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A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a

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A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 22 Sep 2019, 08:51
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D
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A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.


(A) A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.

(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star’s mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(D) Mass determines whether a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.


SC43561.01

Originally posted by noboru on 17 Aug 2009, 10:38.
Last edited by Bunuel on 22 Sep 2019, 08:51, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Apr 2012, 19:35
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I choose D.

Its most clear and idiomatic.

(A) A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole
after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass. - depending on who's mass?

(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will
compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. - grammatically right, but awkward.

(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star’s mass will determine if it
compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. - star's mass will not pass through the giant stage

(D) Mass determines whether a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will
compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. - correct

(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine
whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black
hole. - star's mass will not pass through the giant stage
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2019, 08:57
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noboru wrote:
A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.


(A) A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.

(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star’s mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(D) Mass determines whether a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.


SC43561.01


Official Explanation

Logical predication; Rhetorical construction

The sentence attempts to convey the idea that a star will compress itself into one of three forms after it passes through the red giant stage: a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. The sentence also indicates that which one of these three forms the star will compress itself into is determined by the star's mass. As worded, these ideas are not clearly and unambiguously conveyed. For example, it is not clear what the modifying phrase depending on mass is supposed to modify. Because of its placement, it appears to modify red giant stage; it should, however, modify star. Given this problem, the sentence fails to convey its intended meaning clearly.

A. As indicated above, this version fails to convey its intended meaning clearly.

B. The referent of the pronoun its is unclear. Given that red giant stage is the only noun before its, the sentence would seem to indicate that red giant stage is the referent, but the meaning would be correct only if its refers to star. Furthermore, the modifying statement depending on its mass appears to modify red giant stage rather than star.

C. The modifying phrase After passing through a red giant stage modifies a star's mass but it should describe the star itself. Given that the mass is not what passes through the red giant stage, this is incorrect.

D. Correct. In this version, it is clear that the sentence is saying that the star itself passes through the red giant stage and that the star will ultimately compress itself into one of the three listed options: white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole.

E. The pronoun it refers to the mass of a star, rather than a star, as intended. Likewise, the star itself passes through the red giant stage, not its mass.

The correct answer is D.
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2009, 10:59
IMO D uses 'mass' as the subject

The pronoun "its" has no clear referrent in B
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2009, 05:37
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noboru wrote:
31. A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.

(A) A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.
(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.
(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star’s mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.
(D) Mass determines whether a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.
(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

Mass determines what will be the star but in B it is in ,...., construction so it can be threw out from the sentence implying it is not important then we left with D
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2010, 22:53
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Though D is passive i go with D. The emphasis is on mass in D which I think is correct!
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Apr 2012, 20:29
My answer is B and I dont see any probelm in that option.
Can anyone explain?
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Apr 2012, 23:28
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Capricorn369 wrote:
My answer is B and I dont see any probelm in that option.
Can anyone explain?


After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will
compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

I think the "its" is ambiguous because it can refer to either the "red giant stage" or "a star"
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2016, 05:43
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Hi All,

Lets follow a 3 step approach to solve this question:

Meaning Analysis:

A star compresses into a white dwarf , a neutron star, or a black hole. What is the deciding factor ?

Depending on the mass of the star, the final form is determined.

Error Analysis:

1. " after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass" --> "ing" verbs modify depending on the placement of the verb. There is a very neat article posted by egmat which explains the concept thoroughly- usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html

As mentioned in the article, if an "ing" modifier is preceded by a comma then it modifies the entire clause. Based on this concept we can infer ( reading the choice A) that the star passes through a red giant stage depending on the mass. This makes no sense.

Answers Analysis:


(A) A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass. --> Errors pointed out in the analysis
(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.--> Same modifier error. Read the error analysis
(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star’s mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.--> This makes the reader believe that the star's mass passed through the red giant stage.
(D) Mass determines whether a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. --> This choice clearly mentions that the star passes through the red giant stage and this decision is determined by the mass of the star
(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.--> Same error as in choice C

Let me know if you found the explanation useful !

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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2018, 09:15
can someone please shed some light on A also? I am looking for correct reasoning by which I could eliminate it.
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Apr 2019, 06:17
noboru wrote:
A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.



(A) A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.

(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star’s mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(D) Mass determines whether a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.


D is clear without any ambiguity.
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Last edited by AkshdeepS on 03 Apr 2019, 06:17, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2018, 10:33
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puneetstud wrote:
can someone please shed some light on A also? I am looking for correct reasoning by which I could eliminate it.


A has a big ambiguity issue as pronoun "it" may refer to any of the nouns before.
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2018, 04:48
(A) Modifier errors
(B) Modifier error
(C) This makes the reader believe that the star's mass passed through the red giant stage.
(D) This choice clearly mentions that the star passes through the red giant stage and this decision is determined by the mass of the star. This choice is correct.
(E) This makes the reader believe that the star's mass passed through the red giant stage. Same error as in choice C.Hence (d).
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2018, 20:07
Quote:
Answer Choice (D) Mass determines WHETHER a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.


My understanding was that "whether" is reserved for scenarios where there were only 2 potential outcomes (ie: going to the party or not going). In this case, there are 3 potential outcomes (compressing itself into a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole). Is there an exception to this rule?
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2019, 01:59
SOME experts please answer and explain this question
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2019, 02:54
(A) A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.
not sure how about this one but I'll try. Here Verb+ing modifier 'depending' modifies Subject 'star' and the verb 'passes'. Hence implies that the star passes through a red giant stage depending on its mass. This changes the meaning.

(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.
Here it is not clear whether 'its' refer to red giant stage or star.

(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star’s mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.
In this option, the antecedent for 'it' is star's mass. This gives us- star's mass will determine if star's mass compresses itself. Clearly wrong


(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.
This sentence changes the meaning as it implies that the mass of a star will pass through the red giant stage.


We are left only with D

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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2019, 08:31
noboru wrote:
A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.


(A) A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.

(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star’s mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(D) Mass determines whether a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.


daagh GMATNinja generis
i agree it is not clear in A
but my question is
how is depedning on mass wrong modifier
See a star will compress itself into white dwarf, a neutron star or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage and how will the star do so ,it will do so depending on mass
who is doing action of compressing? the star
who is compressing itself depending on mass ? the star
So if the senetnce read:
A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole afterthe star passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.
Will this option be correct then ?
so is not it obvious that it refers to the star here ?
how can it refer to dwarf or black hole.Plz clarify
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2019, 10:43
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Preamble:
1. The pronoun's first prerogative is to refer to the subject of the sentence, and if the subject does not suit, then it might antecede mostly a nearby noun that may be an object of the verb or object of the preposition. Perhaps even a third one might suit better than the subject or the object, in which case that will become the eligible referent. Logic and nothing logic is the decider of the pronoun eligibility.
2. The adverbial modifiers modify the subject and the action of the previous clause and one must adept at spotting the previous clause.

This is a crafty issue. Now let's move on to the question.

A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.

(A) A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.-- The pronoun refers to the star and the adverbial modifier ",depending" modifies the previous clause namely' after it(the star) passes through a red giant stage. The slip here is to mistake the previous clause as ' a star will compress', which is the first clause or the main clsuse but not the previous clause.

(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. --- No issue about 'its'. However, when you have two back to back modifiers that both modify a common noun, both the modifiers will be required to be intercepted by a conjunction 'and'. Otherwise, there is the risk of the second modifier modifying the first as do nested modifiers do

(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star’s mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. -- Instant misfit since the initial moidifer illogically modifies the he mass rather than the star.

(D) Mass determines whether a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. --- No issues with this choice.

(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. ---absolutely out because of the distortion that the mass passes through the red giant stage.

Vanam
As far as the referents for the pronoun 'it' in A and 'its' in B are concerned, I appreciate you are on the dot.
Can you please also see my comment on choice A especially with regard to the adverbial modifier? That is a sly pitfall.
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2019, 10:53
daagh wrote:
Preamble:
1. The pronoun's first prerogative is to refer to the subject of the sentence, and if the subject does not suit, then it might antecede mostly a nearby noun that may be an object of the verb or object of the preposition. Perhaps even a third one might suit better than the subject or the object, in which case that will become the eligible referent. Logic and nothing logic is the decider of the pronoun eligibility.
2. The adverbial modifiers modify the subject and the action of the previous clause and one must adept at spotting the previous clause.

This is a crafty issue. Now let's move on to the question.

A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.

(A) A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.-- The pronoun refers to the star and the adverbial modifier ",depending" modifies the previous clause namely' after it(the star) passes through a red giant stage. The slip here is to mistake the previous clause as ' a star will compress', which is the first clause or the main clsuse but not the previous clause.

(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. --- No issue about 'its'. However, when you have two back to back modifiers that both modify a common noun, both the modifiers will be required to be intercepted by a conjunction 'and'. Otherwise, there is the risk of the second modifier modifying the first as do nested modifiers do

(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star’s mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. -- Instant misfit since the initial moidifer illogically modifies the he mass rather than the star.

(D) Mass determines whether a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. --- No issues with this choice.

(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. ---absolutely out because of the distortion that the mass passes through the red giant stage.

Vanam
As far as the referents for the pronoun 'it' in A and 'its' in B are concerned, I appreciate you are on the dot.
Can you please also see my comment on choice A especially with regard to the adverbial modifier? That is a sly pitfall.

Zillions of thanks to you for clearing it out, how silly of me to consider previous clause as main clause,thanks again sir .Indebted to you :)
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2019, 10:57
daagh wrote:
Preamble:
1. The pronoun's first prerogative is to refer to the subject of the sentence, and if the subject does not suit, then it might antecede mostly a nearby noun that may be an object of the verb or object of the preposition. Perhaps even a third one might suit better than the subject or the object, in which case that will become the eligible referent. Logic and nothing logic is the decider of the pronoun eligibility.
2. The adverbial modifiers modify the subject and the action of the previous clause and one must adept at spotting the previous clause.

This is a crafty issue. Now let's move on to the question.

A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.

(A) A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole after it passes through a red giant stage, depending on mass.-- The pronoun refers to the star and the adverbial modifier ",depending" modifies the previous clause namely' after it(the star) passes through a red giant stage. The slip here is to mistake the previous clause as ' a star will compress', which is the first clause or the main clsuse but not the previous clause.

(B) After passing through a red giant stage, depending on its mass, a star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. --- No issue about 'its'. However, when you have two back to back modifiers that both modify a common noun, both the modifiers will be required to be intercepted by a conjunction 'and'. Otherwise, there is the risk of the second modifier modifying the first as do nested modifiers do

(C) After passing through a red giant stage, a star’s mass will determine if it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. -- Instant misfit since the initial moidifer illogically modifies the he mass rather than the star.

(D) Mass determines whether a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. --- No issues with this choice.

(E) The mass of a star, after passing through the red giant stage, will determine whether it compresses itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. ---absolutely out because of the distortion that the mass passes through the red giant stage.

Vanam
As far as the referents for the pronoun 'it' in A and 'its' in B are concerned, I appreciate you are on the dot.
Can you please also see my comment on choice A especially with regard to the adverbial modifier? That is a sly pitfall.

Also i rejected b on the basis that it makes ,depending on its mass, an non essential modifier but it doesnot make sense to make this part non essential modifier here .Is this correct?
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Re: A star will compress itself into a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a   [#permalink] 15 Sep 2019, 10:57

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