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# 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning

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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
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STRATEGY 4 - CHANGE OF VOICE

How does GMAC use this strategy: TWe know that when a sentence is written in active voice, more emphasis is put on the subject performing the action. Likewise, when a sentence is written in passive voice, more emphasis is put on the entity (object) on which the action is performed. This shift in emphasis may lead to sufficient change in the meaning of the sentence.

Lets take a simple example below:

Following information is presented in the sentence above:
• Who cooked the dinner – Mary
• Any other information – The dinner was cooked with Thai spices

Following information is presented in the sentence above:
• What was cooked – Dinner
• Any other information – The dinner was cooked with Thai spices
o Note that we no longer know who cooked the dinner.

This is exactly how GMAT may introduce a difference in meaning. An answer choice may either introduce the person who does the action (use active voice) or may remove the information about the doer of the action (use passive voice).

Lets take another simple example:

a. Notice how in sentence 1 – the emphasis is on the action that is required for the preparation of the party.
b. However in sentence 2 – the emphasis is now on the doer of the action as well. The gardener had to cut the decayed tree. So sentence 2 provides this additional piece of information.

Thus, you need to understand clearly as to what all information does the original sentence provide. And then you should select the choice that communicates all that information in grammatically correct manner.

OFFICIAL QUESTION 1 – GMATPREP – DECLARATION OF SENTIMENTS

Now lets take an official question:

Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.
A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E. learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

Intended meaning from Choice A: This choice does not communicate a clear meaning. The intended meaning of the sentence from choice A can be inferred as follows:
• Some kind of sequencing is shown using the word “before”.
• Scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone
• However, due to the construction of the sentence, the event that happened prior to this event is not clearly specified. However, we can infer that the prior event may be - removing the growth hormone painstakingly from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

Thus this choice is incorrect because it does not communicate the meaning of the sentence clearly. Grammatically, this choice does not have an independent clause and hence is a fragment.

Intended meaning from Correct Choice C: Choice C corrects these errors and communicates the inferred meaning clearly. It effectively uses passive voice “it had to be painstakingly removed” to present the prior event. Note that the original sentence (choice A) does not say anything about who actually painstakingly removed the hormone from the human cadavers.

Grammatically Correct but Incorrect choice (D)– Notice how in choice D the test makers have changed the voice of one of the verbs. Now the sentence uses active voice “scientists had to painstakingly remove…”. This changes the meaning of the original sentence since it now adds new information that “scientists” actually had to remove the hormone. This information is not present in the original choice. And hence this choice by “adding” to the meaning of the sentence, changes the meaning and hence is incorrect. Carefully notice that this sentence does not have any grammatical errors.

OFFICIAL QUESTION 2 – GMATPREP – LARGEST TRADE-BOOK PUBLISHER

Now let’s take another official question.

The largest trade-book publisher in the US has announced the creation of a new digital imprint division, under which it will publish about 20 purely digital works to be sold online as either electronic books or downloadable copies that can be printed upon purchase.
A. works to be sold online as either electronic books or
B. works to sell them online, either as electronic books or
C. works and it will sell them online as either electronic books or as
D. works, and selling them online as either electronic books or as
E. works, and it will sell them online as either electronic books or

Intended meaning from Choice A (Correct Choice): Per choice A, the publisher will publish these works with a purpose of having them sold online. Note clearly that this choice does not indicate who will sell the works. It only indicates that online selling is the purpose of taking on this project.

Grammatically Correct but Incorrect choice E: This choice communicates the sense that publisher will publish these works and will sell them online. Thus this choice adds the information that publisher will be selling the books online. This information is not presented in the original sentence. Furthermore, as discussed earlier per strategy 3, this choice also changes the meaning by now simply presenting the two events as independent facts rather than as purpose relationship.
So notice how choice E even though is grammatically correct, is not the correct choice because it communicates different meaning from the intended meaning. Notice how the test makers have introduced meaning change by using two different strategies.

HOW TO EVALUATE CHOICES THAT CHANGE THE MEANING?
1. Understand the logical meaning of the original choice.
a. Carefully note all the information that is presented.
2. Look for the answer choice that best communicates the same meaning in un-ambiguous and grammatically correct manner.
3. Ignore choices that may be grammatically correct but change the meaning or the emphasis in the sentence. Pay close attention to choices that add information (by changing to active voice) or remove information (by changing to passive voice).

We have also posted 2 new problems at the links below. Try them out.
4-exercise-sentence-2-rise-in-american-exports-125438.html

Originally posted by egmat on 30 Dec 2011, 11:38.
Last edited by egmat on 04 Jan 2012, 14:57, edited 1 time in total.
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STRATEGY 5 - CHANGE/REMOVE WORDS THAT PROVIDE CONTEXT

How does GMAC use this strategy: There are several context important words in English language. An answer choice may either add or remove such contextually important words. Since these words provide context, any such change can result in change in meaning of the sentence.
Lets take a simple example below:

Both sentences above are grammatically correct. Both use similar words but the slight difference in the choice of words results in change of meaning of the sentence. Sentence 1 shows the evolution of Amy into a talented actress. This sentence implies that may be Amy was not such a great actress when she began her career. But now she is evolved into one. However, note that sentence 1 omits all this information. All it states is the fact that is current now – Amy is a talented actress. The evolution part is completed omitted. And hence by removing contextually important words, the meaning has been change.
This is exactly how GMAT may introduce a difference in meaning. Thus, you should always read the original sentence carefully and then determine all the information provided in the choice. And then you should select the choice that communicates all that information in grammatically correct manner.
Lets take another simple example:

Use of “may” denotes possibility. It implies that Tom may or may not go to the gym. He has not as yet decided and he may make the decision at the last minute.

Use of “will” denotes certainty. This sentence implies that Tom is determined to go to the gym. He will definitely go to the gym this evening.

Use of “can” shows capability. This sentence implies that circumstances are such that Tom can go to the gym – may be he has completed his work and now has the time to go to the gym or may be he has a baby at home and he has been able to make the necessary arrangements.

So notice how just by changing the helping verb – may, will, can – the meaning could be changed so drastically.

OFFICIAL QUESTION 1 – OG VERBAL REVIEW 2 – Q#43

Now lets take an official question:

Though the term “graphic design” may suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely ranging work, from package designs and company logotypes to signs, book jackets, computer graphics, and film titles.
A. suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely ranging
B. suggest laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, it has come to signify a wide range of
C. suggest corporate brochure and annual report layout, it has signified widely ranging
D. have suggested corporate brochure and annual report layout, it has signified a wide range of
E. have suggested laying out corporate brochures and annual reports, they have come to signify widely ranging

Intended meaning from Choice A: This choice indicates that even though “graphic design” was designed to a certain set of tasks, it has come to serve a wide range of tasks. The sentence provides this list of wide range of activities. It is important to note that the choice indicates that “graphic design” has come to serve this wide range of activities.

Intended meaning from Correct Choice B: Choice B corrects the pronoun number disagreement error and communicates the logical intended meaning of choice A clearly.

Grammatically Correct but Incorrect choice (D)– This choice removes the contextually important term – “has come to” (or evolved). This choice now implies that even though “graphic design” may have been designed to serve purpose X, it actually serves purpose Y. This is a completely different meaning than what is presented by choices A and B. Note the difference once again in the simplified structure.
• Choice A (and Correct choice B) – Though X may be designed to do X, it has come to do Y.
• Choice D – Though X may have been designed to do X, it does Y.

OFFICIAL QUESTION 2 – OG VERBAL REVIEW 2 – Q#52

Now let’s take another official question.

Recently discovered fossil remains strongly suggest that the Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than developing independently from a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.
A. rather than developing independently from
B. rather than a type that developed independently from
C. rather than a type whose developments was independent of
D. instead of developing independently from
E. instead of a development that was independent of

Intended meaning from Choice A & Correct Choice B: Per choice A & B, Australian egg-laying mammals were not developed independently from a common ancestor. Also, as stated in the non-underlined portion, they are a branch of the main stem of evolution.

Grammatically Correct but Incorrect choice C: Per choice C, these mammals were not of the kind whose development was independent of a common ancestor. This is different from saying that these mammals were not developed independently from a common ancestor.
The difference in meaning can be exemplified by the following set of sentences:
• Like choice A – Company ABC has developed independently from its parent organization XYZ.
o This implies that company ABC has developed from its parent organization. But it has done so independently without any extra outside assistance.
• Like choice D – Development of company ABC is independent of its parent organization XYZ.
o This implies that company ABC development has nothing to do with its parent organization

HOW TO EVALUATE CHOICES THAT CHANGE THE MEANING?
1. Understand the logical meaning of the original choice.
2. Look for the answer choice that best communicates the same meaning in un-ambiguous and grammatically correct manner.
3. Ignore choices that may be grammatically correct but change the meaning or the emphasis in the sentence. Pay close attention to choices that change the contextually important words.

We have also posted 1 new problem at the link below. Try it out.
5-exercise-sentence-1-logitech-success-125439.html

Originally posted by egmat on 30 Dec 2011, 12:00.
Last edited by egmat on 17 Sep 2012, 09:04, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
hello egmat,

Here's is one example I would wish if you could make some clarification of meaning on this
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.
A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting
C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of
E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
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Great job at putting your analysis. Lets take each question one by one.

gmatpunjabi wrote:
Question 1

B) Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been constructed in violation of the city's building code.

My Interpretation: It says that in the Earthquake that happened last year buildings were destroyed that were built in violation of the City’s Building Code.

Since it uses Past Perfect Tense
1) Buildings constructed in violation of Building Code
2) Then Destroyed or Damaged in Earthquake

E) Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake had been constructed in violation of the city's building code.

My Interpretation is that this sentence literally says the same thing. Last Year in the Earthquake the buildings destroyed and damaged in the Earthquake were in violation of the building code. I feel the Past Perfect tense portrays the same thing. Maybe I am relying just on the tenses not modifiers to determine the sequence of events.

You are indeed correct in your assessment that you are not focusing enough on the modifiers and that you are relying only on the verb tenses. Let me prove this to you.

Your understanding of choice B is perfect. However there is a gap in your understanding of choice E. See it is very important to understand the role of each modifier in a sentence and this is where breaking your sentence down into its clauses helps. Lets see how:

• Last year some of the buildings
o that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake
• had been constructed in violation of the city's building code.

So as soon as you break this down into clauses you see that “last year” does not even appear in the clause that has “in the earthquake”. In fact now you can see clearly that “last year” really provides timing information about when the buildings were constructed.

So per this sentence (choice E) –
Last year buildings were constructed in violation of the code.
And then these buildings were destroyed in the earthquake.

Now this is perfectly logical meaning. But this sentence is incorrect because it changes the original intended meaning of the sentence. The original sentence did not say that the buildings were constructed last year. Per the original choice, we only knew that the buildings were destroyed in the earthquake last year. Now these buildings could have been constructed last year before the earthquake or much before last year. We do not know this timing. But per choice E, we know for sure that these buildings were constructed last year. And this is where the problem is.

Break the sentence into its clauses so that you can clearly understand what the modifiers modify.
I hope this clarifies your confusion. Let me know if you have any other questions.

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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
gmatpunjabi wrote:
Question 2
A) Gall's hypothesis of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today.

My Interpretation: In terms of grammar something about this question does not sound right. What I understand is Gall’s theory about mental function localized in different parts of the brain.

You are partially correct here. You only stated the theory – different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain. You do not state that this theory is widely accepted today. Note how in the original sentence, this is clearly stated.

Gall's hypothesis of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today.

gmatpunjabi wrote:
B) Gall's hypothesis of different mental functions that are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today

My Interpretation: From what I see is that the hypothesis is about “of different mental functions” and that it is widely accepted today

Exactly right. But note carefully that this choice does not state what the hypothesis is. It just states that the hypothesis is regarding the different mental functions. By the way these different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain. But this choice fails to state what the hypothesis is.

gmatpunjabi wrote:
C) Gall's hypothesis that different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today

My Interpretation: Looking at this choice doesn’t see a huge difference in meaning. It is like to me its saying the same thing exactly. I know it’s a difference of where that is placed but I cannot make out the difference in meaning.

Ok the difference here is that this choice states the hypothesis – the hypothesis is that different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain.

Looking at these two questions that you have posted, I feel you are having some trouble understanding the modifiers. I think you should revise your modifier concepts and just see how by placing things differently you can imply different things. Lets take another example:

Mary’s perception that living in city is more expensive than living in countryside is flawed.
Mary’s perception of living in city that is more expensive than countryside is flawed.

Can you spot the difference in meaning of the above two sentences?
I look forward to your response!!

Payal
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
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ruturajp wrote:
hello egmat,

Here's is one example I would wish if you could make some clarification of meaning on this
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.
A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting
C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of
E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

Hi Ruturajp,
I will definitely provide my clarification but first I would like to see your analysis of this question and where exactly you have problems in understanding this question.
Thanks,
Payal

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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
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Mary’s perception that living in city is more expensive than living in countryside is flawed.

My Interpretation: What I see within in this sentence is that there is an explicit comparison between “living in the city” and “living in countryside”. These two phrases basically are examples of perceptions. It goes on to say that living in the city perception is flawed.

Mary’s perception of living in city that is more expensive than countryside is flawed.

My Interpretation: What I am starting to see now is that is a sort of modifier. I still can’t grasp the meaning completely, but I do see an error in the modifier placement of that. Its like the placement of that now changes city and I feel the meaning of the sentence is nonsensical. Its like the meaning shifts from the perception to the noun city instead. I have been staring at this 2nd question for 15 mins lol. I think I finally see it the comparison has shifted from perceptions to city and countryside. Honestly I have no idea lol.

Review Material: The Manhattan Sentence Correctionl does not really focus on how the Meaning Changes with Modifiers. Its more about what parts of speech modify other parts of speech. Do you have any suggestions as this is one of the last topics I am having trouble with?
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
A good question and a well formatted post. I like that. Kudos to you. I will respond to your post. But I want you to answer my question below first (remember I win if you learn ). This question is more of an inference question.

Which city does sentence 1 talk about? How does it differ from the city (referred to) in sentence 2?
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
Sorry about the late post. Here is my response to your questions Payal and I have a few of more of my own.

Mary’s perception that living in city is more expensive than living in countryside is flawed.

My Interpretation: What I see within in this sentence is that there is an explicit comparison between “living in the city” and “living in countryside”. These two phrases basically are examples of perceptions. It goes on to say that living in the city perception is flawed.

Mary’s perception of living in city that is more expensive than countryside is flawed.

My Interpretation: What I am starting to see now is that is a sort of modifier. I still can’t grasp the meaning completely, but I do see an error in the modifier placement of that. Its like the placement of that now changes city and I feel the meaning of the sentence is nonsensical. Its like the meaning shifts from the perception to the noun city instead. I have been staring at this 2nd question for 15 mins lol. I think I finally see it the comparison has shifted from perceptions to city and countryside. Honestly I have no idea lol.

Review Material: The Manhattan Sentence Correctionl does not really focus on how the Meaning Changes with Modifiers. Its more about what parts of speech modify other parts of speech. Do you have any suggestions as this is one of the last topics I am having trouble with?
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
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gmatpunjabi wrote:
Sorry about the late post. Here is my response to your questions Payal and I have a few of more of my own.

Mary’s perception that living in city is more expensive than living in countryside is flawed.

My Interpretation: What I see within in this sentence is that there is an explicit comparison between “living in the city” and “living in countryside”. These two phrases basically are examples of perceptions. It goes on to say that living in the city perception is flawed.

Clause 1 - Mary’s perception that
Clause 2 - living in city is more expensive than living in countryside
Clause 1 (Contd.) - is flawed.

Now that we have broken this sentence down to its clauses, we can infer the meaning as follows:
What is flawed - the perception. (clause 1)
What is the perception - that living in city is more expensive than living in countryside (Clause 2 modifies perception)

My Analysis of YOUR Analysis - As you can see, our meaning analysis is vastly different. I do not think you have been able to understand the meaning correctly. And I can see what the problem is...Yes you cannot assign modifiers appropriately. But from your analysis of this sentence, I can sense that it is even more basic issue. You are not paying enough attention on understanding the sentence structure and that is why you are not able to understand the meaning appropriately. You picked out the comparison in the sentence. But you could not correctly mention what feature is being compared.

See for us non-natives, as we are building our understanding of long sentences, we should try to break the sentence into clauses and then do the meaning or error analysis. You really apply "divide and rule" policy since you are now tackling one clause at a time...I am sure if you had simplified the sentence as shown above, you would also have arrived at the correct meaning.

gmatpunjabi wrote:
Mary’s perception of living in city that is more expensive than countryside is flawed.

My Interpretation: What I am starting to see now is that is a sort of modifier. I still can’t grasp the meaning completely, but I do see an error in the modifier placement of that. Its like the placement of that now changes city and I feel the meaning of the sentence is nonsensical. Its like the meaning shifts from the perception to the noun city instead. I have been staring at this 2nd question for 15 mins lol. I think I finally see it the comparison has shifted from perceptions to city and countryside. Honestly I have no idea lol.

Clause 1 - Mary’s perception of living in city
Clause 2 - that is more expensive than countryside
Clause 1 (contd.) - is flawed.

Now that we have broken this sentence down to its clauses, we can infer the meaning as follows:
What is flawed - perception of living in city (Note that this is different from sentence 1)
What is the perception – not stated (Note that sentence 1 stated what is the perception)
What else is stated – city is more expensive than countryside (Note that sentence 1 did not say anything about city being more expensive)

My Analysis of YOUR Analysis - For sentence 2, you were headed in the right direction. You were able to point out that "that" modifies city. However, I can assure you that if you had split the sentence into smaller parts, you would have been more confident in your analysis of this sentence and you would not have stared at the sentence for 15 minutes

gmatpunjabi wrote:
Review Material: The Manhattan Sentence Correctionl does not really focus on how the Meaning Changes with Modifiers. Its more about what parts of speech modify other parts of speech. Do you have any suggestions as this is one of the last topics I am having trouble with?

1: Understanding meaning becomes alot easier if the sentence is broken down into clauses. Its as if a complex puzzle becomes simplified all of a sudden. The interlinks between various parts of the sentence become more clear.
2: You state that modifiers is an issue that you are facing. However, in your analysis of sentence 1, you made an error in stating the correct comparison. I think you do spend the efforts in understanding the meaning and your grammatically concepts are also sound. What you lack is the approach that is especially designed for non-natives. Simplify the sentence into its clauses and then do your analysis...
3: Where to practice from - e-GMAT SC course is based on these principles. For each sentence that we analyze, we break it down into its individual clauses. If you would like to see this in action, try out the free trial of both e-GMAT SC course and e-GMAT OGVR2 solutions.

Hope this helps.
Payal
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
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Thanks guys for the overwhelming response. I just want to notify that we also have a free audio visual concept in our course. Just log in to your e-GMAT account and review the concept. The image below shows where the concept is listed.

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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
Thanks guys. We have posted a fresh set of questions with video solutions. Just log in to your e-GMAT account. We will be releasing another set of 10 questions tomorrow. Happy practicing.

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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
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egmat wrote:
I am glad you liked it. We will be posting other such topics in the near future.

Hi Egmat,

I couldn't find the above mentioned file on the webpage, can you please help in finding that document? Please find the screenshot of the page.

Regards
Srinath
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
Dear Koetla,

Thanks for your email. We have launched an in-depth series for Meaning based questions. Please go to the bottom of the course and see the files. You would notice three brand new files there - 1 belonging to a session and the other two being application files. Also wait for our announcement (only if you are on our mailing list)

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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
Hi folks,

Try this question testing correct placemnt of modifier for logical meaning from OGV2. Do present your analysis, especially of the grammatically correct but logically incorrect answer choice.

Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were constructed in violation of the city's building code.

A) Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were

B) Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been

C) Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year have been

D) Last year the earthquake destroyed or heavly damaged some buildings that have been

E) Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earth quake had been

Thanks.
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
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egmat wrote:
Hi folks,

Try this question testing correct placemnt of modifier for logical meaning from OGV2. Do present your analysis, especially of the grammatically correct but logically incorrect answer choice.

Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were constructed in violation of the city's building code.

A) Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year were

B) Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been

C) Some buildings that were destroyed and heavily damaged in the earthquake last year have been

D) Last year the earthquake destroyed or heavly damaged some buildings that have been

E) Last year some of the buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earth quake had been

Thanks.

Will vote for B

Some buildings that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year had been constructed in violation of the city's building code.

Some buildings [that.. last year] had been constructed in violation of the city's building code.
Subject: Some buildings

that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the earthquake last year
Subject: that - refers to "Some buildings"
Verb: were
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Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
HI Folks,

e-gmat brings you a fresh 700+ level question that is based on one of the 5 strategies used by GMAT to introduce errors as mentioned in this article. Try this one and postyour detailed analysis. Good explanations will get Kudos from us.

Although Google has launched ‘unchic’ glasses with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen, providing Internet access through wearable technology, it has approached Warby Parker, an e-commerce eyeglass company, to help it design more fashionable frames.

A. Google has launched ‘unchic’ glasses with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen to provide Internet access through wearable technology, it has approached Warby Parker
B. ‘unchic’ glasses have been launched with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen, Google has provided Internet access through wearable technology and has approached Warby Parker
C. ‘unchic’ glasses that have a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen have been launched by Google to provide Internet access through wearable technology, Warby Parker has been approached
D. Google, launching ‘unchic’ glasses with a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen, has provided Internet access through wearable technology and has approached Warby Parker
E. Google has launched ‘unchic’ glasses that have a computer processor, a battery, and a tiny screen to provide Internet access through wearable technology, Warby Parker has been approached

OA and OE will be posted after some discussion. Happy Solving.
Thanks.
Re: 5 Strategies that GMAT uses to distort meaning [#permalink]
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