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Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf

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Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 31 May 2017, 08:18
4
16
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  65% (hard)

Question Stats:

55% (01:50) correct 45% (02:09) wrong based on 458 sessions

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Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf life. Five animal studies were recently conducted to investigate whether this process alters food in a way that could be dangerous to people who eat it. The studies concluded that irradiated food is safe for human to eat. However, because these studies were subsequently found by a panel of independent scientists to be seriously flawed in their methodology, it follows that irradiated food is not safe for human consumption.

The reasoning in the activist's argument is flawed because that argument

(A) treats a failure to prove a claim as constituting proof of the denial of that claim
(B) treat methodological flaws in past studies as proof that it is currently not possible to devise methodologically adequate alternatives
(C) fails to consider the possibility that even a study whose methodology has no serious flaws nonetheless might provide only weak support for it's conclusion
(D) fails to consider the possibility that what is safe for animals might not always be safe for human beings
(E) fails to establish that the independent scientists know more about food irradiation than do the people who produced the five studies

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Originally posted by BrainLab on 09 Feb 2015, 10:54.
Last edited by broall on 31 May 2017, 08:18, edited 2 times in total.
Reformatted question
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Re: Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2015, 11:42
Failure to prove a claim does not automatically make its inverse true. A flawed study neither proves nor disproves a claim.
We do not have enough information to indicate that the irradiated food is unsafe for human consumption.

The correct answer is [A].
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Re: Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2015, 06:12
Power Score CR Bible is for GMAT or LSAT ? Can anyone shed light.
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Re: Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2015, 11:03
I still cannot understand as to why E is wrong? A sounds a convincing ans but why is E wrong? Could anyone please clarify?
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Re: Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2015, 18:43
2
According to E the argument is flawed because it does not prove that independent scientist are more capable than other scientist.
But this is not necessary to prove.
The claim is:As methodology is wrong so the result is also wrong.
It is not necessary as some other correct methodology might give the same result.

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Re: Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2016, 01:05
051994 wrote:
I still cannot understand as to why E is wrong? A sounds a convincing ans but why is E wrong? Could anyone please clarify?




Even I had chosen E.
But on close examination, I do realise that scientists say that the claim is wrong , just because methodology is wropng

when methodology is wrong, you cant say anything about the claim ...
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Re: Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2017, 09:07
good question:
Five animal tests concluded that irradiated food is safe for human to eat. However, these studies were found by a panel of scientists to be seriously flawed in their methodology, hence not safe for human consumption.

(A) treats a failure to prove a claim as constituting proof of the denial of that claim:
i.e. a flawed methodology is enough to prove the result of study to be incorrect. What if the methodology that the scientists deem correct also results in the conclusion that irradiated food is safe to eat?
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Re: Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2017, 06:02
3
The structure of the argument is as follows: Premise: Food producers
irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf life. Premise: Five animal studies
were recently conducted to investigate whether this process alters food in a
way that could be dangerous to people who eat it. The studies concluded that
irradiated food is safe for humans to eat. Premise: These studies were
subsequently found by a panel of independent scientists to be seriously
flawed in their methodology. Conclusion: Irradiated food is not safe for
human consumption. The author uses the fact that the studies were flawed to
conclude that irradiated food is not safe for human consumption. Is this a
reasonable conclusion? No. The studies purported to prove that irradiated
food is safe. The fact that the studies used flawed methodology should have
been used to prove that the studies did not prove that irradiated food was
safe. Instead, the activist takes the argument too far, believing that because
the studies did not prove that irradiated food is safe, therefore irradiated food
is not safe. Here “Some evidence against a position is taken to prove that
position is false.” Answer choice (A) perfectly describes this mistake. Answer
choice (B): Use the Fact Test to easily eliminate this answer. Although past
studies were shown to have methodological flaws, this evidence is not used
to prove that methodologically sound alternatives are impossible to achieve.
Answer choice (C): It’s true, the argument does fail to consider the possibility
that a non-flawed study might provide only weak support for its conclusion.
But—and this is the critical question—is that a flaw in the reasoning of the
activist? No, it is perfectly acceptable for the author to ignore an issue (nonflawed
studies) that does not relate to his argument. Remember, the correct
answer choice must describe a flaw in the reasoning of the argument, not just
something that occurred in the argument. Answer choice (D): As with answer
choice (C), the author has failed to consider the statement in this answer
choice. But is this a flaw? No. The fact that animal testing is widely done and
the results are accepted as indicative of possible problems with humans falls
under the “commonsense information” discussed back in Chapter Two.
Testing products on animals is a current fact of life, and the author made a
reasoning error by failing to consider the possibility that what is safe for
animals might not always be safe for human beings. Another way of looking
at this answer is that it effectively states that the author has failed to consider
that there is a False Analogy between animals and humans. He fails to
consider it because the analogy between animals and humans is not false.
Answer choice (E): Again, the activist does fail to establish this, but it is not
necessary since the independent scientists only commented on the
methodology of the study, not the irradiated food itself.

Solution 2 :-

Author's conclusion - Irradiated foods are dangerous

Argument - The study which claimed that Irradiated foods are not dangerous are flawed in their methodology. Hence Irradiated foods are dangerous.

Just because the methodology used was wrong we are told that irradiated food is dangerous. i.e we still dont have a proof (s study) that irradiated foods are safe. Hence they are dangerous.

This is not necessarily true. This is what A attacks.

The "claim" in A is "Irradiated foods are safe". We haven't proved it and hence there is "denial of the claim" (Unsafe)
Hence A.
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Re: Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2017, 04:13
Hi Anaira,

One Question, Please help.

Premise says "The studies concluded that irradiated food is safe for human to eat" => studies didn't fail to prove it, only methodology is flawed.

Now choice A:

treats a failure to prove a claim as constituting proof of the denial of that claim
So should we consider "flawed methodology to prove == treat as failure to prove claim" ?.

Please clarify

Thanks
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Re: Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2017, 09:04
1
Choice (A) makes sense.

Treats a failure ( here implies that the five animal studies conducted to prove that irradiated food is safe for humans to consume is a FAILURE according to the ACTIVIST ) to prove a claim ( that irradiated food is not safe based on the observation of the independent scientists ) as constituting proof of the denial of that claim ( that irradiated food is safe to consume ).

Choices B, D & E are irrelevant to the argument.

Choice ( C ) is tempting but is not necessarily a flaw so to speak.

(A) IT IS !!!!!!!!!!!!
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Re: Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2018, 07:12
GMATNinja mikemcgarry chetan2u daagh DmitryFarber sayantanc2k Bunuel


Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf life. Five animal studies were recently conducted to investigate whether this process alters food in a way that could be dangerous to people who eat it. The studies concluded that irradiated food is safe for human to eat. However, because these studies were subsequently found by a panel of independent scientists to be seriously flawed in their methodology, it follows that irradiated food is not safe for human consumption.

Understanding :
study 1 claim = Irri food safe
study 2 observation = study 1 method flaw
study 2 claim= irri food unsafe

flaw : method is flawed >> result is opposite. even though the study may have been flawed but the claim could still be true .

(A) treats a failure to prove a claim as constituting proof of the denial of that claim
the phrase "a failure to prove a claim ( food is safe )" is what is troubling me. study 1 concludes that food is same.. so according to them this is proof. so how is this option saying that "failure to prove a claim " ...coz the 1st study (according to it/) has proved it.

(C) fails to consider the possibility that even a study whose methodology has no serious flaws nonetheless might provide only weak support for it's conclusion
Now this is inverse of what we want : possibilty that even a study whose method is flawed might still conclude rightly.
my question is whether in GMAT an inverse of what we want can be the right answer.
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Re: Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Mar 2019, 03:41
AdityaHongunti wrote:
GMATNinja mikemcgarry chetan2u daagh DmitryFarber sayantanc2k Bunuel


Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf life. Five animal studies were recently conducted to investigate whether this process alters food in a way that could be dangerous to people who eat it. The studies concluded that irradiated food is safe for human to eat. However, because these studies were subsequently found by a panel of independent scientists to be seriously flawed in their methodology, it follows that irradiated food is not safe for human consumption.

Understanding :
study 1 claim = Irri food safe
study 2 observation = study 1 method flaw
study 2 claim= irri food unsafe

flaw : method is flawed >> result is opposite. even though the study may have been flawed but the claim could still be true .

(A) treats a failure to prove a claim as constituting proof of the denial of that claim
the phrase "a failure to prove a claim ( food is safe )" is what is troubling me. study 1 concludes that food is same.. so according to them this is proof. so how is this option saying that "failure to prove a claim " ...because the 1st study (according to it/) has proved it.

(C) fails to consider the possibility that even a study whose methodology has no serious flaws nonetheless might provide only weak support for it's conclusion
Now this is inverse of what we want : possibility that even a study whose method is flawed might still conclude rightly.
my question is whether in GMAT an inverse of what we want can be the right answer.


Conclusion: it follows that irradiated food is not safe for human consumption.
Falsification question: when can the irradiated be safe for human consumption
ANswer to falsification question: 1. if the study conducted by independent scientist is flawed and goes opposite to 5 study done on animal before
2. if the result of 5 animal study is correct, even though the method used by them was flawed.
3. Even if the method used by 5 study is proved wrong, there is no declaration of the result of the 5 study in reference to result of independent scientist.


Option
A: is just re worded phrase of point 3 of Answer ot falsification question

C: is wrong, Decode the phrase.
It means to say that even if method is wrong, it WILL PROVIDE WEAK support to conclusion.
therefore, the study will provide SOME support to the conclusion, even it is weak.
this option just states that INdependent study may not have any flaw, but it will provide some support to the conclusion " THAT methods use by 5 studies were flawed."

If you see and understand closely, u will notice that it is not a flaw or weakener. But a FACT which has no relevance to conclusion
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Re: Activist: Food producers irradiate food in order to prolong its shelf   [#permalink] 20 Mar 2019, 03:41
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