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A public-service advertisement advises that people who have

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A public-service advertisement advises that people who have consumed  [#permalink]

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A public-service advertisement advises that people who have consumed alcohol should not drive until they can do so safely. In a hospital study, however, subjects questioned immediately after they consumed alcohol underestimated the time necessary to regain their driving ability. This result indicates that many people who drink before driving will have difficulty following the advertisement's advice.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the argument above?


(A) Many people, if they plan to drink alcohol, make arrangements beforehand for a nondrinker to drive them home.

(B) The subjects in the hospital study generally rated their abilities more conservatively than would people drinking alcohol outside a hospital setting.

(C) Some people refrain from drinking if they will have to drive to get home afterward.

(D) The subjects in the hospital study were also questioned about the time necessary to regain abilities that do not play an important role in driving safely.

(E) Awareness of the public-service advertisement is higher among the general population than it was among the subjects in the hospital study.

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Originally posted by rahulraao on 14 Nov 2005, 18:37.
Last edited by Bunuel on 09 Oct 2018, 04:16, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have consumed  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2005, 01:00
its B)...when the ppl in the hospital are more conservatively but admit that they wouldn`t follow the advice then the ppl outside the hospital, who are not so conservatively, are even more detained from the advice.
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have consumed  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2005, 04:30
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rahulraao wrote:
A public-service advertisement advises that people who have consumed alcohol should not drive until they can do so safely. In a hospital study, however, subjects questioned immediately after they consumed alcohol underestimated the time necessary to regain their driving ability. This result indicates that many people who drink before driving will have difficulty following the advertisement’s advice.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the argument above?

(B) The subjects in the hospital study generally rated their abilities more conservatively than would people drinking alcohol outside a hospital setting.


IMO, "more conservatively" here means " more exactly" ...so even the subjects questioned, with more accurate rating of their ability, underestimated/ unaccurately estimated their ability ----> drinkers outside hospital setting rate their ability even less accurately ---> this supports the conclusion.B it is.
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2006, 06:41
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B is right. If hospital subjects are conservative than general public that means they the general public will underestimate the effects by higher % time...thus it strengthens...

A, C and D are out of scope.

E weakens it.
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2006, 06:45
(A) (C) has nothing to do with the premise.
(D) abilities that do not play an important role in driving safely also
has nothing to do with the premise.
(E) awareness of the advertisement also has nothing to do with
whether people underestimate the time to regain driving ability.

Thus I choose (B)
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2018, 23:30
can anyone please explain option B in relation to the conclusion ? thanks in advance !
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 02:57
Answer choice B, thought process:

If even people in a hospital, study setting overestimate their abilities, then the general population is even more prone to making the same mistake.
Hence, the general population is quite likely to underestimate the time they have to wait after alcohol consumption until they can safely drive again, thus answer choice B strengthens the conclusion of the argument significantly.

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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2019, 08:12
" underestimated the time necessary to regain their driving ability."- does this mean they estimated time less than the actual time needed to regain?

what does "more conservatively" mean in this context?

how does B strengthen the argument?
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A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2019, 10:30
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mallya12 wrote:
" underestimated the time necessary to regain their driving ability."- does this mean they estimated time less than the actual time needed to regain.

Yes, exactly.

mallya12 wrote:
what does "more conservatively" mean in this context?

In this context, "more conservatively" means that, in estimating the time needed to regain their driving ability, people were more cautious in making their estimates than they would have been in a non-hospital setting, and thus arrived at estimates that were higher than they would have made in a non-hospital setting.

mallya12 wrote:
how does B strengthen the argument?

(B)strengthens the argument by directly stating an unstated assumption, that, like people in hospital settings, people not in hospital settings also underestimate the time needed to regain their driving ability. In other words, it confirms that the sample, people in hospital settings, is sufficiently representative of people in general for supporting the conclusion.

Also, (B) adds support for the conclusion by showing that the discrepancy between estimated time needed to regain driving abilities and actual time needed is in most cases even greater than that used to support the conclusion originally.
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2019, 11:02
MartyTargetTestPrep wrote:
mallya12 wrote:
" underestimated the time necessary to regain their driving ability."- does this mean they estimated time less than the actual time needed to regain.

Yes, exactly.

mallya12 wrote:
how does B strengthen the argument?

(B)strengthens the argument by directly stating an unstated assumption, that, like people in hospital settings, people not in hospital settings also underestimate the time needed to regain their driving ability. In other words, it confirms that the sample, people in hospital settings, is sufficiently representative of people in general for supporting the conclusion.

Also, (B) adds support for the conclusion by showing that the discrepancy between estimated time needed to regain driving abilities and actual time needed is in most cases even greater than that used to support the conclusion originally.






here is what I understand from the conclusion:

p1: A adv suggest people if they have consumed alcohol not to drive until they can do it safely.

p2: In hospital study, subjects who consumed alcohol when questioned estimated time less than the actual time needed to regain.

conclusion: This result indicates that many people who drink before driving will have difficulty following the advertisement's advice. Doubt How does the author make this conclusion? ( I didn't understand how did the author conclude this)

In answer choice B:

mallya12 wrote:
what does "more conservatively" mean in this context?

In this context, "more conservatively" means that, in estimating the time needed to regain their driving ability, people were more cautious in making their estimates than they would have been in a non-hospital setting, and thus arrived at estimates that were higher than they would have made in a non-hospital setting.


But in the premise, they have mentioned the subjects have underestimated(estimated time less than the actual time) the time. Whereas Answer choice B tells subjects are estimating higher . Please solve the confusion.
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A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Feb 2019, 16:00
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mallya12 wrote:
here is what I understand from the conclusion:

p1: A adv suggest people if they have consumed alcohol not to drive until they can do it safely.

p2: In hospital study, subjects who consumed alcohol when questioned estimated time less than the actual time needed to regain.

conclusion: This result indicates that many people who drink before driving will have difficulty following the advertisement's advice. Doubt How does the author make this conclusion? ( I didn't understand how did the author conclude this)

The truth is that how the author arrives at that conclusion is not quite clear, as there is a difference between estimating the time needed and waiting to drive until one can drive safely. So, we have to be a little creative maybe, and decide that the author is saying that people will have difficulty following the advice because they will have to wait longer than they estimate they will have to wait.

mallya12 wrote:
what does "more conservatively" mean in this context?

In this context, "more conservatively" means that, in estimating the time needed to regain their driving ability, people were more cautious in making their estimates than they would have been in a non-hospital setting, and thus arrived at estimates that were higher than they would have made in a non-hospital setting.

mallya12 wrote:
But in the premise, they have mentioned the subjects have underestimated(estimated time less than the actual time) the time. Whereas Answer choice B tells subjects are estimating higher . Please solve the confusion.

The passage says that, in a hospital setting, people underestimate the time needed to regain their driving ability.

Choice (B) does not contradict what the passage says.

What choice (B) indicates is that people in a hospital setting arrive at estimates higher than the estimates the people would arrive at were the people not in a hospital setting. All the same, we know from the passage that, even given what (B) says, the estimates made by people in hospital setting are STILL TOO LOW.
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2019, 06:21
Quote:
A public-service advertisement advises that people who have consumed alcohol should not drive until they can do so safely. In a hospital study, however, subjects questioned immediately after they consumed alcohol underestimated the time necessary to regain their driving ability. This result indicates that many people who drink before driving will have difficulty following the advertisement's advice.


Conclusion: Many people who drink before driving will have difficulty following the advice that people who have consumed alcohol should not drive until they can do so safely.
The Author derived her conclusion about most people based on a hospital study involving just few people. If we can bridge this gap, we can strengthen the argument.


Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the argument above?


Quote:
(A) Many people, if they plan to drink alcohol, make arrangements beforehand for a nondrinker to drive them home.

Making arrangements before hand is out of scope. Argument is regarding whether people who drink before driving will follow the advice.

Quote:
(B) The subjects in the hospital study generally rated their abilities more conservatively than would people drinking alcohol outside a hospital setting.

This option shows a connection between the people from the study and the rest of the people. It says that people from the study rated the time required to regain their ability to drive on a higher and safer side whereas in reality people probably would not wait that long. Hence, most people will have difficulty following the advice.

Quote:
(C) Some people refrain from drinking if they will have to drive to get home afterward.

Again, out of scope.The argument is regarding whether most people will wait long enough after drinking to regain their driving ability.Some people choosing to not drink at all will not effect the argument.

Quote:
(D) The subjects in the hospital study were also questioned about the time necessary to regain abilities that do not play an important role in driving safely.

This option is somewhat twisted and it will have no bearing on conclusion. The subjects in the hospital only were questioned about the time necessary to regain abilities and this indeed plays an important role in driving safely.

Quote:
(E) Awareness of the public-service advertisement is higher among the general population than it was among the subjects in the hospital study.

If awareness of the public-service advertisement is higher among the general population than it was among the subjects in the hospital study, then most people will not have difficulty following the device. This can be a weakner if there exists causal relationship between awareness and people following the advice.
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2019, 19:48
A deduction is made: many people who drink before driving will have difficulty following the advertisement's advice to NOT drive until they can safely do so.
This is linked by a hospital study that evidenced subjects who were questioned immediately after consuming alcohol; the study found that subjects underestimated how long it would take for them to safely drive again.

We are then asked to support this.

(A) Many people, if they plan to drink alcohol, make arrangements beforehand for a nondrinker to drive them home.
A is incorrect as it does not support the deduction made.

(B) The subjects in the hospital study generally rated their abilities more conservatively than would people drinking alcohol outside a hospital setting.
B is correct because it insinuates that other people would rate their abilities less conservatively and perhaps further underestimate the time.

(C) Some people refrain from drinking if they will have to drive to get home afterward.
C does not support the statement.

(D) The subjects in the hospital study were also questioned about the time necessary to regain abilities that do not play an important role in driving safely.
D is incorrect because no insight is given, so its hard to see how this questioning can impact the conclusion.

(E) Awareness of the public-service advertisement is higher among the general population than it was among the subjects in the hospital study.
This would serve to weaken the effect of the study as it implies that greater awareness would lead to greater estimates.
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2019, 10:53
Hi GMATNinja, I'm unable to understand why B is correct. Can you please help me with the reasoning?
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 08:37
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pielkay wrote:
Hi GMATNinja, I'm unable to understand why B is correct. Can you please help me with the reasoning?

The advertisement advises that people who have consumed alcohol shouldn't drive until it is safe to do so (which seems like reasonable advice).

However, in a study that took place in a hospital, people UNDERESTIMATED the time required required to regain their ability to drive after drinking. Here's an example: the subjects of the study are given five Jager bombs (sign me up!). They sit around until they think they can drive safely, and on average wait 4 hours before they say they are sober enough to drive. In reality, say it takes 6 hours for the Jager bombs to wear off and for the subjects to regain their ability to drive safely. These people have underestimated the time required between drinking and driving safely.

Based on this study, the author concludes that "many people who drink before driving will have difficulty following the advertisement's advice," because people are not great at judging whether they have waited long enough between drinking and driving. We are trying to support this conclusion with the correct answer choice.

Take a look at (B):
Quote:
(B) The subjects in the hospital study generally rated their abilities more conservatively than would people drinking alcohol outside a hospital setting.

The subjects in the hospital setting ALREADY underestimated the time required between drinking and driving. A tells us that these subjects were actually MORE CONSERVATIVE (or more cautious) than people outside of a hospital setting.

To go back to our example, the subjects in the study estimated that they could drive after 4 hours, when they really needed 6. Let's say that people out at a bar on a Saturday night drink the same 5 Jager bombs -- if they are LESS CONSERVATIVE than the subjects in the study, maybe they think they can drive after only 2 hours.

This confirms that people are terrible at judging when they have let enough time pass between drinking and driving. In fact, it shows that people are even worse at making this decision than the study showed. By showing that people outside of the hospital underestimate the time needed to sober up, (B) supports the conclusion that "many people who drink before driving will have difficulty following the advertisement's advice" to wait between drinking and driving.

I hope that helps!
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 11:08
Thanks a lot! It's definitely clear now. :)
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Re: A public-service advertisement advises that people who have   [#permalink] 10 Aug 2019, 11:08
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