It is currently 23 Jun 2017, 12:27

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# Years before the advent of plate tectonics

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Intern
Joined: 16 Apr 2010
Posts: 34

### Show Tags

02 Sep 2010, 09:15
3
KUDOS
3
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Question 1
00:00

Question Stats:

64% (03:58) correct 36% (02:07) wrong based on 118

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00

Question Stats:

75% (01:35) correct 25% (01:25) wrong based on 121

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00

Question Stats:

72% (01:31) correct 28% (00:42) wrong based on 117

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00

Question Stats:

78% (01:54) correct 22% (00:52) wrong based on 116

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00

Question Stats:

61% (01:38) correct 39% (00:40) wrong based on 51

### HideShow timer Statistics

Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, developed in the mid-1960's, the holds that the major features of Earth's surface are created by the horizontal motions of Earth's outer shell, or lithosphere―a similar theory was rejected by the geological community. In 1912, Alfred Wegener proposed, in a widely debated theory that came to be called continental drift, that Earth's continents were mobile. To most geologists today, Wegener's The origin of Continents and Oceans appears an impressive and prescient document, containing several of the essential presumptions underlying plate tectonics theory: the horizontal mobility of pieces of Earth's crust; the essential difference between oceanic and continental crust; and a causal connection between horizontal displacements and the formation of mountain chains. Yet despite the considerable overlap between Wegener's concepts and the later widely embraced plate tectonics theory, and despite the fact that continental drift theory presented a possible solution to the problem of the origin of mountains at a time when existing explanations were seriously in doubt, in its day Wegener's theory was rejected by the vast majority of geologists.

Most geologists and many historians today believe that Wegener's theory was rejected because of its lack of an adequate mechanical basis. Stephen Jay Gould, for example, argues that continental drift theory was rejected because it did not explain how continents could move through an apparently solid oceanic floor. However, as Anthony Hallam has pointed out, many scientific phenomena, such as the ice ages, have been accepted before they could be fully explained. The most likely cause for the rejection of continental drift―a cause that has been largely ignored because we consider Wegener's theory to have been validated by the theory of plate tectonics―is the nature of the evidence that was put forward to support it. Most of Wegener's evidence consisted of homologies' similarities of patterns and forms based on direct observations of rocks in the field, supported by the use of hammers, hand lenses, and field notebooks. In contrast, the data supporting plate tectonics were impressively geophysical — instrumental determinations of the physical properties of Earth garnered through the use of seismographs, magnetometers, and computers.
Q1:The author cites Hallam on the ice ages primarily in order to

A. provide an example of a geologic phenomenon whose precise causes are not fully understood by geologists today
B. criticize the geological community for an apparent lack of consistency in its responses to new theories
C. offer evidence held to undermine a common view of why Wegener’s theory was not accepted in its day
D. give an example of a modern scientist who believes that Wegener’s theory was rejected because it failed to adequately explain the mechanical basis of continental drift
E. support Gould’s rationale for why Wegener’s theory was rejected by most geologists in the early twentieth century

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

--------------------------------------------------------------------
Q2:The author of the passage refers to the "considerable overlap" between continental drift theory and plate tectonics theory most probably in order to

A. suggest that plate tectonics theory is derived from Wegener’s work
B. introduce a discussion comparing the elements of the two theories
C. examine the question of whether continental drift theory was innovative in its time
D. provide a reason why it might seem surprising that continental drift theory was not more widely embraced by geologists
E. cite an explanation that has been frequently offered for Wegener’s high standing among geologists today

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

-------------------------------------------------------------------
Q3:The author of the passage suggests that the most likely explanation for the geological community’s response to continental drift theory in its day was that the theory

A. was in conflict with certain aspects of plate tectonics theory
B. failed to account for how mountains were formed
C. did not adequately explain how continents moved through the ocean floor
D. was contradicted by the geophysical data of the time
E. was based on a kind of evidence that was considered insufficiently convincing

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

-------------------------------------------------------------------
Q4:It can be inferred from the passage that geologists today would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about Wegener’s The Origin of Continents and Oceans?

A. It was a worthy scientific effort that was ahead of its time.
B. It was based on evidence that was later disproved.
C. It was directly responsible for the acceptance of the theory of plate tectonics.
D. It has been disproved by continental drift theory.
E. It misrepresented how horizontal displacements cause the formation of mountain chains.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

------------------------------------------------------------------
Q5:The author of the passage discusses the “essential presumptions” (see highlighted text) of The Origin of Continents and Oceans most in order to

A. indicate features of Wegener's theory that caused it to be doubted in its day
B. show why Wegener's theory is now regarded as prescient
C. indicate differences between plate tectonics and the theory of continental drift
D. cite features of the theory of continental drift for which no evidence was available in
Wegener’s day
E. point out aspects of Wegener's theory that were accepted well before the advent of plate
tectonics

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 30 May 2017, 16:37, edited 4 times in total.
Senior Manager
Status: Upset about the verbal score - SC, CR and RC are going to be my friend
Joined: 30 Jun 2010
Posts: 316

### Show Tags

11 Sep 2010, 12:47
This RC was difficult for me.
1. C
2. D
3. E
4. C - even after searching 3 times, I couldn't find proof for this question
_________________

My gmat story
MGMAT1 - 630 Q44V32
MGMAT2 - 650 Q41V38
MGMAT3 - 680 Q44V37
GMATPrep1 - 660 Q49V31
Knewton1 - 550 Q40V27

Senior Manager
Joined: 03 Nov 2005
Posts: 384
Location: Chicago, IL

### Show Tags

13 Sep 2010, 16:34
CDEB
_________________

Hard work is the main determinant of success

Manager
Joined: 26 Feb 2012
Posts: 116
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Finance
WE: Engineering (Telecommunications)

### Show Tags

29 May 2013, 21:09
1.D 2.D 3.A 4.B

Current Student
Joined: 03 Jul 2013
Posts: 95
Schools: ISB '17 (A), IIMC (A)

### Show Tags

25 Nov 2014, 01:40
i dont understand Q4. It has to be wrong. Please someone explain.
_________________

Sometimes standing still can be, the best move you ever make......

Intern
Joined: 04 Sep 2014
Posts: 49
Schools: CBS '18 (D)

### Show Tags

14 Mar 2015, 18:22
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
My take on question 4 is that the key phrase in the question stem is the title of the book "The Origin of Continents and Oceans" so look for it in the passage. There's only one reference to the book title, which is in the first paragraph, being: To most geologists today, Wegener's The origin of Continents and Oceans appears an impressive and prescient document...

Impressive = worthy scientific effort
Prescient = ahead of its time

That should be enough to point to A. I didn't look at the other answer choices because A directly answered the question, but you can't make the same inference as to what geologists think about the book from the other options (if anything, they refer to other parts of the passage).

Hope that helps!
Chat Moderator
Joined: 19 Apr 2013
Posts: 697
Concentration: Strategy, Healthcare
Schools: Sloan '18 (A)
GMAT 1: 730 Q48 V41
GPA: 4

### Show Tags

19 Mar 2015, 07:36
C D E A Took me 8 minutes. Great passage.
_________________

If my post was helpful, press Kudos. If not, then just press Kudos !!!

Manager
Joined: 03 Jan 2015
Posts: 91

### Show Tags

02 Mar 2016, 08:37
CDEA.
Took me around 8:30 minutes.

Will give a brief explanation of answer choices later on.
Current Student
Joined: 03 May 2015
Posts: 261
Location: South Africa
GPA: 3.49
WE: Web Development (Insurance)

### Show Tags

18 Apr 2016, 23:08
prasannajeet wrote:
1.D 2.D 3.A 4.B

The author cites Hallam on the ice ages primarily in order to
A. provide an example of a geologic phenomenon whose precise causes are not fully understood by geologists today
B. criticize the geological community for an apparent lack of consistency in its responses to new theories
C. offer evidence held to undermine a common view of why Wegener’s theory was not accepted in its day
D. give an example of a modern scientist who believes that Wegener’s theory was rejected because it failed to adequately explain the mechanical basis of continental drift
E. support Gould’s rationale for why Wegener’s theory was rejected by most geologists in the early twentieth century.

D here is a trap. D is obviously in the passage but not associated with ice age. The author uses ice age to explain that some phenomenons have been accepted without being proved 100% scientifically. So the theory that Wegner's theory was not accepted because of a lack of 100% proof is unfounded. And hence C.

Q3:The author of the passage suggests that the most likely explanation for the geological community’s response to continental drift theory in its day was that the theory
A. was in conflict with certain aspects of plate tectonics theory
B. failed to account for how mountains were formed
C. did not adequately explain how continents moved through the ocean floor
D. was contradicted by the geophysical data of the time
E. was based on a kind of evidence that was considered insufficiently convincing

From the last passage;

Wagner's theory was based on observations in contrast to tectonic plate theory which was based on scientific models and tectonic research. We can infer that the theory was rejected because the nature of evidence Wagner used was not very convincing.

Q4:It can be inferred from the passage that geologists today would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about Wegener’s The Origin of Continents and Oceans?
A. It was a worthy scientific effort that was ahead of its time.
B. It was based on evidence that was later disproved.
C. It was directly responsible for the acceptance of the theory of plate tectonics.
D. It has been disproved by continental drift theory.
E. It misrepresented how horizontal displacements cause the formation of mountain chains.

Here the best way to go would be elimination :

A: Hmmm, yeah, it was proved to be true later, lets just hold on to it for a second.
B: Nien, it was proved to be true later. So B out.
C: Nien, the reverse is true. plate tectonics made scientists realise the veracity of Wagner
D: Straightforward nien
E: Scientists believed it then. (CLASSIC GMAT trap) Not NOW!

So from here, 4. A
_________________

Kudos if I helped

Current Student
Joined: 03 May 2015
Posts: 261
Location: South Africa
GPA: 3.49
WE: Web Development (Insurance)

### Show Tags

18 Apr 2016, 23:15
i dont understand Q4. It has to be wrong. Please someone explain.

In 1913 The theory was rejected.

But in 1960, a theory which overlapped Wagner's in many aspects was accepted based on proofs ( models and structures ) that we can infer, were not available during Wagner's time. Hence we can conclude that the theory was ahead of its time.
_________________

Kudos if I helped

Math Forum Moderator
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 1245
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)

### Show Tags

27 May 2016, 22:59
C D E A , Nice passage , took me 8 mins 10 seconds
_________________

When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
+1 Kudos if you find this post helpful

Verbal Forum Moderator
Joined: 05 Nov 2012
Posts: 538
Concentration: Technology, Other

### Show Tags

06 Sep 2016, 08:41
Top Contributor
6 mins. All correct. Took >3 mins in para but then covered the lag in Q.
_________________

--------------------------------------------------------
Regards

Intern
Status: NoW OR nEVER !!!
Joined: 27 May 2014
Posts: 33
Location: India
GMAT 1: 640 Q46 V32
GMAT 2: 670 Q49 V33
GPA: 3.89
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)

### Show Tags

19 Sep 2016, 12:32
Additional question for the passage :

The author of the passage discusses the “essential presumptions” (see highlighted text) of
The Origin of Continents and Oceans most in order to
A. indicate features of Wegener's theory that caused it to be doubted in its day
B. show why Wegener's theory is now regarded as prescient
C. indicate differences between plate tectonics and the theory of continental drift
D. cite features of the theory of continental drift for which no evidence was available in
Wegener’s day
E. point out aspects of Wegener's theory that were accepted well before the advent of plate
tectonics

_________________

GMAT - 670 - Lost !!

Intern
Status: 800 and more!
Joined: 11 Apr 2017
Posts: 47
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy, Marketing
GMAT 1: 620 Q47 V29
GPA: 3.75

### Show Tags

05 Jun 2017, 23:23
Completed in 6 minutes, 4/5 correct. Question 1 got wrong, close call.
Intern
Status: 800 and more!
Joined: 11 Apr 2017
Posts: 47
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy, Marketing
GMAT 1: 620 Q47 V29
GPA: 3.75

### Show Tags

05 Jun 2017, 23:26
Someone pls explain why for question 1, option B is wrong?
Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics   [#permalink] 05 Jun 2017, 23:26
Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
3 GMAT Prep RC: Earth’s surface consists of rigid plates that are 3 24 Jun 2016, 12:20
6 Before the age of space exploration, the size and 7 08 Sep 2016, 22:30
6 Before the early eighteenth century, forms of communication 8 16 Aug 2016, 20:04
8 Earth's surface consists of rigid plates that are constantly 18 16 Jun 2016, 13:02
2 In England before 1660, a husband controlled his wife's 15 08 Jun 2015, 05:55
Display posts from previous: Sort by