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Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth.

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Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. [#permalink]

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Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016
Practice Question
Question No.:28
Page: 129
Difficulty:


Which of the following most logically completes the argument below?

Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. Because the temperature at which iron melts increases with pressure, the inner core is solid and the outer core is molten. Physicists can determine the melting temperature of iron at any given pressure and the pressure for any given depth in the earth. Therefore, the actual temperature at the boundary of the earth's outer and inner cores--the melting temperature of iron there--can be determined, since_______.


a) the depth beneath the earth's surface of the boundary between the outer and inner cores is known
b) some of the heat from the earth's core flows to the surface of the earth
c) pressures within the earth's outer core are much greater than pressures above the outer core
d) nowhere in the earth's core can the temperature be measured directly
e) the temperatures within the earth's inner core are higher than in the outer core

Originally posted by nycgirl212 on 30 May 2016, 09:24.
Last edited by Bunuel on 23 Apr 2018, 10:24, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 09:47
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This question is an Assumption type . If we keep P for pressure, T for melting temperature and D for depth from the surface, we have
Higher D --> Higher P,(1st line)
Higher P --> Higher T,( 1st line)
and they can determine P and T for any depth (D).

Think like this. If they knew exact temperature, they should know the pressure --> they should have knowledge on the depth. So there's your answer.

Give kudos if you find the explanation useful.
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Re: Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 10:01
Argument:- Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. Because the temperature at which iron melts increases with pressure, the inner core is solid and the outer core is molten. Physicists can determine the melting temperature of iron at any given pressure and the pressure for any given depth in the earth. Therefore, the actual temperature at the boundary of the earth's outer and inner cores--the melting temperature of iron there--can be determined, since_______.

The correct answer choice is "A" and my explanation as follows:

Option A states "a) the depth beneath the earth's surface of the boundary between the outer and inner cores is known"
The highlighted portion above in the argument states that for a "given" pressure / depth it is possible to determine temperature therefore the assumption that would logically complete this argument is that either or both of these parameters are "given" or in other words "known".

Kudos if you think this explanation most logically completes the choice of answer :-)
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Re: Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2016, 09:20
Hi guys!

I have a question regarding the argument.
Context: Earth's core is iron.
1st premise: +Depth (D)-> +Pressure (P)
2nd premise: +P --> +Temperature (T) at which Iron melts
Based on this facts, the Intermediate Conclusion says that Earth's inner core is solid and the outer is molten.

However, according to the facts, the inner core should be molten and the outer one solid because D is higher in the inner core, so is P and T = inner core is molten and outer core might be solid.
I spend a lot of time trying to understand this apparent contradiction in this argument, in which the author takes only one position.

Is my understanding correct??

I appreciate your help in advance. Thanks.
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Re: Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2017, 07:26
A is the correct choice - If physicists know the depth of the boundary between inner and outer cores, they can also determine the temperature at the boundary.
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Re: Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2017, 01:26
nycgirl212 wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016
Practice Question
Question No.:28
Page: 129
Difficulty:


Which of the following most logically completes the argument below?

Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. Because the temperature at which iron melts increases with pressure, the inner core is solid and the outer core is molten. Physicists can determine the melting temperature of iron at any given pressure and the pressure for any given depth in the earth. Therefore, the actual temperature at the boundary of the earth's outer and inner cores--the melting temperature of iron there--can be determined, since_______.

a) the depth beneath the earth's surface of the boundary between the outer and inner cores is known
b) some of the heat from the earth's core flows to the surface of the earth
c) pressures within the earth's outer core are much greater than pressures above the outer core
d) nowhere in the earth's core can the temperature be measured directly
e) the temperatures within the earth's inner core are higher than in the outer core



This is actually a straight forward unless you miss the last few words in option A. Knowing the depth will help us with figuring out the pressure, which is directly related to temp.

Option C, talks about the co-relation between pressure and outer core.
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Re: Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2018, 07:44
Rumikido3 wrote:
Hi guys!

I have a question regarding the argument.
Context: Earth's core is iron.
1st premise: +Depth (D)-> +Pressure (P)
2nd premise: +P --> +Temperature (T) at which Iron melts
Based on this facts, the Intermediate Conclusion says that Earth's inner core is solid and the outer is molten.

However, according to the facts, the inner core should be molten and the outer one solid because D is higher in the inner core, so is P and T = inner core is molten and outer core might be solid.
I spend a lot of time trying to understand this apparent contradiction in this argument, in which the author takes only one position.

Is my understanding correct??

I appreciate your help in advance. Thanks.


Hi Rumikido,

You got me thinking for a minute and I had to reread the argument :-)

I have highlighted the glitch in your understanding. Please compare what you wrote to what is written in the argument (highlighted part)-


Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. Because the temperature at which iron melts increases with pressure,the inner core is solid and the outer core is molten. Physicists can determine the melting temperature of iron at any given pressure and the pressure for any given depth in the earth. Therefore, the actual temperature at the boundary of the earth's outer and inner cores--the melting temperature of iron there--can be determined, since_______.

Can you see that they both are opposite?

Rest of the logic structure is beautifully written.

The logic shared by others in option A, hence, helps in supporting the conclusion.

I hope this helps.

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Re: Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2018, 22:28
generis VeritasPrepKarishma GMATNinja


Quote:
c) pressures within the earth's inner core are much greater than pressures above the outer core


Could the re-framed version of (C) made it OA?
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Re: Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2018, 08:59
Rumikido3 wrote:
Hi guys!

I have a question regarding the argument.
Context: Earth's core is iron.
1st premise: +Depth (D)-> +Pressure (P)
2nd premise: +P --> +Temperature (T) at which Iron melts
Based on this facts, the Intermediate Conclusion says that Earth's inner core is solid and the outer is molten.

However, according to the facts, the inner core should be molten and the outer one solid because D is higher in the inner core, so is P and T = inner core is molten and outer core might be solid.
I spend a lot of time trying to understand this apparent contradiction in this argument, in which the author takes only one position.

Is my understanding correct??

I appreciate your help in advance. Thanks.


Check this presentation. It will help explain it

https://prezi.com/j_hhbvcahu49/why-is-t ... re-liquid/
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Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2018, 20:49
The most important part in this question is to understand the question stem properly. Once you understand whats given then selecting the answer choice becomes straight forward.

Given:-
1) Pressure increases as we go inside the earths core.
2) Temperature increases when pressure increases.
3) Iron melts when temperature increases.

The last part of the question says,
"Physicists can determine:-
A) the melting temperature of iron at any given pressure" (same as 2 above)
B) the pressure for any given depth in the earth. (Same as 1 above)

Therefore, the actual temperature at the boundary of the earth's outer and inner cores--the melting temperature of iron there--can be determined, since_______."

Temp is related to pressure and pressure to depth. So the missing link which will connect the two is reproduced by option A in a straightforward way:-

a) the depth beneath the earth's surface of the boundary between the outer and inner cores is known - this will help the physicists in identifying the pressure!!
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Re: Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth. [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2018, 05:28
Premise:
Pressure within the earth's iron core increases with depth. Because the melting temperature of iron increases with pressure, the inner core is solid and the outer core molten. Physicists can determine iron's melting temperature at any pressure and the pressure it is under at any depth.

Pre-thinking:
What further premise, combined with the information provided, would support the conclusion that physicists can determine the temperature at the boundary between the outer and inner cores? Since physicists can determine iron's melting temperature at any pressure and the pressure it is under at any depth, they must be able to determine its melting temperature at any depth. The temperature at the boundary between the inner and outer cores must exactly equal the melting temperature there, since that is the boundary between the molten and solid parts of the core. To determine the temperature at the boundary, therefore, it would suffice to know the depth of the boundary.

A- Correct. If physicists know the depth of the boundary between the inner and outer cores, they can determine the temperature at the boundary.
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Re: Within the earth's core, which is iron, pressure increases with depth.   [#permalink] 20 Jun 2018, 05:28
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