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With equal justice, the council of Pisa deposed the popes of Rome and

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With equal justice, the council of Pisa deposed the popes of Rome and  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2019, 09:11
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 325, Date : 12-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


With equal justice, the council of Pisa deposed the popes of Rome and Avignon; the conclave was unanimous in the choice of Alexander V, and his vacant seat was soon filled by a similar election of John XXIII, the most profligate of mankind. But instead of extinguishing the schism, the rashness of the French and Italians had given a third pretender to the chair of St. Peter.

Such new claims of the synod and conclave were disputed: three kings, of Germany, Hungary, and Naples, adhered to the cause of Gregory XII, and Benedict XIII, himself a Spaniard, was acknowledged by the devotion and patriotism of that powerful nation. The rash proceedings of Pisa were corrected by the council of Constance; the emperor Sigismond acted a conspicuous part as the advocate or protector of the Catholic church; and the number and weight of civil and ecclesiastical members might seem to constitute the states-general of Europe. Of the three popes, John XXIII was the first victim: he fled and was brought back a prisoner: the most scandalous charges were suppressed; the vicar of Christ was only accused of piracy, murder, rape, sodomy, and incest; and after subscribing his own condemnation, he expiated in prison the imprudence of trusting his person to a free city beyond the Alps.

Gregory XII, whose obedience was reduced to the narrow precincts of Rimini, descended with more honour from the throne; and his ambassador convened the session, in which he renounced the title and authority of lawful pope. To vanquish the obstinacy of Benedict XIII and his adherents, the emperor in person undertook a journey from Constance to Perpignan. The kings of Castile, Arragon, Navarre, and Scotland, obtained an equal and honourable treaty; with the concurrence of the Spaniards, Benedict was deposed by the council. The harmless old man was left in a solitary castle to excommunicate twice each day the rebel kingdoms which had deserted his cause and the synod of Constance proceeded with slow and cautious steps to elect the sovereign of Rome and the head of the church. On this momentous occasion, the college of twenty-three cardinals was fortified with thirty deputies, six of whom were chosen in each of the five great nations of Christendom, – the Italian, the German, the French, the Spanish, and the English: the interference of strangers was softened by their generous preference of an Italian and a Roman, and the hereditary, as well as personal, merit of Otho Colonna recommended him to the conclave. Rome accepted with joy and obedience the noblest of her sons; the ecclesiastical state was defended by his powerful family; and the elevation of Martin V is the era of the restoration and establishment of the popes in the Vatican.


1. For what purpose does the author distinguish between ―the most scandalous charges‖ against John XXIII, and the charges of which he was actually accused?

A. To demonstrate the leniency of the Council of Constance
B. To suggest how serious the suppressed charges must have been
C. To give an example of John XXIII‘s political influence
D. To show the importance of electing an Italian to the papacy
E. To demonstrate the frivolous nature of the actual charges



2. Reflecting on the various points brought up by the author in the passage, how did the Spanish contribute to the resolution of the division within the Catholic Church?

A. They encouraged the cardinals to revolt, and they deposed the two reigning popes.
B. They opposed the French and Italians, and they supported Benedict XIII.
C. They protected the Catholic Church, and they prosecuted John XXIII.
D. They agreed to the deposal of Benedict XIII, and they helped to elect Martin V.
E. They encouraged the French to attack Spain



3. It can be inferred that the author would agree with which of the following statements about Benedict XIII, Gregory XII, and John XXIII?

A. Benedict XIII was the best of the three.
B. Gregory XII was the best of the three.
C. None of the three deserved to be pope.
D. John XXIII had the best claim to having been legitimately elected.
E. At least one of these was a deserving candidate for papacy


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Re: With equal justice, the council of Pisa deposed the popes of Rome and  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2019, 20:26
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please explain question 3
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Re: With equal justice, the council of Pisa deposed the popes of Rome and  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2019, 20:58
3. It can be inferred that the author would agree with which of the following statements about Benedict XIII, Gregory XII, and John XXIII?

A. Benedict XIII was the best of the three. --> "The kings of Castile, Arragon, Navarre, and Scotland, obtained an equal and honourable treaty; with the concurrence of the Spaniards, Benedict was deposed by the council". Pope was disposed, so not a worthy pope and nowhere there comparison is mentioned explicitly.
B. Gregory XII was the best of the three. --> "Gregory XII, whose obedience was reduced to the narrow precincts of Rimini, descended with more honour from the throne; and his ambassador convened the session, in which he renounced the title and authority of lawful pope." so not a worthy pope and nowhere there comparison is mentioned explicitly.
C. None of the three deserved to be pope. --> Can be said as Benedict XIII was disposed, Gregory XII was also removed, adn JohnXXIII was charged with several charges.
D. John XXIII had the best claim to having been legitimately elected. --> Nowhere it is mentioned.
E. At least one of these was a deserving candidate for papacy --> As mentioned earlier, no comparison is given and all of them were removed from their position so it can't be said that anyone was deserving.


Only C appears to be a legitimate answer here.
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Re: With equal justice, the council of Pisa deposed the popes of Rome and  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2019, 23:51
Official Explanation


3. It can be inferred that the author would agree with which of the following statements about Benedict XIII, Gregory XII, and John XXIII?

Explanation

What do these three Popes have in common? They were all Pope at the same time, and the author describes how they were each eliminated in favour of a Pope that everyone could agree on. What is the author‘s attitude towards the three Popes?

Predict: He believes that they contributed to the schism and that everyone was better off under Martin. The author says that Benedict and Gregory were deposed ―with equal justice‖ and that John was ―the most profligate of mankind,‖ suggesting an overall low opinion of the three. (C) fits.

(A): Out of Scope. The author doesn‘t mention who he believes the best of the three to be.

(B): Out of Scope. As above.

(C): The correct answer

(D): Out of Scope. The author doesn‘t say that one election was more legitimate than the others, and in any case speaks very poorly of John in general.

(E): Opposite, as described in C.

Answer: C


Hope it helps

Kanvi wrote:
please explain question 3

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Re: With equal justice, the council of Pisa deposed the popes of Rome and  [#permalink]

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Re: With equal justice, the council of Pisa deposed the popes of Rome and  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2019, 18:22
SajjadAhmad

Could you please put the short description of each paragraph of the passage. I am not able to figure out what the passage is overall trying to convey.
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With equal justice, the council of Pisa deposed the popes of Rome and  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2019, 21:39
Passage summary


Topic and Scope

The resolution of a schism in the Catholic Church through the office of the pope.

Mapping the Passage

Para 1 describes the Church's schism and actions taken by the Council of Pisa to name a pope.

Para 2 describes the disorganized group of popes and pretenders that followed (first John XXIII).

Para 3 continues to describe the popes, and how Gregory XII and Benedict XIII were deposed from the throne. It describes step the Council of Constance (rather than Pisa) took to elect a new Pope that would be universally acknowledged.


Hope it helps

warrior1991 wrote:
SajjadAhmad

Could you please put the short description of each paragraph of the passage. I am not able to figure out what the passage is overall trying to convey.

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With equal justice, the council of Pisa deposed the popes of Rome and   [#permalink] 17 Sep 2019, 21:39
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