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# Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with

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Re: Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with [#permalink]
A. Outline the process by which Darwin formulated and modified his theory of natural selection
B. Propose a new interpretation of Darwin’s theory of evolution
C. Explain how other scientists of the time helped Darwin modify and perfect his theories
D. Defend Darwinian theory against the objections raised by Darwin’s contemporaries in the scientific community
E. Discuss some of the scientific controversy that Darwin sparked and describe his response to it

For Q1, I didn't get why option D was wrong. Option A and E encompasses all the major points, but leaves out the last para. In the last passage, the author clearly said the issues raised by contemporaries were nullified by the later scientific discoveries. I think A and E misses out this part.

Also, the passage starts with,

Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with Darwinian theory, little is known of the powerful scientific objections that modified Darwin’s beliefs.

Technically, Darwin did not 'spark' any controversy or no such controversy has been mentioned! It is true that the theories were debated upon and he, accordingly, modified the aspects. If option E has been the answer, then we may not need the concluding para, at all.

Can anyone explain why the option E is correct?
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Re: Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with [#permalink]
Very nice passage with tricky questions!

Hi all,
could anyone explain why :
1. Q1 is not A? it seems explain how Darwin modify his theory
2. Q6 is not D? he was trying to comply with other theories made by other scientists
3. Q8 , option II is wrong ? Mendel found that sun's age is infinite
4. Q9 is not A ? I thought Darwin's theory is accepted until 20th century

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Re: Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with [#permalink]
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ryorda wrote:
Very nice passage with tricky questions!

Hi all,
could anyone explain why :
1. Q1 is not A? it seems explain how Darwin modify his theory
2. Q6 is not D? he was trying to comply with other theories made by other scientists
3. Q8 , option II is wrong ? Mendel found that sun's age is infinite
4. Q9 is not A ? I thought Darwin's theory is accepted until 20th century

Quote:
Q1 is not A? it seems explain how Darwin modify his theory

The passage does talk about how Darwin modified his theory, but it would be incomplete as we need to know what caused Darwin to modify his theory. From the passage, we can see that Darwin through his theories sparked certain contradicting theories by Jenkin and Lord Kelvin, and later he responded to the contradictions by modifying this theory. Thus, from this analysis we can see that E is a better suited answer.

Quote:
Q6 is not D? he was trying to comply with other theories made by other scientists

D is incorrect and that can be inferred from the 1st 3 lines of the passage: "Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with Darwinian theory, little is known of the powerful scientific objections that modified Darwin’s beliefs."

Quote:
Q8, option II is wrong ? Mendel found that sun's age is infinite

Though II is correct, it is incorrect w.r.t the Question, as we cannot infer with certainty that the discovery that the sun runs on a nearly infinite amount of atomic fuel totally invalidated Kelvin’s argument, was made by Mendal.

Quote:
Q9 is not A ? I thought Darwin's theory is accepted until 20th century

A can be inferred from the last para: "The discovery that the sun runs on a nearly infinite amount of atomic fuel totally invalidated Kelvin’s argument, Mendel was “rediscovered” in the twentieth century........but could rapidly become prevalent.". Darwin's theory had to face a lot of scientific objections until 20th Century. It was not until Kelvin's arguments were invalidated and it was found that both the modifications by Darwin were incorrect.

Hope This Helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with [#permalink]
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elavendan1 wrote:
A. Outline the process by which Darwin formulated and modified his theory of natural selection
B. Propose a new interpretation of Darwin’s theory of evolution
C. Explain how other scientists of the time helped Darwin modify and perfect his theories
D. Defend Darwinian theory against the objections raised by Darwin’s contemporaries in the scientific community
E. Discuss some of the scientific controversy that Darwin sparked and describe his response to it

For Q1, I didn't get why option D was wrong. Option A and E encompasses all the major points, but leaves out the last para. In the last passage, the author clearly said the issues raised by contemporaries were nullified by the later scientific discoveries. I think A and E misses out this part.

Also, the passage starts with,

Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with Darwinian theory, little is known of the powerful scientific objections that modified Darwin’s beliefs.

Technically, Darwin did not 'spark' any controversy or no such controversy has been mentioned! It is true that the theories were debated upon and he, accordingly, modified the aspects. If option E has been the answer, then we may not need the concluding para, at all.

Can anyone explain why the option E is correct?

Hi elavendan1,

Quote:
D. Defend Darwinian theory against the objections raised by Darwin’s contemporaries in the scientific community.

Author is not seen to defending anything here. He simply mentions the scientific objections by Jenkin and Kelvin and how Darwin modified his beliefs based on those and those retreats later turned out to be faulty.

Quote:
E. Discuss some of the scientific controversy that Darwin sparked and describe his response to it.

Darwin sparked 2 major controversies:
1. conception of evolution as proceeding through the natural selection of those with slightly better characteristics that arose randomly, which was objected by Jenkin.
2. evolution proceed by slow steps in millions of years, and how could advanced forms recently evolved show such great differences,which was objected by Kelvin.

It was Darwin's beliefs that led to these objections and that in turn led Darwin to modify his beliefs, and those modifications later turned out to be faulty.

E is best suited as the primary purpose of the passage, as author discusses the objections that Darwin sparked and how he responded to those.

Primary purpose of any passage is about what the author wants to convey. Last para also contributes to the primary purpose as author concludes how Darwin's modifications were faulty, thus completing the discussion about the scientific controversy sparked by Darwin.

Hope This Helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with [#permalink]
In q6, I can see why answer choice E is the correct answer - but what makes answer choice D wrong? He was trying to resolve conflicts from Kelvin and made some modifications to his theory.

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Re: Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with [#permalink]
Can someone explain questions 2,7 and 8?
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Re: Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with [#permalink]
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soondoobu wrote:
In q6, I can see why answer choice E is the correct answer - but what makes answer choice D wrong? He was trying to resolve conflicts from Kelvin and made some modifications to his theory.

6. According to the passage, Darwin modified his beliefs in order to

B. Disprove Lord Kelvin’s view on the age of the earth

Incorrect.

The Kelvinists, basing their conclusion on the assumption that the sun was an incandescent liquid mass rapidly radiating heat, calculated that the age of the earth was between 20 and 40 million years.

Admitting that their calculations were correct and their premises rational, Darwin was forced to adjust this theory.

Darwin admitted to their calculations. He did not disprove Lord Kelvin's view.

D. Resolve theological conflicts about evolution

Incorrect. He did not adjust his theory to resolve theological conflicts (conflicts with those who believed in God and his creation of humans as special). He adjusted his theory due to scientific objections.
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Re: Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with [#permalink]
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PrachiMaloo wrote:
Can someone explain questions 2,7 and 8?

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the theory of blending inheritance would predict that the offspring of

A. Two strains of snapdragons, one with abnormal, radically symmetrical flowers and the other with normal, bilaterally symmetrical flowers, would always have normal, bilaterally symmetrical flowers
B. A white horse and a black horse would always be gray
C. A man with type A blood and a woman with type B blood would always have type A, type B, or type AB blood
D. A fly with large eyes and a fly with small eyes would always have one large eye and one small eye
E. Two pink-flowered plants would always be red or white

"blending inheritance, which holds that forms intermediate between those of the parents result from mating."

So mating of a white horse and a black horse would result in a grey horse - intermediate between white and black.

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Re: Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with [#permalink]
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PrachiMaloo wrote:
Can someone explain questions 2,7 and 8?

7. The author sets off the word “rediscovered” (Highlighted) in quotation marks in order to

A. Emphasize that major scientific theories are rarely acknowledged or accepted when they are first promulgated
B. Indicate that the term is somewhat ironic, since Mendel’s work was virtually ignored when it was published
C. Rebuke the scientific community for deliberately suppressing Mendel’s work until long after his death
D. Underscore the similarity between Mendel’s theory of particulate inheritance and the theory of blending inheritance that was accepted during his lifetime
E. Suggest that a scientist of Darwin’s stature should have read Mendel’s work when it was first published and immediately recognized its importance

Relevant lines from the passage:
During Darwin’s lifetime, the accepted theory of heredity was not Mendel’s theory of particulate inheritance, which, though published, was unrecognized, but the theory of ...
... The discovery that the sun runs on a nearly infinite amount of atomic fuel totally invalidated Kelvin’s argument, Mendel was “rediscovered” in the twentieth century, when it was pointed out that the particulate nature of inheritance meant that favorable mutation not only could persist, but could rapidly become prevalent.

The author tells us that Mendel's work was not recognised at that time but was later "discovered" when other discoveries were made.
Hence (B)
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Re: Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with [#permalink]
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PrachiMaloo wrote:
Can someone explain questions 2,7 and 8?

8. It can be inferred from the passage that if Mendel’s work had been recognized and accepted during Darwin’s lifetime, it would have had which of the following effect?

I. It would have refuted Jenkin’s objections to Darwin’s theories.
II. It would have supported Darwin’s theory that evolution proceeds by very slow steps over millions of years.
III. It would have clarified and supported Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

A. I only
B. III only
C. I and III only
D. II and III only
E. I, II, and III

Relevant lines:

...Not particulate inheritance (genes passing traits)... but blending inheritance was accepted..., which holds that forms intermediate between those of the parents result from mating. Jenkin pointed out that if a rare and favorable mutation occurred, it would soon be blended out by repeated crossings from the wild-type form.

If particulate inheritance were accepted, Jenkin would not have this objection against Darwin's theory. (I) is correct.

Relevant lines:

Mendel was “rediscovered” in the twentieth century, when it was pointed out that the particulate nature of inheritance meant that favorable mutation not only could persist, but could rapidly become prevalent.

Particulate inheritance means that favourable mutation could rapidly become prevalent.
Hence (II) is not correct and (III) is.

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Re: Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with [#permalink]
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Re: Although much has been written about the theological conflicts with [#permalink]
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