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Re: Although women in some places had voted as early as 1870s, [#permalink]
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Although women in some places had voted as early as 1870s, voting rights for women throughout United States were not established until 1920.

(A) voting rights for women throughout United States were not established
Correct
(B) voting rights for women throughout United States, which had not been established
Which incorreclty modifies the United States,
(C) voting rights for women throughout United States had not been established
had not been is wrong as 1920 is after 1870
(D) throughout the United States, voting rights for women were not being established
were not being established is not proper
(E) voting rights throughout United States for women had not been established
had not been is wrong as 1920 is after 1870
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Re: Although women in some places had voted as early as 1870s, [#permalink]
hi, could somebody tell me why is C not a good answer. Shouldn't it be "had not been estabilished" rather than were estabiished ?
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Re: Although women in some places had voted as early as 1870s, [#permalink]
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IvyLeague56 wrote:
hi, could somebody tell me why is C not a good answer. Shouldn't it be "had not been estabilished" rather than were estabiished ?


The usage of the past perfect on the GMAT must follow certain rules.

It must express an action that happened for a long period of time (1), before another action stopped it (2).

The 1 action is expressed in past perfect, the 2 in simple past

They had been visiting the museum, before she stopped them
(I made this up to give you an example)

When you find a PAST PERFECT ask yourself if respect this structure.
Hope this helps, let me know
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Re: Although women in some places had voted as early as 1870s, [#permalink]
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doe007 wrote:
Although women in some places had voted as early as 1870s, voting rights for women throughout United States were not established until 1920.

(A) voting rights for women throughout United States were not established
(B) voting rights for women throughout United States, which had not been established
(C) voting rights for women throughout United States had not been established
(D) throughout the United States, voting rights for women were not being established
(E) voting rights throughout United States for women had not been established


Source: Aristotle Prep


A quick glance through the options eliminates option D. The modifier is not suppose the modify throughout the US. So Incorrect.
In B, which is the trigger word. which refers to the noun before it. Which is referring to US -> Non sense- eliminate B.
In C, the usage of past perfect is unwanted. The past perfect is use to define the sequence of events. Nothing of that sort is relevant here. We can simply use past tense. Eliminate C. Infact E can be eliminated for the same weirdness. In E, the voting rights should modify women and not thorought the US which makes is awkward sentence.

Hence A. Clear use of past tense and logical.
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Re: Although women in some places had voted as early as 1870s, [#permalink]
I have posted the explanation right after the question. Link to the explanation is: although-women-in-some-places-had-voted-as-early-as-1870s-152869.html#p1225551
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Re: Although women in some places had voted as early as 1870s, [#permalink]
I do not like this question

past perfect can be used to show an action which happen before and go into a point of time in the past.
C can be correct.

the "had voted" in the non underlined section has no point of time in the past, before which "had voted " happen

this is not good question.

please, explain.
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Re: Although women in some places had voted as early as 1870s, [#permalink]
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(C) voting rights for women throughout United States had not been established until 1920.

I selected C, but later I found that it is not right.

Had not been established is in passive voice with past perfect tense.
past perfect tense must be used to present sequence of event, and here subordinate clause has already provided an even with past perfect verb thus other event which occurred later must be in simple past tense.

Link is very useful to refer the tense usage:
https://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/pastperfect.html
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Re: Although women in some places had voted as early as 1870s, [#permalink]
vietmoi999 wrote:
I do not like this question

past perfect can be used to show an action which happen before and go into a point of time in the past.
C can be correct.

the "had voted" in the non underlined section has no point of time in the past, before which "had voted " happen

this is not good question.

please, explain.


The phrase "as early as 1870s" is the point of reference for an action that occurred before another action, "voting rights were not established." Clearly, one action happened before another, and no justification is provided for which past perfect should be used in the main clause.

I hope this helps.
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Re: Although women in some places had voted as early as 1870s, [#permalink]
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Re: Although women in some places had voted as early as 1870s, [#permalink]
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