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While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the s

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While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the s  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2014, 05:44
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While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the single six- year presidential term, one of the most telling points against the single term has not been advanced. This kind of constitutional limitation on elections is generally a product of systems with weak or non-existent political parties.

Since there is no party continuity or corporate party integrity in such systems, there is no basis for putting trust in the desire for re-election as a safeguard against mismanagement in the executive branch. Better under those conditions to operate on the basis of negative assumptions against incumbents. I do not know if the earliest proposal for a single, nonrepeatable term was made in the 1820s because that was a period of severely weak political parties. But I do feel confident that this is a major reason, if not the only reason, that such a proposal has been popular since the 1940s.

Though the association of the non-repeatable election with weak political parties is not in itself an argument against the limitation, the fallout from this association does contribute significantly to the negative argument. Single-term limitations are strongly associated with corruption. In any weak party system, including the presidential system, the onus of making deals and compromises, both shady and honourable, rests heavily upon individual candidates. Without some semblance of corporate integrity in a party, individual candidates have few opportunities to amortize their obligations across the spectrum of elective and appointive jobs and policy proposals. The deals tend to be personalized and the payoffs come home to roost accordingly.

If that situation is already endemic in conditions of weak or non- existent parties, adding to it the limitation against re-election means that candidates and officials, already prevented from amortizing their deals across space, are also unable to amortize their obligations temporally. This makes for a highly beleaguered situation. The single six-year term for presidents is an effort to compensate for the absence of a viable party system, but it is a compensation ultimately paid for by further weakening the party system itself.

Observers, especially foreign observers, have often noted that one 35 source of weakness in American political parties is the certainty of election every two or four years, not only because any artificial limitation on elections is a violation of democratic principles but also because when elections are set in a certain and unchangeable cycle, political parties do not have to remain alert but can disappear into inactivity until a known 40 point prior to the next election. To rigidify matters by going beyond the determinacy of the electoral cycle to add an absolute rule of one term would hang still another millstone around the neck of already doddering political parties.


Suppose that America adopted a single-term political system. Considering the foreign observers mentioned in the passage. how would they be expected to respond to such a development?

A. They would endorse it because it further strengthens American democracy.
B. They would condemn it because it further limits American democracy.
C. They would neither endorse nor condemn it.
D. They would condemn it because it gives the President too much power.
E. They would endorse it because it will reduce corruption

OA -



According to the passage, which of the following is most likely to be true of a political system with weak political parties?

A. Politicians appoint unqualified people to important posts.
B. Political parties favour frequent elections.
C. Political bargains are made by individual candidates.
D. Elections tend to occur with very great frequency.
E. It encourages politicians to be more honest

OA -



Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author‘s claim about single-term political systems?
A. The discovery that foreign observers like this system
B. The discovery that most politicians are honest
C. The discovery that Americans dislike this system
D. The discovery that parliamentary systems are more democratic
E. The discovery that politicians favour such a system

OA -



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Re: While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the s  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2014, 06:38
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Honestly speaking:the passages from Aristotle are pieces of crap. My personal opinion.

Thje CR and SC guide are the best choices on the market, really. If you use only these guides you have the best material out there and nothing else you need.

But RC is not their business
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Re: While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the s  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2014, 07:08
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carcass wrote:
Honestly speaking:the passages from Aristotle are pieces of crap. My personal opinion.

Thje CR and SC guide are the best choices on the market, really. If you use only these guides you have the best material out there and nothing else you need.

But RC is not their business


Thanks for your invaluable contribution mr carcass.
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Re: While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the s  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2014, 07:56
gmat6nplus1 wrote:
carcass wrote:
Honestly speaking:the passages from Aristotle are pieces of crap. My personal opinion.

Thje CR and SC guide are the best choices on the market, really. If you use only these guides you have the best material out there and nothing else you need.

But RC is not their business


Thanks for your invaluable contribution mr carcass.


Listen

RC section is the most difficult among the components of the Verbal part of the exam: time consuming, convoluted, tough, difficult language BUT at the same time is the most simple, only 4 kinds of question, pretty straight

- main idea
- inference (a lot)
- role of the paragraph
- sometimes weaken or strenghten question
- some other variation.

Is alweays the same path, over and over again.

OG 12 and 13 or 11 and 10........actually this material is more than enough to overcome this section. I mean: is enough not only for the exam but for your entire life, career.

As such, quality over quantity. Stop strategy, read the entire passage without paying attention too munch on details because you can spot them when a specific question pop up in front of you with the passage on the left. Understanding of the whole situation.

That's it.

regards
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Re: While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the s  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2018, 04:19
OEs.
1) Go back to ¶5 to review what foreign observers say: they argue that fixed elections are a bad idea; elections should be held any time. Would a single-term system address this concern, work against it, or have no effect? Since the current terms are four years, and the single term would be six years, elections would be held less frequently, which would further irritate the foreign observers who consider democracy dependent on elections-on-demand. (B) fits.

(A): Opposite. They‘d attack it for the reasons described above: fixed elections, according to the foreign observers, run counter to democracy.

(B): The Correct Answer

(C): Opposite. The foreign observers would have a strong opinion about something that further reduced the frequency of elections.

(D): Out of Scope. While they would condemn it, the objections in ¶5 focus only on frequency of elections.

(E): Opposite

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Re: While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the s  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2018, 04:20


2) What does the author say about weak political parties? They lead to a preference for single terms, which, when enacted, lead to corruption. Evaluate the choices with this main chain of causes and effects in mind. While three choices aren‘t touched on by the author, (C) is the main point made in ¶3 and the beginning of ¶ 4: single-term systems encourage individual bargains (which ultimately lead to corruption.)

(A): Out of Scope. The author never discusses appointing people to political posts.

(B): Out of Scope. This also isn‘t touched on by the author. Foreign observers favour frequent elections, but not necessarily parties.

(C): The correct answer

(D): Opposite. The author argues that single-term systems are more frequent in systems with weak political parties, which would presumably decrease the frequency of elections.

(E): Opposite

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Re: While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the s  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2018, 04:21


3) What is the author‘s main argument for avoiding the single-term system? It leads to corruption. Looking for something that would weaken this argument turns up (B), which contradicts the author‘s main reason for avoiding the single-term system.

(A): Out of Scope. The author isn‘t concerned with the foreign observers themselves, but rather the points that they make.

(B): The correct answer

(C): Opposite. This would, if anything, strengthen the author‘s argument that the single-term system is a bad idea.

(D): Opposite. A parliamentary system is given as a contrast to the single-party system. If the parliamentary system were more democratic, this would strengthen the author‘s contention that the single-term system is a bad idea.

(E): What politicians favour doesn‘t affect the author‘s claims

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Re: While many points are worth making in an evaluation of the s &nbs [#permalink] 05 Sep 2018, 04:21
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