. First, if any misconduct happened in another study at the same university how can we make the leap that because one study is suspected of being tampered with that the bumblebee study was tampered with too? We can't. Secondly, the malfeasance is only suspected. It hasn't even been proven yet. E sounds like it might be a negative for the argument because it provides another issue, but the problem is that the other issue is ENTIRELY irrelevant from what's offered in the language.

Answer: D
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Re: V30-15  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2018, 10:58
in the argument it showed" tested with an identical foraged species", if they use same species, how could be answer D is right ? please help to explain. thanks
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Re V30-15  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2018, 00:32
I think this is a high-quality question and I don't agree with the explanation. When the passage clearly mention "tested with an identical foraged species", how can we assume species varied in experiments.

To weaken the conclusion when we say same basic experiment guidelines were used, it says quality has been maintained as per basic guidelines and hence quality has not been compromised.
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Re V30-15 &nbs [#permalink] 14 Oct 2018, 00:32
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