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# Verb-ed and Verb-ing modifiers! - Dissection

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Manager
Joined: 27 Jan 2013
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Verb-ed and Verb-ing modifiers! - Dissection  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2016, 02:42
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This is one area where most of us feel confused at one time or another. I am writing down my knowledge that I've learnt. Please feel free to add value to this.

1. Verb-ed modifiers:

They modify the closest noun.

For e.g: Assigned to withstand the radiation, the spaceship can stay for 3 months in space.

Here Assigned is the verb-ed modifier and spaceship is the closest noun that can logically follow it. Hence correct.

2. Verb-ing modifiers:

Now these are more complex than the verb-ed modifiers. Here, 'comma' plays an important role.

With comma: verb-ing modifers modify the entire clause.
Without comma: verb-ing modifiers modify the closest noun.

With comma e.g. : Joe killed the snake, using the stick.

Here Joe killed the snake is modified by 'using' modifier. It means to tell that using the stick, joe killed the snake. Notice the comma, hence using the stick modifies the entire clause 'joe killed the snake'.

Without comma e.g. : Joe killed the snake sleeping behind his house.

Here, 'sleeping' modifies the closest noun i.e. snake. Hence it means that Joe killed the snake that was sleeping behind his house. Hence it is correct usage.

Special Case:

When verb-ing modifer comes before the clause, it may modify the entire clause after the comma or just the subject after the comma.

For e.g.: Using the stick, Joe killed the snake.

Here Using the stick modifies the entire clause i.e. it tells that using the stick, joe killed that snake.

Another e.g.: Wearing the black shirt, Joe killed the snake.

Here 'wearing the black shirt' modifies just Joe i.e. it tells that Joe was wearing a black shirt when he killed the snake. Hence, here the preceding modifier just modifies the subject of the following clause.

Summary:

Verb-ed modifier: Modifies the closest noun always.

Verb-ing modifer: Modifies the closest noun or the entire clause depending upon whether comma comes or not. If comma comes, then verb-ing modifier modifies the entire clause else only the closest noun. If verb-ing modifier precedes the clause, then it may modify the whole clause or just the subject of the clause depending upon the context of the sentence.

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Re: Verb-ed and Verb-ing modifiers! - Dissection  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2016, 09:34
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I'm not sure that your first point, about verb-ed modifiers, is correct.

(By the way, I love the terminology you're using! 'verb-ed' and 'verb-ing' is much more clear than something like 'participle' and 'gerund', etc.)

In some sentences, a verb-ed modifier does modify the closest noun. Typically, this happens when you don't have a comma:

The whale named Willy escaped from captivity. (Modifying the noun 'whale')

Cyclists harassed by nesting birds sometimes paint their helmets bright colors to scare the birds away. (Modifying the noun 'cyclists')

However, at the end of a clause, separated by a comma, -ed modifiers can modify the main subject/verb rather than the closest noun.

I walked to the store, accompanied by my daughter.

It's not 'the store' that was accompanied by your daughter, it's you. 'Accompanied by my daughter' is an adverbial modifier here; technically, it modifies the verb 'walked'. That's logical, since it gives more info about the manner in which you walked (with another person, rather than alone.)
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Re: Verb-ed and Verb-ing modifiers! - Dissection  [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2017, 03:01
Hey ccooley

Little confusion here.

1) Which construction of verb-ed is correct here? with comma or without comma?
2) Also what is the correct idiom for consider?
Elsa is considered as a fine artist for her work Flamingo art, viewed by 5 million people at the museum of art every year.

Or

Elsa is considered as a fine artist for her work Flamingo art viewed by 5 million people at the museum of art every year.

Thanks
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Re: Verb-ed and Verb-ing modifiers! - Dissection  [#permalink]

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07 May 2017, 12:32
Shiv2016 wrote:
Hey ccooley

Little confusion here.

1) Which construction of verb-ed is correct here? with comma or without comma?
2) Also what is the correct idiom for consider?
Elsa is considered as a fine artist for her work Flamingo art, viewed by 5 million people at the museum of art every year.

Or

Elsa is considered as a fine artist for her work Flamingo art viewed by 5 million people at the museum of art every year.

Thanks

Hi Shiv,

1) Both the constructions of verb-ed modifiers are correct until they correctly modify the intended noun/noun phrase.
2) Idiom for consider is: consider A,B which doesn't appear in either of the answer choices thus they are both wrong.
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Re: Verb-ed and Verb-ing modifiers! - Dissection  [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2020, 22:13
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Verb-ed and Verb-ing modifiers! - Dissection   [#permalink] 09 Apr 2020, 22:13