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Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory,

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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory,  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2019, 21:59
Ritwick91 wrote:
HI Experts,

Can you please explain why option B is wrong for Q-1 ?


Ritwick91
passage :
Yet despite the considerable overlap between Wegener's concepts and the later widely embraced plate tectonics theory, and despite the fact that continental drift theory presented a possible solution to the problem of the origin of mountains at a time when existing explanations were seriously in doubt, in its day Wegener's theory was rejected by the vast majority of geologists.

explanation : here we are told that even though there were really important conjectures and convinving points in Wegner's theory , it was still doubted by mosy geologists

"Most geologists and many historians today believe that Wegener's theory was rejected because of its lack of an adequate mechanical basis."
- this in continuation of the last lone of 1st para : providing us the reasoning behind the doubts of most geo;losgists : inadequate mechanical basis

Stephen Jay Gould, for example, argues that continental drift theory was rejected because it did not explain how continents could move through an apparently solid oceanic floor.
- here we are given an example of a geologist who think the same as most geologist

However, as Anthony Hallam has pointed out, many scientific phenomena, such as the ice ages, have been accepted before they could be fully explained.
- "hpowever" means contrast : Hallam says we accept many scientifiv phenomena even before they are completely proved ... this implies that if geos can accept many phenomena without its complete approval why do you reject this???

POV of most geologists : lack of adequate mechanincal basis
POV of hallam : there are many scientifc things which are not adequately proved yet we accept them ... so basically the author mentions "HALLAM" to doubt the claim of most grologists

author in his next line says that : "The most likely cause for the rejection of continental drift―a cause that has been largely ignored because we consider Wegener's theory to have been validated by the theory of plate tectonics―is the nature of the evidence that was put forward to support it."

so he thinks that a plausible expkanation is something else and not what most geologists claim to be

Q1: The author cites Hallam on the ice ages primarily in order to

(A) provide an example of a geologic phenomenon whose precise causes are not fully understood by geologists today
- THIS IS AN EXPLANATION OF THE SENTENCE . IT DOES NOT TELL US "WHY THE AUTHOR HAS INTRODUCED THIS SNETECE"

(B) criticize the geological community for an apparent lack of consistency in its responses to new theories
- OPPOSITE ... we are actually told that "most geologists and hitorians" think about the same response...there is no "lack of consistency"....instead they are very much "CONSISTENT"

(C) offer evidence held to undermine a common view of why Wegener’s theory was not accepted in its day
- CORRECT ... please read explanation ... "common view" = what "most geologists" think

(D) give an example of a modern scientist who believes that Wegener’s theory was rejected because it failed to adequately explain the mechanical basis of continental drift
- OPPOSITE... this is the pirpose of "GOULD"

(E) support Gould’s rationale for why Wegener’s theory was rejected by most geologists in the early twentieth century
- OPPOSITE
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Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory,  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2019, 08:46
1
4. The Progression of the last paragraph is as follows:

1.Most geologists and historians believe that Wegener's theory was rejected because there is no mechanical basis to prove his theory. Author gives an example of Gould to prove this point.
2. But in the next line, he counters this view by saying that, lack of adequate proof is not the reason because during the same time several other scientific phenomena without adequate proof were accepted and gives an example of Ice ages.

So, in short he quotes Hallam as an instance to contradict the fact that lack of adequate proof is not the real reason.

Coming to option B:
Quote:
criticize the geological community for an apparent lack of consistency in its responses to new theories

This option means that scientific community sometimes accepts new theories with no adequate proof and sometimes does not accept new theories with no adequate proof. There is no enough information in the passage for us to make such geneneralizations. Only two instances of Ice age and Continent drift are presented.
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory,  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 09:37
Ritwick91 wrote:
HI Experts,

Can you please explain why option B is wrong for Q-1 ?

The stem for question #1 is: "The author cites Hallam on the ice ages primarily in order to..."

Let's take a look at the relevant piece of the passage:
Quote:
Most geologists and many historians today believe that Wegener's theory was rejected because of its lack of an adequate mechanical basis... However, as Anthony Hallam has pointed out, many scientific phenomena, such as the ice ages, have been accepted before they could be fully explained. The most likely cause for the rejection of continental drift―a cause that has been largely ignored because we consider Wegener's theory to have been validated by the theory of plate tectonics―is the nature of the evidence that was put forward to support it.

To understand the author's intent, let's look at each piece of this section:

  • The author introduces a commonly held belief (that "Wegener's theory was rejected because of its lack of an adequate mechanical basis").
  • Then, he/she cites an example that contradicts this commonly held belief (Anthony Hallam's observation that people accepted phenomena such as ice ages "before they could be fully explained").
  • Finally, the author offers an alternative reason for the rejection of Wegener's theory ("the nature of the evidence that was put forward to support it").

From this break down, we can see that the author cites Hallam in order to undermine a commonly held belief.

Take another look at (B):
Quote:
(B) criticize the geological community for an apparent lack of consistency in its responses to new theories

The author definitely points out the lack of consistency in responses to new theories, but does he/she criticize the geological community for this inconsistency?

Not really -- the author is concerned with explaining why the community responded differently to different theories, but does not imply that these different responses are necessarily bad or worthy of criticism. He/she cites Hallam in order to cast doubt on a certain view, not to criticize the geologic community. For this reason, (B) is out.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory,  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2019, 05:47
Ritwick91 wrote:
HI Experts,

Can you please explain why option B is wrong for Q-1 ?


geological community's consistency in decisions is not even discussed.

Geological Comunity is giving opinions on the base of evidence presents
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory,   [#permalink] 24 Apr 2019, 05:47

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